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•K3' 



3'*/3 



New Series 

v. 3 

1830 




TRANSACTIONS 



OF THK 



AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY 



HELD 



AT PHILADELPHIA. 



PROMOTING USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 



VOL. III.— NEW SERIES. 



PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY 

DHt'lalirlphta: 
PRINTED BY JAMES KAY, JUN. & CO. 

PRINTERS TO THE SOCIET7. 

1830. 



RULES 



THE GOVERNMENT OF COMMITTEES OF PUI5LK ATM >\ 



First. — " That the grounds of the Committee's choice of papers for the press, 
should always be the importance or singularity of the subjects, or the advantageous 
manner of treating them, without pretending to answer, or to make the Society 
answerable, for the certainty of the facts, or propriety of the reasonings, con- 
tained in the several papers so published, which must still rest on the credit or 
judgment of their respective authors." 

Second. — "That neither the Society nor the Committee of the press do ever 
give their opinion as a body upon any paper they may publish, or upon any 
subject of art or nature that comes before them." 



COMMITTEE OF PUBLICATION 

Franklin Bachc, M.D. 

R. Eglesfeld Griffith, M.D. 



LIST OF THE OFFICERS 



OP THE 



AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY, 



FOR THE YEAR 1830. 



I'atkon. His Excellency, the Governor of Pennsylvania. 



President. 



Vice- presidents. 



Secretaries. 



Counsellors elected for three years. 
In 1828. 



In 1829. 



In 1830. 



Curators. 



Treasurer and Librarian. 



Peter S. Du Ponceau. 

C Zaccheus Collins, 
I Nathaniel Chapman, 
( Joseph Hopkinson. 

' George Ord, 
i Franklin Bache, 
I Clement C. Biddle, 
John K. Kane. 

' John Quincy Adams, 
I John Sergeant, 
I William Short, 
Samuel Moore. 

Robert Hare, 
I William Rawle, 
i William Hembell, Jun. 

Joseph Hopkinson. 

Nicholas Collin, 
I William Meredith, 
I Robert Walsh, Jun. 

Nicholas Biddle. 

. James Mease. 
J. P. Wetherill, 
! R. E. Griffith. 

John Vaughan. 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



or Tut 



AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY, 

Elected since the publication of the Second Volutin. Vei Series, tf Uitj* 

Transactions. 

(Those marked with an asterisk (*) are since dead.) 



AMERICAN MEMBERS. 

Thomas Cadwalader, Philadelphia. 

John K. Kane, Philadelphia. 

*John D. Godman, M.D., Prof. Nat. Hist. Franklin Instit., and Pro!'. Anat. :in.l 

Phys. Rutgers Med. Coll. 
Charles N. Banckcr, Philadelphia. 
Edward Livingston, New Orleans. 
Joseph R. Ingersoll, Philadelphia. 
Philip Tidyman, .M.D., South Carolina. 
Samuel Humphreys, Philadelphia, Naval Constructor 1 

1). Mi igs, M.D., Philadelphia. 
Lewis Cass, Governor of Michigan Territory. 
William M'llvaine, Philadelphia. 
William 8h tli r, I iancasti r, Massachu - 
Joel R. Poinsett, South Carolina, Min. Plen U. B. to Mexico. 
Rem': La Roche, M.D., Philadelphia. 
John Price W ethei ill, Pbiladi '.. 
George Emlen, Philadelphia. 
Marcus Bull, Philadelphia. 
John K. M M.D., Philadelphia. 

James Brown, Louisiana. 
Noah Websti r, L.L.D , IS II von. 
Thomas Harris, M.D., Philadelph 
Robcn ! l Griffith, Ml)., Philadelphia 

Char!' ing, M.D., Philadelphia. 

Samuel <i. Mori M.I' ■ 1 1 i n 

Henry .1 . Anderson, M.D., Prof. Math. Columbi i Co 

. Philadelphia. 
Samuel Bet ton, M D., Germantown, Pennsylvania. 

VOL. III. — b 



VI LIST OF MEMBERS 

George Ticknor, Prof. Languages, Harvard University. 

James Renwick, Prof. NaL Phil. Columbia Coll. New York 

Thomas Biddle, Philadelphia. 

William H. Delancey, D.D., Provost Univ. Pennsylvania. 

Henry Wheaton. Now York. Charge 1 d' Affaires U. S. to Denmark 

Alexander Dallas Bache, Prof. Nat. Phil. Univ. Pennsylvania. 

Philip II. Nicklm. Philadelphia. 

James Kent, L.L.D., Prof, of Law, Columbia Coll. New York 

Josiah Quiney. L.L.D., Pres. Harvard University. 

Washington Irving, New Y'ork. 

Joseph Roberts, Philadelphia. 

George B. Wood, M.D., Philadelphia. 

Henry S. Tanner, Philadelphia. 

Daniel B. Smith. Philadelphia. 

Thomas Horsfield, Pennsylvania. 

John Marshall, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States 

Thomas M'Euen, M.D., Philadelphia. 

William B. Hodgson, Virginia. 

Isaac Hays, M.D., Philadelphia. 



FOREIGN MEMBERS. 

1 llourens, M.D.. Paris. 
Count Real. Paris. 
Count Miot de Melito, Paris. 
Don Jose da Silva Lisboa, Rio Janeiro. 
Dr Pablo de la Llave, Minister of Justice, Mexico. 
John Lewis Tiarks. M.D., London. 
James GrAberg de Hemso, Sweden. 
Henry de Struve, Councillor of State, Russia. 

Torombert, Lyons. 
John Wilhelm Dalman, M.D.. Stockholm. 
Dr Geo. Maria Zecchineili. Padua. 
I T C. Cassado de Giraldes, Lisbon. 
Jose Maria Bustamente, Mexico. 
*Don Jose Maria Salazar, Colombia. 
Don Jose Maria Dantes Pereira, Lisbon. 
Hans Christian Oersted, Copenhagen. 
Baron Hyde de Neufville. Paris. 
Charles Christian Rafn, Copenhagen. 
Erasmus K. Rask, Copenhagen. 
Joseph Nicolai B. V. Abrahamson. Copenhagen. 
Chevalier Jomard. Paris. 

alier Charles Pougens, Paris. 
Don Francisco de Paula Quadrado, Madrid 
"The Right Rev. Bishop Munter. Copenhagen. 

I P A. el Remusat. Paris. 

William Yarrel, London. 

Jules de Wallenstein. Russia. 

Bernard. Duki 3 Weimar. 

William Vaugban, London. 

Jonathan Sewell, Chief Justice, Quebec. 



PREFATORY Nor 



Various circumstance- have retarded the publication of this 
volume, which was intended to have appeared in the preced- 
ing year. Measures have been taken to prevent a similar 
delay in future. The Society have materials on hand with 
which they hope soon to begin the publication of the fourth 
volume of this series. 

Since the publication of our catalogue in 1 v 2 I, the lib] 
of the society has been considerably increased: so much 
that an additional catalogue has been ordered to be made, 
which is now in preparation. Our cabinel also has bei n 
larged by numerous contributions, some of which 
valuable. Among them may be particularized the coll 
of .Mexican minerals and antiquities, for which we are in- 
debted to the munificence of our fellow member, Mr Poin- 
sett, late minister from this country to the United Mexican 
States. — the additions which have been made to those i 
lections by another of our members, Mr William II. Keat- 
ing, — and the complete series of the various earths and 
developed in the greal excavation of the Chesapeaki 
Delaware Canal, which we have re< from Andrew Al- 

fred Dexfc :. Esq., one of the engineers of thai work. 

In the course of the last live \. • •-. leath ha- deprived I 
society of many of its most valuable members. At homew< 
have to lam< nt the loss of Thomas J< fferson, John Adam 
and De Witt Clinton, three of the greatesl men that tin- 
country ha- produced: qi \t to them w. must plao our lit' 



V 11 1 PREFATORY NOTICE. 

venerated president William Tilghman, Dr Adam Seybert, 
Mr Franqois Adrian Vanderkemp, Mr Charles Wilson Peale, 
Dr Samuel Brown, Dr Stephen Elliott, the founder of the 
Philosophical Society of Charleston, South Carolina, and 
Professor John D. Godman; whose deaths have left a void 
in this society which will with difficulty be filled. 

Among those of our foreign members, of whom death has 
deprived the learned world as well as ourselves, we particu- 
larly notice that illustrious friend and patron of science, Count 
Nicholas Romanzoff, Nicholas Fuss, Sir Humphry Davy, 
Count Lanjuinais, Duke de Liancourt, Bishop Munter of 
Copenhagen, Thunberg, Vater; whose names are celebrated 
throughout America as well as Europe. We have also lost 
Salazar of Colombia, Stockier of Lisbon, and Torombert of 
Lyons, — all more or less distinguished in the literary and 
scientific world. At the same time, other names have been 
added to our list, of men whom the society are proud to 
reckon among their associates. 

The contents of this volume partly belong to the physical 
and partly to the moral sciences. In this the society has 
followed the example of several learned societies in Europe, 
and particularly of the Royal Academy of Berlin. 



CONTENTS 



Rules for the Government of Committees of Publication. 

List of Officers of the Society for the year 1830. 

List of the Members of the Society elected since the publication of the 

Second Volume, New Series, of their Transactions. 
Prefatory Notice. ---.... 



No. I. 



in 



VII 



Experiments to determine the Comparative Quantities of Heat evolved 
in the Combustion of the Principal Varieties of Wood and Coal used 
in the United States for Fuel ; and also, to determine the Comparative 
Quantities of Heat lost by the < Ordinary Apparatus made use of for 
their Combustion. J$y Slap 18 Hull. 



No. II. 

\ Grammai of the Language of the Lenni I.cnape, or Delaware 
Indians. Translated from thi > US.ofthi I le Rei D Zei 

er, for the American Philosophical Society, by P. B, Du Ponceau. 



\ III. 

Description of I en Ni — \ I ■ . i:. \ 

M. I Icntz, Professor of Modern Languages in the Unit 

■ >lina. 

VOL. III. — C 



I. 



CONTENTS. 



No. IV. 



Description of Six New Species of the Genus Unio ; embracing the 
Anatomy of the Oveduct of one of them, together with some Anato- 
tomical Observations on the Genus. By Isaac Lea. 259 



No. V. 
On the Geographical Distribution of Plants. By C. Pickering, M.D. 274 

No. VI. 

An Account of some Human Bones found on the Coast of Brazil, near 

Santas. By C. D. Meigs, M.D. - - - 285 

No. VII. 
Some Observations on the Moulting of Birds. By George Ord. - 292 

No. VIII. 

Experiments made on the Poison of the Rattlesnake ; in which the 
Powers of the Hieraceum Venosum, as a Specific, were tested ; 
together with some Anatomical Observations on this Animal. By 
R. Harlan, M.D. - - 300 

No. IX. 

On the motion of Solids on Surfaces, in the Two Hypotheses of Perfect 
Sliding and Perfect Rolling, with a Particular Examination of their 
small Oscillatory Motions. By Henry James Anderson, Professor of 
Mathematics and Astronomy in Columbia College, New York. 315 

No. X. 

General Observations on the Birds of the Genus Tetrao ; with a Synop- 
sis of the Species hitherto known. By Charles Lucien Bonaparte, 
Prince of Musignano, &c. - - - 38: 



CONTENTS. \ 



L, . No. XI. 

Conchological Observations on Lamarck's Family of Naiades. By P 
II. Nicklin. - - - 



No. XII. 

Some further Kxperiments on the Poison of the Rattlesnake. Bj R 

Harlan, M.D. ... . io< 



No. xrn. 

Description of a New Genus of the Family of Naiades, including Eighl 
Species, Four of which arc \» w ; also the Description of Eleven 
New Species of the Genus Unio from tbe Rivi rsof the United Si 
with Observations on some of the Characters of the Naiades. By 
Isaac Lea. .... . 40 



No. XIV. 

Remarks on the use of the Maxillae in < 'oleoptorous Insects, with an Ac- 
count of Two Species of the family Telephoride, and of Three of the 
Family Mordellidse, winch ought to be the Type of Two Distinct Gen- 
era. By N. M. llentz. 

No. XV. 

Description of a New Species of the Genus Astacus. By It. Harlan. 
M.O. ..... 



No. XVI. 

Notice of an Anatomical Peculiarity observed in the Structure "i th< 
Condor of the Andes ( Vultur gryphus, Linn.). I5y It. Harlan. M.D 



No XVII. 

< >n the Construction of Eclipses of the Sun. By John Gummi re 



X1J CONTENTS. 



No. XVII] . 



Description of a Fragment of the Head of a New Fossil Animal, discov- 
ered in a Marl Pit, near Moorestown, New Jersey. By Isaac Hays, 
M.D. ------ 471 



No. XIX. 

Description of a New Genus and New Species of Extinct Mammiferous 

Quadruped. By John D. Godman, M.D. - - - 473 



Donations, &c. - - - 487 



^ ' VB \TI ' 1 .'K I- I , M B I I.I. I 



i'l KL. 







M 






TRANSACTIONS 



of mi: 



AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY 



SEW SERIES 



No. I. 



Experiments to (/((ermine the cornparatiw quantities of lltaf 
evolved in the combustion of the principal varieties of " 
and Coal used in l/ic United States, for Fuel; and, also, to 
determint the comparative quantities of Had lost by tin 
ordinary apparatus made asi of for their combustion. Bj 
Marcus Boll. — Bead .Ipril 7, I8S6. 

Tun experiments <>n fuel detailed in the following paper. 
were commenced in November, 1839, and were prosecuted 
with very little cessation, until June, I8A4; when, in eona 
quence of absence, together wiili subsequent ill health, tiny 
wire suspended until May, i s J'>. when ili< \ were again 
resumed with undiminished interest, and havi been continued, 
as circumstances would permit, from thai period i" the pn 
sent 

During the latter of these periods, I was under the necessity 
of repeating those experiments which had been previously 
made, in consequence of a defeel discovered in .1 pari of 1I1. 
apparatus, the removal of which. \\;i> found to changi tin 
rc-ult>: still, it was rerj satisfactory to find that the variation 

\ (il.. III. A 



I ON THE HEAT EVOLVED 

was, in every instance, directly proportional to the results- 
which had been formerly obtained. 

The experiments to determine the comparative loss of heat 
sustained by using apparatus of different constructions for the 
combustion of fuel, appeared to be equally necessary with 
those to determine its comparative efficiency. 

To Professors Hare and Patterson of the University of 
Pennsylvania, I am under obligations for their kind assistance 
in my experiments, and it gives me great pleasure to have an 
opportunity thus publicly to tender them my acknowledg- 
ments. 

The importance of those experiments, which have for their 
object the promotion of the useful arts and sciences, or an 
improvement in the domestic economy of society, by which 
our comforts may be increased, is generally admitted. 

In a climate like that of the United States, where, during 
two-thirds of the year, fires are indispensable to human com- 
fort, and where, consequently, the savings of a large portion 
of the poor, during the summer, are often inadequate to pur- 
chase a sufficient supply of fuel for the winter; it must, obvi- 
ously, be highly important to ascertain, the comparative effi- 
ciency of different kinds of fuel; as, without this knowledge, 
those who are desirous of economising, may be prodigal through 
ignorance. 

The knowledge of the comparative heat disengaged in the 
combustion of the different varieties of wood and coal, is also 
important in various processes in the arts, and it is believed 
that the results of my experiments will be found worthy of 
attention, in a philosophical point of view. 

Previous to describing my apparatus or experiments, it will 
be proper to notice those of some of my predecessors, as, in 
the investigation of this subject, no small degree of inaccuracy 
appears to have prevailed, even among experimenters of high 
character. 

My remarks cannot be better prefaced, than by making use 
of the following extract from Dr. Ure, on the subject of com- 
bustion. 



FROM WOOD AND COAL. 

"Lavoisier, Crawford, Dalton. and Runiford, in succession, 
made experiments to determine the quantity of heat evolved 
in the combustion of various bodies. The apparatus used by 
the last was perfectly simple, and perhaps the EBoal precis of 
the whole. The heat was conducted by Battened pipes of 
metal, into the heart of a body of water, ami was measured by 
the temperature imparted." 

From the general table of rc-nlts. it is only necessary foi 
me to extract two, to show the force of the succeeding; remark. 



Substances burned, one 
pound. 


Ice melted in pounds. 


Lavoisier. 


Crawford. 


Dalton. 


Romford. 


Olive oil. 
Charcoal. 


149 
96.5 


89 
69 


mi 

4 


94.07 



"The discrepancies in the preceding table, are sufficient to 
show the necessity of new experiments on the subject." 

As the experiments of M. Lavoisier, Dr. Crawford, and .Mr 
Dalton. did not comprise any article of fuel except charcoal, a 
more particular notice of them would be irrelevant to m\ 
purpose. 

The experiments of Count Romford, to determine the 
quantity of heat evolved in the combustion of different woods, 
will alone be examined. In his very jus! remarks, he says, 
••.Main persons have already endeavoured to determine tin 
relative quantities of heat furnished by wood and charcoal ill 
their combustion; hut the results of their inquiries have not 
been satisfactory. 

Their apparatus has been too imperfect, nol to leave vast 

incertitude in the conclusions drawn IV their investigations. 

Indeed, the subjeci i^ so intricate in itself, thai with the best 
instruments, the utmost care i> requisite, lest, after mucb 
labour, the inquirer should I" forced to content himself \\ith 
approximations instead of accurate results, and valuations, 
strictly determined. 



ON THE HEAT EVOLVED 



All woods contain much moisture, even when apparently 
very dry ; and, as the persons alluded to have neglected to 
determine the quantities of absolutely dry wood, burned by 
them, much uncertainty prevails in the results of all their 
experiments. Another source of uncertainty, lies in the great 
quantity of heat suffered to escape with the smoke and other 
products of the combustion."* Again,! "attempts have been 
long ago made, to measure the heat that is developed in the 
combustion of inflammable substances ; but the results of the 
experiments have been so contradictory, and the methods 
employed so little calculated to inspire confidence, that the 
undertaking is justly considered as very little advanced. I 
had attempted it at three different times within these twenty 
years, but without success. After having made a great num- 
ber of experiments with the most scrupulous care, with appa- 
ratus on which I had long reflected, and afterwards caused to 
be executed by skilful workmen, I had found nothing, how- 
ever, that appeared to me sufficiently decisive to deserve to be 
made public. A large apparatus in copper, more than twelve 
feet long, which I had made at Munich fifteen years ago, and 
another scarcely less expensive, made at Paris four years ago, 
which I have still in my laboratory, attest the desire I have 
long entertained, of finding the means of elucidating a ques- 
tion that has always appeared to me of great importance, both 
with regard to the sciences and to the arts. At length, how- 
ever, I have the satisfaction of announcing to the class, that, 
after all my fruitless attempts, I have discovered a very simple 
method of measuring the heat manifested in combustion, and, 
1 his even with such precision, as leaves nothing to be desired." 

It will not be necessary to describe the Calorimeter used by 
Count Romford, more particularly, than to say, that it consists 
of a small copper receiver containing water. In the inside is 
a flat worm, also made of copper, bent so as to pass horizon- 
tally three times from one end of the receiver to the other. 
This worm passes down through an aperture in the bottom. 

'Nicholson's Journal, XXXV. 105. 
tlbi.l. XXXII. 105. 



/ROM WOOD AND COAL. 

wear one end of the receiver, to which it is soldered ; and thr 
other extremity of the worm passes through the opposite end 
of the receiver. A thermometer is introduced into the water 
contained in the receiver; the woods, in thick shavings, and 
other combustible bodies, are consumed in the mouth or bottom 
of the worm, and the heat evolved in the combustion, is im- 
parted to the water during its passage through the worm. 

The experiments consisted in elevating the temperature oJ 
the water in the receiver 10°, commencing at 5° below, and 
finishing at 5" above the temperature of the room; and the 
comparison was made between the weights of di lie rent articles 
required to be consumed to produce this effect, without regard 
to time. 

The quantity of wood consumed, varied from 59 to 111 
grains in each experiment. 

Upon these experiments it is necessary to remark, that the 
passage of the mercury from 1 to 10° on the scale of the 
thermometer, can scarcely be supposed to have been performed 
in all the experiments tn equal periods nf time; and. Bince the 
water would require unequal increments of heal in equal times, 
to counterbalance its unequal decrements, and, possessing, as it 
does, different capacities for heat at different temperatures, con- 
sequently, a very slight inequality in point of time, in elevating 
the mercury between the several degrees, would materially 
atfect the results of experiments in which only a few mains of 
the combustible were consumed. 

To these causes, and the absence of proper means to take 
advantage of the heat produced in the combustion of the carbon 
contain, d in the woods, maj I"- attributed the inacouracj "i 
Count Rumford's results; a^ he states some of the woods to 
evolve, by the combustion of equal weights, •> i per cent more 
heat than others; whereas, the results of my experiments on 
fori -sis vari< ties of wood, in equal weights, give the extremi - 
of difference as only l 1 per cent. 

The result from charcoal is not given in the table, but the 

jrs, thai -The dry vegetable flesh of wood, produces rnon 



b ON THE HEAT EVOLVED 

heat in its combustion, than an equal weight of dry char- 
coal."* 

By the expression " dry vegetable flesh," the count means 
to indicate that portion of dry wood which is inflammable, or 
that part which is independent of the charcoal. Now I find, 
by the most favourable comparison for this portion of the 
wood, that an equal weight of dry charcoal, produces 286 
per cent, more heat than the former, and by the least favour- 
able comparison, 314 per cent, more, giving a mean difference 
of 300 per cent, in favour of the charcoal. 

It will be proper to state what has been considered as 
essential requisites to the perfection of the apparatus, that, as 
the description proceeds, the degree of accuracy which it is 
likely to possess, may, with greater facility be determined; 
and this will be done under three heads, with explanatory 
remarks. 

1st. That the apparatus in which the combustion is produced, 
be so constructed, that all, or an equal proportion of all the 
heat generated, may be measured by some unchanging standard. 

This is effected in a manner to be hereafter more particu- 
larly described, but it may now be sufficiently understood, by 
referring to the plate, in which the apparatus and the interior 
of the room, constructed for performing the experiments, are 
shown in perspective. At E is a thermometer, the bulb of 
which is in the centre of the stove-pipe, and another, Fig. 6, 
is suspended from the side wall of the room. 

When articles are submitted to combustion in the stove, the 
heat is so completely given out by the pipe, that these two 
thermometers, indicate exactly the same degree of tempera- 
ture. 

Strictly speaking, we cannot say even in this case, that all 
the heat generated is imparted to the air of the room. That 
small portion which is included in the air of the pipe, and passes 
off into the chimney, does not impart its heat to the air of the 
room, both being of the same temperature, consequently, no 

• Nicholson's Journal, XXXV. 112. 



FROM WOOD AND COAL. 

interchange of heat can take place between them. We may 
consider this escape of heat, however, in the same point of 
light as we do that which is conducted off by the surface of 
every other part of the room, with this difference — thai this 
particular surface of f wo inches diameter, convey* man heat in 
a given time, than any other equal surface ; hut as this differ- 
ence is uniform in all the experiments, we may say, compara- 
tively, that there is no loss of heat, as it is the ratio, and nol 
the positive quantity of heat disengaged, which we wish to 
discover. 

2d. That the recipient body be always affected equally by the 
communication of the same heat. 

Air has been selected as the recipient body, because we arc 
enabled by a thermometer to measure with accuracy the heat 
communicated to it; and because it varies very little in its 
specific heat, under the ordinary changes of barometric pres- 
sure, and its hygrometric changes may be readily counter- 
acted. 

3. That the surrounding refrigerating medium be permanent 
at any required temperature. 

In consequence of the variations in the temperature of tin 
atmosphere, not only daily, but in different parts of the sami 
day, to devise a plan which should strictly comply with this 
requisition, was a subject which caused me much reflection 
and perplexity. The room selected for my experiments, was 
well calculated, in every respect, (except the window.) to pre- 
vent an immediate influence being produced in its temperature, 
by the ordinary external changes. The window being large, 
I determined to close it entirely, and to perform my experi- 
ments by lamp li^ht. and it was, accordingly, perfectly closed 
on the inside of the room, with hoards, which were well 
seasoned, and grooved together, leaving a space of four inch< - 
between this barricade and the sashes of the window. This 
space being occupied with confined air. was a had conductor 
of heat. Finding it inconvenient, and objectionable in other 
respects, to experiment with artificial light, a sash with four 
panes of glass was subsequently inserted in this barricade, foj 



S ON THE HEAT EVOLVED 

the admission of light. Every part of the room was then 
made as tight as possible, and to furnish the room with the 
necessary supply of air, of equal temperature, a pipe with a 
valve was inserted through a partition into an adjoining room, 
as its temperature was necessarily maintained very uniform, 
for the purposes to which it was applied. Having spent nearly 
four months of application in perfecting my apparatus, and 
removing difficulties which presented themselves at the 
threshold of every stage of the investigation, and feeling de- 
sirous to avail myself cf any improvements which might he 
suggested to me, either in the apparatus, or the intended plan 
of conducting the experiments, I invited several gentlemen to 
examine it for that purpose, and among them, Dr. Hare, pro- 
fessor of chemistry in the University of Pennsylvania. 

The method which had been adopted, as described, to com- 
ply with the last requisition, did not appear to Dr. Hare to 
possess that degree of accuracy which was necessary, nor did 
it equal that which every other part of the apparatus, together 
with the intended plan of conducting the experiments, as de- 
scribed to him, appeared to possess. Dr. Hare stated to me, 
that, "he had long been under the impression, that no accu- 
rate comparison could be made by means of the same single 
room heated at different times, with different fuel, on account 
of the varying temperature of the weather ; nor by different 
rooms at the same time, from the difficulty of finding two 
rooms sufficiently alike, in form, aspect, size, and materials. 
It seemed to him indispensable, to have one room within 
another, so that, in the interval, a uniformity of temperature 
might be artificially sustained." As the method suggested by 
Dr. Hare, removed this difficulty with which I had unsuccess- 
fully contended, no time was lost in making a practical appli- 
cation of his suggestion, and a room of smaller dimensions was 
in consequence constructed within the room originally intend- 
ed for my experiments, in the best manner which my archi- 
tect could devise ; by which a free circulation of air is produced 
on all the exterior surfaces of the interior room, and this air 
may be sustained of a uniform temperature. 



CltOM AVOOD AND eo U 9 

A description of the apparatus, plan <>i' the experiments, 
and the manner of experimenting, will now be detailed. 

In a room with a floor of about eleven feel by fourteen, and 
nine and a half feet in height, another room is constructed. 
eight feet square in the clear, its contents being ">1 1 cubic feet 
The plate represents the interior of this room in perspective, 
and as these rooms may now be considered as distinct, 1 shall. 
for convenience, designate them by the name- of interior and 
< .rh riot: 

The frame of the interior room is composed of scantling. 
three inches hy four. The ends of the posts, and top and bottom 
rails, have mortises, with tenons passing through them, of suffi- 
cient length to project about four inches, ami. in the projecting 
part of the tenons, are transverse mortises for wedges, by w bich 
the frame is drawn firmly together. The floor is supported 
by two cross pieces of scantling, and the posts and rails are 
grooved through the centre, to receive hoards one inch in Un- 
clear, with which the room is enclosed. The boards are also 
grooved together in the most perfect manner, so that the 
wedges (there being no nails used except about the door and 
window) will draw every part of the room tight, and correct, 
with great facility, any shrinking of the boards during the 
process of seasoning, which it was necessary to perfect, pre- 
vious to any experiments being made. 

The interior is supported by it» four posts, sis inch* - from 
the floor of the exterior room, there being the same distance 
between the ceilings, and a much greater between the side 
walls, the air therefore circulates freely between the two rooms. 
The internal surfaces of the interior room are made a> white 
as possible with time-wash, to produce equality in their power 
of conducting heat. The body of the stove, Fig. I., is a cylin- 
der, twelve inches iii height, and l" 1 " - inches diameter; the 
ash pit is lour inches deep, and lour inches in diameter; both 
are made of common sheet iron, and separate, for the purp 
of introducing between them, a chamber, or concave piece "i 
sheet iron, of larger dimensions, perforated with holes hall an 
inch in diameter: and on ibis chamber the bodj of th< 8WV< 
I or., in. — ( 



10 ON THE HEAT EVOLVED 

rests, as will be seen, by referring to the enlarged sectional 
view on the plate, Fig. 2. Three inches above this chamber 
is another, closely fitted within the body of the stove, and per- 
forated with holes one quarter of an inch in diameter. The 
interior of the body of the stove above, is made to assume the 
conical shape which it presents, with the apex downwards, by 
coating it with fire clay, so as to expose only one and a half 
inches diameter of the surface of the chamber, and on which 
the fuel rests. The space between the chambers is necessary 
in experimenting on anthracite coals in small quantities, for 
the purpose of heating the air as much as possible before it 
comes in contact with the burning body, and the clay coating 
is also necessary in the same experiments, to act as a non-con- 
ductor. The stove, Fig. 1., is supplied with air through aper- 
tures just above the ash pit, or lower door, and to lessen, or 
close these apertures, a sliding sheet iron hoop, (not shown in 
the engraving,) is fitted with great accuracy. The middle 
door is necessary, to obtain access to the upper chamber when 
its apertures require clearing, during an experiment. For 
heating water, a tin vessel in the shape of a crescent, rests on 
cleats, between the upper and middle doors. This vessel is 
accurately fitted to the body of the stove, but may be removed 
to any required distance, at pleasure ; and we may thereby 
lessen the evaporation of the water, its object being to regu- 
late the hygrometric state of the air. 

All the doors of the stove are represented as open. The upper 
door is to admit the fuel. The cone, leading from the body 
of the stove to the pipe, is ten inches long, and very accurately 
fitted to the former, but removable for the purpose of separat- 
ing them, to take from the stove and ash pit, the unconsumed 
parts of any body, that may have been experimented upon. 
This is done with facility, as the pipe is supported from the 
ceiling, by wires which sustain it in its place, after the body 
of the stove is removed. 

In the cone, three quarters of an inch above its junction 
with the body of the stove, (which in this place is mftde flat,) 
is an aperture one inch broad, and one and a quarter inches' 



I BOM WOOD AM) COAL. II 

long, which is covered with a thin plate of mica, resting on a 
flange, or ledge, and kept in its place by a wire passing round 
the cone. Through this plate of mica, the fire, may be seen, 
thereby avoiding the necessity of opening the upper door for 
the purpose of mere examination. 

The pipe is two inches diameter, and made of extra thin 
black tin, to impart the heat to the air of the room with the 
least possible obstruction. The elbow joints are each nine 
inches long. The whole length of the pipe is forty-two feet : 
and this was found insufficient to impart to the air of the 
room all the heat generated, there being a loss of 3°, until tin 
tin box. A. was attached to the pipe near its extremity. This 
box is fourteen inches long, ten inches broad, and Jths of 
an inch deep, and its interior and exterior surfaces are made 
black. In passing through this box, the warm air is exposed 
to a much larger surface than that presented by the pipe, and 
the few degrees of heat which it before contained, are by this 
means imparted to the air of the room. 

The joints of the pipe are perfectly closed by clay lute, and 
its whole exterior surface is covered with a thin coat of dead 
black varnish, made to resist heat. 

The valves B. C, D, to regulate, the admission of air into tin 
stove, are all of the same construction, being circular pieces of 
flat thick sheet iron, very accurately adjusted, to close the in- 
terior of the pipe. Fig. 3, represents a side view of the valve 
B, standing entirely open. The wire to which it is firmly riveted, 
crosses the centre of the valve, and passes through the pipe. 
This end of the wire serves as one of the pivots for tin valve 
to turn upon, and the other end. being bent into a hall circle. i~ 
used both as the handle to turn the \ ah e. and as an index to regu- 
late it. The point of this eaters the graduated holes in the dial ; 
Fig. 4. which is a front view, and is riveted to the exterior of 
the pipe, being the half of a circle of flat sheet iron. who* 
whole diameter is equal to that of the pipe. The handle is 
bent to correspond i \ac1ly with the flat surface of the valve, by 
which the situation of the handle indicate-, the position ofth 

valve inside of the pipe, so that bo mistake can occur in it- 
use. 



12 ON THE HEAT EVOLVED 

Being well aware that the experiments could not he accu- 
rately performed, unless the operator should at all times pos- 
sess a perfect control over the burning body; it became 
necessary after attaching the box A, to insert the cross pipe 
with the valve D, by which the current of air through the 
stove may, in an instant, be placed at its maximum in quantity 
and velocity, if permitted to pass through this cross pipe, in 
place of passing through the shallow box A. 

This passage is useful when igniting anthracite coal, in which 
process, the coal, as well as all other combustible bodies, require 
to be heated to a certain temperature before they will ignite, 
during which process, heat being absorbed, and not disengaged, 
if care be taken to close this valve in proper time, none is lost. 
As this required temperature differs not only in different bodies, 
and in the different component parts of some bodies, but is 
specific, for each, it may for convenience, be termed their heat 
of ignition or accension. 

This passage is also useful in some experiments, to give a 
momentary impulse to the inflammation, of certain bodies, and 
cannot be dispensed with without great loss of time, in heat- 
ing the room to its proper temperature, before commencing 
an experiment. 

Considerable difficulty was experienced in getting the valves 
and their appendages made with sufficient accuracy, but when 
done, as half of the arc of each dial is divided into twenty equal 
parts, it will be perceived that the current of air to supply the 
body in combustion, can he regulated with great precision. 

The valve B, is particularly useful to stop at a proper time 
the combustion of those bodies, which it is known cannot be 
wholly consumed in the stove, and this is done almost instanta- 
neously by closing this valve, and sliding down the hoop which 
covers the apertures for the admission of air. 

The pipe passes through the side wall into the chimney of 
the exterior room. Near the end of the pipe, within the in- 
terior room, is an aperture of sufficient size to admit the bulb 
of the thermometer E, and this aperture is closed by a tin plate 
closely fitted to the stem of the thermometer. This plate is 



FROM WOOD AND CuAl,. 1 J 

curved to fit the pipe, and is of Bufficienl size to cover the 
aperture, and rest upon the pipe The bulb of the thermo- 
meter is suspended in the centre of the pipe, by the brass scale 
being made shorter than usual, and resting on the tin plate. 
wtiich is secured in its place by a small quantity of clay lute. 
This thermometer is used to measure the temperature of the 
air within the pipe, previous to its passing into the chimney; 
and as I have never found the hulh discoloured by the car- 
bonaceous particles in the smoke, and thereby rendered raor< 
sensible, as it was feared would be the case, 1 am induced to think 
very little ever reaches it, being previously deposited in tin 
pipe. 

Fig. 6, is another mercurial thermometer, suspended from 
the side wall of the room. Both these were made expressTj 
for my experiments, and to correspond in their scales (which 
are Fahrenheit's) with the greatest possible accuracy. The 
thermometer, Fig. 6, is used to measure the temperature of 
the air in the room, and is placed on a line with that in the 
pipe, at twelve inches distance. The hulh is screened by a pint 
of bright planished tin. to prevent the influence of heat radiated 
from any part of the stove or pipe, while it dors not prevent 
a free access of the air in the room, to the hulh of the thermo- 
meter. 

Fig. 7. is Mr. Leslie's differential thermometer, on.- half of 
which is passed through an aperture in the hoard partition into 
the exterior room, and is secured in its place by a divided cork, 
which encircles a part of the syphon at the bottom of tin- iii 
strument, and closes the aperture. Both bulbs are perfectly 
screened by large pieces of bright planished tin, not shown in 
the. engraving. This instrument, as its name denotes, inci- 
sures only the different of temperature in the two munis, and 

as it does this with peculiar delicacy, it is admirably adapted 

to my purpose, the accuracy of my experiments depending in 
a great measure on the uniform difference of temperature in 
tin two rooms : and 1 am under obligations to its inventor, and 
also, to Dr. Hare, as it was jn consequence of tie sugjp Jtion "I 
the latter gentleman, that tins instrument was added to my 

VOL. III. — D 



14 ON THE HEAT EVOLVED 

apparatus; its peculiar applicability to my experiments not 
having previously occurred to me. 

The differential thermometer used in my experiments, indi- 
cated £0°, to 1° of the mercurial thermometers, and, as one of 
the bulbs is situated in the interior room, it can only be ope- 
rated upon by the temperature of that room ; the other bulb 
being in the exterior room, can only be operated upon by the 
temperature of the latter room ; consequently, any change of 
temperature in either will be shown on the scale, the instru- 
ment having been adjusted with great care, so that the top of 
the tinged liquor will stand at 50°, when there is a difference 
of 10° between the mercurial thermometers placed in the two 
rooms ; and from its superior sensibility in detecting incipient 
changes, the differential thermometer may almost be said to 
possess the power of divination, whereby the operator receives 
timely notice to avoid any essential error. 

Fig. 5, is a tin supply pipe, two inches in diameter. This 
passes through the floor in a perpendicular direction, and has 
an elbow joint opening towards the stove. It has a valve to 
regulate the quantity of air found necessary to be admitted into 
the room for the purposes of respiration, and to support the 
combustion in the stove. This valve, when once adjusted, re- 
mained the same through all the experiments. Whether the 
precise quantity of air necessary for the respiration of the 
operator, and to support the combustion, is admitted by this 
pipe, or an excess, its temperature being the same, and the 
stove being supposed always to be supplied with air at the 
temperature of the interior room, and to require about the same 
quantity during any given period of two or more experiments, 
the air admitted being also of equal volume, its velocity will 
be the same under all changes of barometric pressure ; conse- 
quently, the reduction of the temperature of the air in the room 
may be supposed to be the same during the time required to 
perform each experiment, with the exception of an immaterial 
variation in its specific heat, to be hereafter noticed ; and, 
the results of the experiments cannot be affected by the admis- 
sion of an excess of air, they being, as before stated, founded 
on the comparative, and not the positive quantity of heat evolved. 



KROM WOOD AMI ( o VI. . i 

At Fig. 8, is a hygrometer made of tin beard of the wild 
oat, enclosed in a small brass case, and covered w ith glass. This 
is used to measure the humidity of the air. which, like all other 
bodies, possesses different conducting powers as its hygrometric 
state varies, by which its specific heat or capacity for absorb- 
ing caloric is increased or diminished ; those bodies which con- 
tain moisture being better conductors than the same bodies 
when dry. The comparative capacities of water and dry air. 
are, as 1.000 to .266, by the experiments of .AIM. Delaioehe 
and Berard. From Sausseur's experiments, it appears, how- 
ever, that the quantity of aqueous vapour attracted by the air 
of the atmosphere, when at 65° of Fahrenheit, is very -mall: a 
cubic foot of air requiring not more than eleven or twelve 
grains to bring it from tlie state of perfect dryness, to thai of 
extreme moisture. 

Now. a> the various sides of the room are the conducting 
media by which the heal generated in the room is dissipated, 
and as these sides are in contact with the air of the room, and 
must in some degree be influenced by its hygrometric -tad 
they will, consequently, become more or less powerful eon 
ductors, as this varies. To produce a uniformity in (In- 
spect, I have, by the aid of this instrument, and of the watei 

contained in the tin vessel before described, taken care to keep 
1 he air of the interior room in the same hygrometric stale, 
during the various experiments. 

The barometer al Fig. '». requires no description, and is not 
considered an essential appendage to my apparatus, although 
convenient as a check upon the valves; not, however, on the 
common supposition that tin' velocity of the current "i ah 
through the stove is greater under one pressure than another, 
cxteris paribus, hut that its quantity varies with its denaitj 
more being contained in the game volume at one pressure than 
:d another. 

The results of MM. Clement and Desormes 1 experiments on 
gases, to determine their specific heats, at different densities, 
show that the specific heal of atmospheric aii- does not vary 
more than .02, between 29.fi and 30.5 inches "I barometric 



16 ON THE HEAT EVOLVED 

pressure. These being the extremes during my experiments, 
the difference of heat required to maintain the temperature of 
the air between any two experiments, cannot materially affect 
their results, and for this variation no correction has been thought 
necessary. 

Having described the construction of the interior room, and 
its apparatus, it remains to describe the exterior room, which 
has a capacity of 860 cubic feet, after deducting 542 feet for 
the space occupied by the interior room, and the materials of 
which it is composed. This room has a southern aspect, and 
is defended from the west winds by a building projecting be- 
yond it ten feet south. It has one window, with blinds on the 
outside, to exclude, when necessary, the rays of the sun ; the 
east and south walls are of brick, and are ten inches in thick- 
ness ; the remaining two are partitions of lath and plaster, four 
and a half inches thick, and separate between a passage on the 
west, and a room on the north. The chimney is in the east 
wall. A small stove is placed in this room, the pipe of which 
passes through the fire-board. A mercurial thermometer, to 
measure the temperature of the air, is placed in a convenient 
situation, on a line with those in the interior room, and on a 
table an accurate balance is suspended, to weigh the articles 
which are to be subjected to experiment. 

The plan of the experiments will next be described. 

Equal quantities are taken of each article by weight, pre- 
viously made absolutely dry ; by which is to be understood, 
that state of deprivation of moisture manifested when no di- 
minution in weight can be effected by the heat of a stove at 
250 c of Fahrenheit. 

It is required to determine the period of time which the 
combustion of each article will maintain the temperature of 
the interior room 10° higher than the exterior; and the time 
that the interior room is thus maintained by any article, gives 
its true relative heat, when compared with the time which any 
other article has maintained the room at the same difference of 
temperature. As the temperature of the air in both rooms is 
supposed to remain stationary, the increments and decrements 



FROM WOOD AND (OIL. \; 

of heat will therefore be equal, in equal periods of time, m all 
the experiments, by which the objections made against the plan 
of Count Rumford s experiments are considered as obviated. 

The manner of experimenting is as follows 

The first step to be taken by the operator, is to produce tin 
required difference of 10° between the interior and exterioi 
rooms, and to arrange the necessary coincident circumstances 
for its perpetuation. 

As no artificial refrigerating means can. with Convenience, 
be made use of to depress the temperature of the exterior room 
below that of the atmosphere, it becomes necessary thai tin 
temperature of this room shall, in the first instance, be highei 
than any elevation which will occur in the temperature of th( 
atmosphere during an experiment, otherwise the experiment 
must fail. 

During the many trials of the apparatus in order to becomi 
familiar with its use, and to lessen the great difficulty expe 
rienced in maintaining the uniform difference of temperature 
required between the interior and exterior rooms, the following 
incident occurred, by which this difficulty was entirely ob- 
viated. 

In the month of June, an unusual depression in the tempi 
rature of the atmosphere had taken place during the oighl 
season, in consequence of which the temperature "I' the exterior 
room was found on the following morning to he 211 above that 
of the atmosphere'. Having been previously obliged to experi- 
ment at very high and uncomfortable temperatures, in conse- 
quence of the heat of the weather, and presuming that llii- 
depression would he transient, ami asnrj assistant, who attended 
to the exterior room, was absent, no increase was made in its 
temperature, as had formerly been dour under similar circum- 
stances. The temperature of the interior room was elevated 
without previous calculation, 1 5 above that of the exterior room, 
at the period of commencement; during this operation, th< 
thermometer in th< exterior room had not been observed, hut 
on examination, the difference was found to he precisely 10 
between the two rooms : considering it. however, as a fortuitous 

\ 01.. ill. — i 



18 ON THE HEAT EVOLVED 

occurrence, no investigation of the cause was at that time 
entered into. The trial experiment was commenced under 
a firm belief that the differential thermometer would give- 
immediate notice that the temperature of the exterior room 
required correction, but, to my astonishment, the differential 
thermometer was found to vary less than usual, and after a lapse 
of three hours, although the temperature of the atmosphere 
was found to have been elevated 12°, the temperature of the 
exterior room remained stationary, and continued so until the 
completion of the experiment. 

No time was then lost in attempting to discover the cause 
by which an effect so desirable had been produced, and when 
examined, it became a matter of surprise that it had not pre- 
viously been discovered by calculation and experiment, rather 
than accident. It may be explained in the following manner : 

The interior room contains 512, and the exterior 860 cubic 
feet of air. As the heat necessary to elevate 512 cubic feet 
of air 15°, is gradually transferred to 860 cubic feet, conse- 
quently, it must increase its temperature so long as its incre- 
ments are greater than its decrements, and should, by calcula- 
tion, cxteris paribus, augment it nearly 9°, instead of 5°, as was 
found to be the case ; but as the exterior room presents very 
nearly double the conducting surface, this will account for the 
difference. 

When the temperature of the interior room is thus elevated 
15°, the exterior is consequently elevated 5°, by which the re- 
quired difference of 10° is produced, and the temperature of 
the exterior room then becomes stationary, that being the pre- 
cise point at which the increments and decrements of heat are 
<$jual in the air of both rooms. 

The manner of producing this important result under known 
circumstances, being established, the operator has only to seek 
for the same result in a different place, under an unknown, or 
known difference of circumstances. As the surface of the 
window (the barricade having been removed) is the only part 
of the exterior room which can be speedily operated upon by 
the ordinary changes of the atmosphere, the temperature of 



FROM MOOD AND COAT,. 1 <) 

the room, must therefore, from its situation, and the nature ol 
its walls, change very little ; if. however, during an experiment, 
any indication of an increase in its temperature is observed, 
the upper sash in the window, which is suspended with 
weight^, is lowered the required distance to correct it: but if 
decreasing, a lire of wood can be immediately kindled in the 
stove, a lamp being kept burning in this room for the purpose, 
although never required hut in two instances during my ex- 
periments. 

The required difference of temperature between the two 
rooms being adjusted as described, it is maintained for aboul 
half an hour by burning dry charcoal. The article to be sub- 
jected to experiment is then accurately weighed, and if it 
is wood, the unconsumed charcoal is wholly removed from the 
stove by a small pair of tongs, and deposited in another room. 
md the wood which is used in pieces two inches long, and 
half to one quarter of an inch thick, is ignited by applying it 
to the flame of a lamp; hut if it is any of the species of coal 
which cannot be ignited per se, the burning charcoal is taken 
from the stove and weighed, and its quantity either increased 
or diminished so as to make half an ounce, which is, quicklj 
returned to the stove, and on my notes, the name of the arti- 
cle, its quantity, and the time, by an accurate watch, are then 
sel down, together with the state of the thermometers, the 
barometer, and hygrometer. The heights of the thermometers 
are noted im-vy ten minutes during the experiment, thai in the 
exterior room being always known by comparing the mercu- 
rial and differential thermometers of the interior room. 

The last ten minutes of time which is entered to finish an 
experiment, is that to which it approaches the nearest ; the dif- 
ference therefore from the proper time; cannot be more, hut 
will generally be less than five minutes, which is, in manj 
s, as near perhaps as it can be determined, and the gn iteeri 
difference stated will not affed the mean of the results on< 
per cent. 

The anthracite coal cannot he whollj consumed, even in 
the improved stat< of tbestove, the upper cbamln r hai ins bi 



10 ON THE HEAT EVOLVED 

introduced after its first construction, to provide a space for tht 
purpose of heating the air as much as possible before coming 
in contact with the burning body, by which the quantity 
remaining unconsumed is reduced from two ounces to less than 
half an ounce. That portion which remains unconsumed after 
an experiment, including the small particles which drop through 
the apertures of the chambers into the ash pit, are washed Upon 
a sieve to remove the ashes and any other foreign matter, and 
when thoroughly dried in a crucible, are weighed and deducted 
from the original weight. 

In making up the results of experiments in which charcoal 
is used to ignite the body, from the resulting time is deducted 
so much as is known by previous experiment to have arisen from 
a portion of charcoal equal in weight to that used. Those 
bituminous coals which fuse and cake in the process of coaking. 
are the most troublesome to manage in small quantities, from 
the inconstant manner in which the bituminous part burns, and 
its tendency to become extinguished the moment that portion 
is consumed ; the combustion of the bitumen not producing 
the heat of ignition required by the carbonaceous part to con- 
tinue the process of combustion, and the surface being partially 
covered with the deposite from the pyrites, becomes more dif- 
ficult to ignite, and requires to be broken asunder to present a 
fresh surface. To overcome this difficulty, it was found neces- 
sary to use the coal in very small pieces, and occasionally to 
take from the stove such parts as had coaked, break them in 
pieces, and return them to the stove as required, which, when 
ignited, will burn permanently, and the heat required to coak 
the remaining part of the coal is thereby produced. During 
tedious experiments, the operator is sometimes under the ne- 
cessity of passing from the interior to the exterior room, but if 
done with proper caution, the differential thermometer is never 
affected thereby. 

The animal heat imparted to the air of the room by the 
operator, must be noticed. This, under ordinary exertion of 
the muscles, being equal both in temperature and quantity, as 
determined by Dr. Crawford, and being the same during the 



1R0M WOOD AiND Co VI - J| 



period of each experiment, the results will not be affected 

thereby. 

The accuracy with which the experiments have been per- 
formed, is a delicate subject for me to expatiate upon, but 1 
shall be permitted to say. that all means within my power 
have been used to render the results as accurate as the difficult 
nature of the subject will admit. These results will I"- found 
in the general table. 

From the diversity in these results, il is apparent, that equal 
weights of different combustible bodies vary materially in the 
quantity of heat disengaged in their combustion. The woods 
dilfer less perhaps in equal weights than has been generally sup- 
posed, and that difference will Ik- found to correspond very nearrj 
with the different quantities of carbon they contain; they an 
however of very different value in equal quantities />;/ measurt .in 
consequence of the great disparity in their weight. This remark 
is also applicable to those coals which are sold by measure and 
not by weight, from which circumstance, it becomes necessary 
to caution those who would attempt to ascertain the value oi 
different articles of fuel by merely comparing their different 
results of heat in the table, without regard to (heir different 
weights. The results being comparisons between articles in 
equal weights, cannot be compared with quantities by measure 
alone; hence the necessity of determining the weights of a 
given bulk of those articles Bold in fliis manner, which will be 
found in the table in their respective columns, the manner of 
obtaining which will be hereafter detailed. The object of my 
experiments being practical utility, rather than scientific re- 
search, to facilitate the accomplishment of that desirable 
object, I have estimated the comparative values of the different 
articles. These will be found in the last column of the table, 
and are equally applicable not only to every market, bul for 
every change in the prices thai can take place. 

The standard taken N shell-bark hickory, that being of 
greater weight than a cord of any other wood in the tabli . and 
disengaging in its combustion an equal quantity of beat froB 
any given weight 

vol. m. — r 



22 ON THE HEAT EVOLVED 

The comparative numbers express the value of one A cord oi 
each of the woods, one ton of the anthracite coals, and one 
hundred hushels of the bituminous coals, charcoal and coak, 
and although no one market is supposed to furnish for fuel 
every kind of wood contained in the table, yet the principal 
part will probably be found, and in markets where the woods 
are much mixed, averages may easily b.e made adapted to those 
markets. The column of comparative values was found in 
the following manner. 

The value of a given quantity of fuel is directly proportional 
to the time that a given weight of it maintained the air of the 
room at a given temperature, and also to its weight. Hence 
assuming shell-bark hickory for a standard, since one pound of 
this wood maintained the air of the room at the given tempe- 
rature 400 minutes, this being multiplied by 4469, the weight 
of a cord of this wood, we obtain 1787600 minutes as the time 
which the air of the room would have been maintained at the 
given temperature, by consuming one cord of this wood. 

We then have the following proportion. As the product in 
time corresponding to one cord of shell-bark hickory, ( 1 787600) 
is to its assumed value (100) so is the product of the weight 
of a given quantity of any other article into the time that one 
pound of it would maintain the air of the room at the given 
temperature, to the value of the given quantity of this article. 

Thus for a cord of white ash wood : 

As 1787600: 100 :: 3450x400 = 138000000 : 77 

For a ton of Lehigh coal, of 2240 pounds : 

As 1767600: 100 : : 2240x790=176960000 : 99 

For 100 bushels of cannel coal weighing 6525 pounds: 

As 1787600 : 100 : : 6525x630=41 10JT5000 : 230 

A few examples wiil be sufficient to show the facility with 
which the comparisons may be made. For this purpose, we 
will assume the price of shell-bark hickory wood as at six dol- 
lars for a cord of 128 cubic feet, this being the average price 



PROM WOOD AND COAL. 

in this market, and compare it with a cord of red-heart hickotf 
The comparative value of the former is 100, and of the latter 8 1 
We then have the followingstatement. As 100: 600:: 81 :486 
Four dollars and eighty-six cents being the comparative value 
of a cord of red-heart hickory, and the difference between 
the price of this wood and its* comparative value thus ascer- 
tained, shows how much dearer or cheaper it is than the wood 
with which it has been compared. We will suppose the pric< 
of red-heart hickory to be ">.7.5 and thai of chesnut white oak 
to be 5 dollars. Then 81 : 575 : : 86 : ti l o. is the value of the lattei 
whicli being sold at 5 dollars, is cheaper by one dollar and ten 
cents, than the red-heart hickory. If we tike the mean ofth< 
comparative numbers for the eleven different species of oaks, 
which is 69, and compare them at 5 dollars, with shell-hark 
hickory at 6 dollars, 100 : 600 : : 69 : 414, is the average value OJ 
those oaks, and at the prices specified, the hickory is the cheapest 
by nearly one dollar. 

A mere examination of the comparative numbers, \\ ill shorn 
that a cord of white birch is 52 pr. ct. less in value than a cord of 
shell-hark hickory, and the difference p<r cent- may be calcu- 
lated from the comparative numbers between au\ two ai ticl< a 
sold at the same price. 

We will now extend the comparison to some of tin coals: and 
take for this purpose one cord of shell-hark hickory, at i. dol- 
lars, and determine the comparative value of one ton of Lehigh 
Coal. As 100: 600 :: 99 : 594, which shows them to l>. 
of nearly the same value, supposing each article to he con- 
sumed under the same circumstances; but as this is not tin 
ease, and as tin's objection has been frequently stated to me by 
those who have confounded two distinct subjects, a momentary 
digression will be excused, to show the futility and irrelevancy 
of this objection. It is admitted that there may be greater 
disparity between the manner of consuming different kinds ot 
fuel, than actually exists in their comparative value as usually 
sold; but tlii-; difference does not enhance or depress the value 
of the different articles, provided it is practicable to consunu 
them in the same manner, which, with very fevi exception 



24 ON THE HEAT EVOLVED 

may be done. The intrinsic value of the different kinds o* 
fuel, and the loss or gain experienced by the different construc- 
tions of the apparatus used for their combustion, are distinct 
subjects of inquiry, and although both are necessary to be 
known, to effect any valuable improvement in the selection of 
the one and the construction of\he other, yet it does not follow 
as a consequence, because the construction of a grate used 
for the combustion of Lehigh coal, is more economical than an 
open fire-place, that, therefore, one ton of the coal possesses 
greater intrinsic value than one cord of shell-bark hickory 
wood, as it would be equally relevant, to say, that the coal i» 
intrinsically of less value, because the wood may be consumed 
in a sheet iron stove, which is a much more economical appa- 
ratus than the grate. 

We will resume the subject by comparing one ton of Lehigh 
coal, at seven dollars, with one hundred bushels of Newcastle 
coal, at thirty-five dollars, which are the present prices in this 
market. As 99 : 700 :: 198 : 1400, from which, it appears 
that fifty bushels of this coal are precisely equal in value to 
one ton of Lehigh coal, but as the Newcastle coal will cost 
seventeen dollars and fifty cents, and the Lehigh coal costs 
only seven dollars, the latter is the cheaper article of fuel by 
1 50 per cent. 

If the value of a chaldron or bushel of the bituminous coal 
is required, the manner of obtaining a solution of either ques- 
tion, is obvious. 

It will be apparent, that although shell-bark hickory has 
been taken, for convenience, as the standard, to construct the 
column of comparative values, the economist should take the 
cheapest article of fuel in the market, as his standard of com- 
parison. 

The experiments on the Lehigh, Schuylkill, Susquehanna, 
and Lackawaxen coals were repeated a number of times in dif- 
ferent quantities, but the results were found to be uniformly 
the same. Considerable difference was found in the results of 
pine charcoal, when taken promiscuously from different parcels 
as brought to market, in consequence of the imperfect manner 



riiiiM WOOD AND < i) \i.. J 

to which the charring process had been conducted, hut as 
these coals are sold by measure, and n<>t by weight, and as tin 
bulk is not materially diminished in perfecting the process, the 
loss sustained from this circumstance heing in part compensated 
by the heat disengaged in expelling the remaining innammabli 
matter, we may consider this defect, inordinary cases, as un- 
important: the result, however, is given for perfect charcoal. 

The coak used to experiment upon was produced in the larg< 
way, and that which was most free from earthy, or other fo- 
reign matter, as well as most perfecl in Other respects, was 
selected. The result is less than was anticipated, and shows 
that the commonly received opinion thai it contains as much 
carbonaceous matter as charcoal, in equal weights, is erroneous, 
and what is still more erroneous is, the opinion that an) llim o 
quantity of coak, by measure, will in its combustion disengage 
as much heat as an equal quantity of the coal from which it is 
produced. One bushel of bituminous coal produces in retorts 
about one and a half bushels of coak. in consequence of swell- 
ing during the process, and yet its specific gravity i> stated, in 
some tahles. as nearly equal to the coal. 

The composition balls of Lehigh coal, charcoal, and fire clai . 
were made for the purpose of ascertaining whether a rerj eco- 
nomical fuel mighl not he formed of the culm or line portions 
of the two former, by combining them with the latter article. 
as they possess very little value, and tin same practice having 
been adopted with considerable advantage in various parts ol 
Europe. 

The tire produced by these balls was found t" beverj cl< m 
and beautiful in ii> appearance : it^ superior cleanliness is in 
consequence of the ashes being retained by tin clay, and tin 
balls wire found to retain their original shape, after tiny wen 
leprived of the combustible materials. The beauty of the fir 
is enhanced by the shape and equality in the size of the balls. 
which, during the combustion, present uniform luminous fai 
\ i difficult) was found in igniting or perfectly consuming thi 
combustible materials of the balls, and the loss in beat, when 
compared with the combustion of the si ■ quantity "i • 

v OL. I". — G 



jJ6 OX THE HEAT EVOLVED 

article, in their usual states of aggregation, was found to be only 
three per cent. 

It is proper to state that the experiments were made with 
the best quality of every article that could be procured, and 
as some slight difference may exist between wood of different 
ages, the medium sizes were selected. Those woods and coals 
which are peculiar to the New England States, were obtained 
from thence. The Rhode-Island and Worcester coals were 
procured for me by an obliging friend in Boston, who stated 
that the coals were selected with care, but, that the Worcester 
coal being a recent discovery, and the parcel sent having been 
taken from the surface of the bed, could not be considered as 
a fair sample of the coal which may be supposed to exist in 
lower strata. 

Many and insuperable difficulties presented themselves, in 
attempting to ascertain by common methods the weight of 
dry wood in a cord of each kind. The plan adopted, and 
which appeared most likely to produce satisfactory results, was 
as follows. From a pile of swamp white oak of medium size, 
which had been cut the preceding winter, and weather seasoned 
during the interval, (this being the state in which the largest 
portion of wood is sold.) a half cord, or sixty-four cubic feet, 
was accurately measured, and its weight was found to be 1928 
avoirdupois pounds. From this half cord was taken in various 
sizes, a sufficient number of sticks to allow one piece to be 
sawn from each, twelve inches long, to produce j z part of the 
whole weight, which being done, the pieces of wood were placed 
in a foot " corder" or space twelve inches square, made by nail- 
ing four pieces of board together at the ends ; but the wood 
not being found to fill it equally in the first instance, other pieces 
were substituted, of equal weight, until the interstices between 
the sticks presented a similar appearance to that of wood, as 
ordinarily piled up for sale. 

This parcel of wood was then perfectly dried in an oven, 
and its solid content ascertained by the quantity of water 
which it displaced. To perform this operation, a tin box was 
used, fifteen inches deep, and six inches wide at the open top. 



FROM WO(il> AM) COAL, ft 

which was set into a large tin funnel, and the water displaced 
by the wood was conveyed by the latter into an eartheu vessel 
placed underneath for itsYeception. The pieces of wood were 

taken separately, and into one end of each, a small awl was 
inserted a sufficient distance to sustain the weighl of the stick. 
and by which it could be accurately and expeditiously im- 
mersed in the water. As the surface of the wood eould not 

be made impervious to water without a change in its hulk, il 
became necessary to perform the operation with as much dex- 
terity as possible: tin- wood, however, being perfectly dry, its 
surface was covered with dust, which caused il to repel tin 
water in the first instance, and I found it could he immersed 
steadily, and vet with such facility, as to be left nearly dr\ 
if shaken immediately on being withdrawn from the water, 
and this was determined by the very slight addition which was 
found to have been made to its weighl by the immersion. Foi 
this addition to the weighl of the wood, the water used being 
at 55° Fahrenheit, a correction was made and added to the 
quantity of water displaced, although a partial compensation 
may be considered to have taken place by the expansion pro- 
duced in the wood in consequence of the absorption of thi^ 
portion of the water. 

The water displaced was measured in a deep narrow ii'"i I. 
provided with a sliding scale, fitted to is interior, lor tin pur- 
pose, and found to he 'tti ', cubic inches, from which the quan- 
tity of plenum, or solid dry wood, in a cord taken under the 

circumstances described, was found to lie 7 1 ^ cubic feet, leai ing 
a deficiencv for the interstices and diminution in volume h\ 
Irving of 5(>^ cubic feet. Thus, 

1 : 9 which ~- 1788=171 n %\\ cobii reel 

The method taken, it is supposed, will give the avei 
quantity of combustible matter, in a cord of wood, as usually 
sold, it being impossible for me to give a scale adapted to ev< rj 
change in volume produced by the different degrees of humi- 
dity, of which the woods are susceptible. 

The solid content of a cord of wood being known, if th< 



28 ON THE HEAT EVOLVED 

specific gravity of any wood is correctly ascertained, its absolute 
weight may be determined thereby. 

The usual method of ascertaining the specific gravity of 
wood, as laid down in the books, is manifestly incorrect, as the 
absorption of water, during its immersion, produces an enlarge- 
ment in the magnitude of the body, not compensated for by 
adding to the water weight, if the body is lighter, (or deduct- 
ing, if heavier than water,) the weight of water found to have 
been absorbed, and this absorption must constitute complete 
saturation before the water weight can be accurately ascertained, 
because, during this process of absorption, the air being con- 
stantly expelled from the body, part of it adheres to it in small 
globules, and renders it more buoyant, in proportion as this bulk 
of air is lighter than the same bulk of the body ; consequently, 
the body weighs less than it should do, and this cause of error 
cannot be counteracted by an attempt to weigh the body "expe- 
ditiously" as is recommended. During this necessary process of 
saturating the body with water, the wood increases in magni- 
tude, and its specific gravity will be found less than it should 
be ; and the difference will be seen to be very considerable, 
when it is stated that the specific gravity of a piece of dry 
wood, weighing in air 11.15 grains, was, by the common me- 
thod found to be .556, and the same piece of wood being then 
dried with great care to its former weight, its specific gravity 
found by a process free from this objection, (hereafter to be 
described,) was .619, the difference in which would be 282 lbs. 
in one cord of wood. 

The specific gravity of those bodies which do not change 
in their magnitude by the absorption of water, and which have 
no fissures, may be correctly obtained by the common method, 
as the water absorbed is retained in the body, and can thereby 
be ascertained, as it will be of the exact weight by which the 
water weight had been increased or diminished in consequence 
of the expulsion of an equal bulk of air from the body. 

Onr object in ascertaining the specific gravities of bodies, 
is to find the proportion of their weights under the same 
volume. Now, by the volume of a body, is to be understwd 



FROM WOOD V\l> i ii W,. 

the entire space enclosed within its exterior surface, including 

its pores and fissures. It is necessary, therefore, in determin- 
ing the sp. o T . by the usual method of the hydrostatic balance, 
to use some means for preventing tin- water from insinuating 
itself into the pores and figures of such bodies as arc not of a 
perfectly compact texture. [f the article employed for this 
purpose be of a sp. u;r. different from water, and if (as will 
almost always be the case) it protrude beyond the surface of 
the body so as to enlarge the bulk, it will he necessaiy ool 
only to know its weight in air. but its specific gravity : and even 
then it is difficult to make a satisfactory correction of the water 

ight in consequence of the change which the article made 
use of may sustain in its specific gravity by pressure in apply- 
ing it to the body, and also, from the different specific gravity 
of different parts of articles not expressly prepared for tin 
purpose. 

A- it was necessary forme to determine with great accuracy 
the specific gravities of dry wood, charcoal, and the mineral 
coals, all of which absorb water and present more or less fissures 
and as I wished to relieve myself from liability to inaccu- 
racies from the sources which have been detailed, I determined 
to make a compound which should be convenient to use, and 
whose specific gravity should be precisely thai of wat< r al <><»° 

Fahrenheit. 

This was effected with white wax and yellow rosin; tin 
specific ui.i\ ityof the former was .967, and of the latter i .0 ! 
The compound was of the lust possible consistence, and 
whether compressed by mechanical means at .1 l-iw tempera* 
tore, or expanded by the temperature of water al 130°, it 
would in either case he miit\ when broughl to the tempei 

.lire o! 1)11 '. and the whole mass was perfectlj uniform. 

The difficulty "i producing this compound was much gr< at. i 
than had been anticipated-, and will he apparent, when it i~ 
stated that the nn- weighed at tin- commencement ab iuI I 
ounces, taken h\ arithmetical calculation in tin- proportions 
supposed to be necessary, which were is irrains of rosiu to 100 

oiis of wax. and although the unallesl additions supposed 

\ oi.. in. — II 



JO ON THE HEAT EVOLVED 

necessary, were made at each time to this mass, from two other 
masses of the same articles compounded, whose specific gravi- 
ties were known to he about .995 and 1.005, the mass weighed 
when finished more than thirty ounces, and required seven days 
to accomplish the undertaking, and the proportions of the 
ingredients found to have been used, were about 22 grains of 
rosin to 100 grains of wax. Having had occasion to use some 
of this compound within a short time, I regret to say, that the 
lapse of two years since it was made, has produced a change 
in its specific gravity, it being now 1.004 in water at the tem- 
perature of 60° Fahrenheit. 

The pieces of wood being made positively dry, in the manner 
described for drying those experimented upon, they were covered 
with the compound described without regard to its weight, and 
their specific gravities being ascertained, the absolute weight 
of dry wood in a cord of each was found in the following man- 
ner, and will be seen in the table. 

The weight of a cubic foot of any substance, whose specific 
gravity is 1, is known to be very nearly 1000 ounces, or 62^ 
pounds avoirdupois. Hence, to find the weight of a cord of 
wood, or 7 1 £ cubic feet of plenum, of specific gravity 1 , (for 
example, shell-bark hickory) we have only to multiply 71.5 
by 62.5, which gives us 4468.75. Now, to find the weight 
of a cord of wood, of any other specific gravity, we say, As unily 
is to (4468.75) the weight of a cord at specific gravity 1, so is 
the given specific gravity, to the weight of a cord at that specific 
gravity. Thus, for white ash; 1 : 4468.75 ::. 772:3449. 87 
pounds. In fact, we have, in any case, merely to multiply 
4468.75 by the specific gravity of any other wood, to obtain 
the weight of a cord of this wood, in pounds and decimals avoir- 
dupois. 

The quantity of charcoal which can, by the best conducted 
process, be obtained from the different woods, was deemed 
an inquiry of considerable importance, there being great dis- 
crepancies in the results of different experimenters on tins 
subject, and from the vast importance and consumption of tin's 
article in the arts generally, and particularly in the process of 
smelting iron ore. For this purpose all attempts hitherto made 



FROM WOOD AM) ( it VI.. J J 

in this country to substitute anthracite conk have proved m. 
tory; and, as equally unsuccessful results have attended the nu- 
merous and well conducted experiments, which have been 
made in England. Ireland, and Wales, to substitute anthracit. 
coals for coak, in the same important process, it become* a 
matter of national interest, that our forests, intended for thii 
purpose, should not be unnecessarUy wasted by conducting the 
charring process in an improper manner, and this can onli 
be ascertained by first knowing the positive quantity of carbon 
contained in the different woods, from which we shall be able 
to determine whether any improvements can be made in the 
process. 

Various methods have been adopted by different experi- 
menters on this subject; that most generally used appears to 
have been charring the woods in dry sand; but 1 found thi> 
objectionable, as the finer portions of the sand were liable to 
enter the interior of the coal, if it had any fissures, and the 
weight of the product was too large, while on the other hand, 
the interstices between the particles of sand were found to 
admit sufficient air to consume part of the coal, and the pro- 
duct in consequence of this combustion was liable to be found 
too small. To obviate both these objections, pulverized char- 
coal, known to have been perfectly charred and dry, was sub- 
stituted for sand, having ascertained that it could be aimed 
entirely shaken oul of the fissures in the coal, and that, should 
any remain, the error would he immaterial. The pieces of 
wood were closely packed in it. and presented an inch in thick 
uess of powdered coal between the sides and bottom of tin 
crucible and tike wood, and about three Inches of powdered 
coal on the top of the wood, the whole being com red by an 
inverted crucible luted down. In this latter crucible a small 
orifice only being made, any air, therefore, whieh should enter 
through the pores of the crucible or the apt rture at top. would 
In decomposed before it could reach tin wood in the interior, 
and the air which may In supposed I" have existed between 
the interstices of the powdered coal, or in the coal itself in tin 
Hist instance, would also he decomposed and rendered inert 



';_' ON THE HEAT EVOLVED 

before the wood could be charred. The whole of the woods, 
which had been previously filed into oblong solids, presenting 
sharp edges, to detect any loss by fracture, each being designated 
by notation letters, made by incision, were thus surrounded and 
exposed in the first instance to a moderate heat in an air fur- 
nace, which was increased to a white heat, and so remained for 
about two hours, during which time additional quantities of 
powdered coal were introduced through the aperture at the 
top of the inverted crucible. 

The product of charcoal from the several woods obtained 
in this manner, will be found in the table. 

Among the many experiments made to discover the best 
manner of ascertaining the weight of charcoal product from 
the different woods, and to satisfy myself whether any loss 
could take place in a solid piece of coal surrounded by pow- 
dered charcoal, a piece of box wood coal without fissures was 
taken, weighing 23.7 grains, and after having been exposed to 
a white heat for three hours, was found to weigh 23.1 grains; 
the loss of T % of a grain, was, however, undoubtedly, produced 
by the air contained in the piece of coal, or conjointly with 
that in the interstices between the powdered coal, contiguous 
to the piece when first ignited. 

A similar experiment was made in clean dry white sand, 
upon a piece of maple coal without fissures, which had been 
previously exposed in powdered charcoal to a white heat, ana 
known to be perfectly charred and dry. This piece of coal 
weighed 26 grains, and lost by the process 6 grains ; the surface 
was found entirely changed from its original hard texture, 
having become soft, and the colour was changed from slate to 
jet black, which is often found to be the case in charcoal ob- 
tained in the large way, and is always objectionable, as it pro- 
duces loss both to the collier and consumer. 

The charcoal produced by surrounding the wood with pow- 
dered coal was found of a slate colour on its surface, dense, 
sonorous, brittle and equal in all respects to that made in 
cylinders or retorts for gunpowder, which is known to be much 
superior to that produced by the ordinary method, even fov 



i l;i»M « OOD AM) COAL. .{J 

cammoB purposes, from its greater durability, although, for 

these purposes, qq particular necessity exists that the pyrotig- 
neous acid and tar should be perfectly expelled. From tin pre- 
ceding experiment in sand, it occurred to me that an important 
improvement might be made in the common process, by filling 
the interstices between the sticks of wood with the culm oi 
fine coal left on the ground after the large coal lias been drawn 
from the pit. and by covering the wood more perfectly than 
is usually done. In this waj we may more perfect h prevent 
the access of the air. which is not only destructive in inan\ 
eases to a large portion of the coal, hut also renders what re- 
mains, less valuable. 

That my remarks on this subject may not be considered 
entirely theoretical, it is proper to state, that an intelligt nt 
collier in New Jersey applied in a partial manner the plan 
proposed, and found the product to be about 1<) per cent. 
more in quantity by measure, than he had ever before obtained 
from the same kind and quantity of wood. and I found the coal 
when brought to market nearly 20 per cent heavier than usual, 
and as an evidence that the coal had been well charred, a cti 
cumstance which is too often neglected, the hydrogen gas 
appeared to have been almost entirely expelled, and it l"st verj 
tittle in weight by exposing it to a red heat in powdered char 
coal. 

The quality of this coal was considered by competent judge.* 
to he superior to any other ever offered in this tnarki t. and 
was as cleanly to handle as the anthracite coals, and sold readili 
at an advanced price. 

From an examination made during tin last summer, of tin 
common manner of piling and covering wood which is to tx 
converted into charcoal, tin practice of piling it two and thret 
tiers in height, appears to be objectionable for two reasons; ih< 
firsl is. that He second and third tiers cannot !»■ so well d< 
fended from tie air as the first, which rests upon tin- ground 
this being a better harrier against the air, than tin form* r can 
he made to present; and tin second is. that this disposition "i 
the wood is not favourable for producing Hi'- ignition • < th< 

Whole mass at one and the satin linn , tin n-ual pnctta I" il 

other to commence tin- ignition in tin c< otn ol the upp rtiei 

* oi,. in. — r 



3 j O.N THE HEAT EVOLVED 

or, in other cases, to drop the fire into a hole, or chimney, lei'f 
in the centre of the pile which extends to the bottom, or ground : 
and by giving air holes at the sides of the pit, to use the lan- 
guage of the colliers, the fire is said to be " drawn to the sides 
of the pit." 

It is very true, that the fire does eventually extend to the 
sides of the pit ; but a much more uniform and speedy process, 
and by which less loss would be sustained, would be to place 
the fire in the first instance in a number of holes at the sides, 
near the bottom, leaving an opening at the top by which the 
heat generated at the sides would be communicated to the 
wood in the interior, and facilitate the uniform ignition of the 
whole mass, and the moment this is effected, let the holes at 
the sides be closed, and that at the top may be lessened, but 
should not be wholly closed, until the extrication of hydrogen 
gas has nearly ceased, which, from its prodigious expansion, 
sometimes bursts the pits, and as this generally occurs when 
the wood is well covered, and sometimes produces very inju- 
rious effects, by firing the adjacent woods, (as the column of 
flame has been known to extend from twenty to thirty feet,) 
it has probably led many colliers into the belief that the proper 
remedy is to give the wood a slight covering, by which nu- 
merous escapes are allowed for the gas ; but in effecting this 
object, as the holes at the sides are left open, a very strong 
current is produced through the pit by the slight covering, 
and another evil is produced, that of burning through the sides 
of the pit. 

In those instances where pits have been known to burst, 
when well covered, the cause may probably be traced to having 
closed the chimney at the top too soon, this being generally 
done in about fifteen minutes, and having left those open at 
the sides too long, as the gas will make its escape in some 
manner, which should be provided for, and this provision is as 
necessary to a coal pit, as the safety valve is to a steam boiler. 

Both the objections which have been alhided to against piling 
the wood two or three tiers high, may in part be remedied by 
changing the manner of igniting the wood as proposed, and if 



( KOM WOOD AND COAL j 

clay can be procured, (with sand on the top, to till the cracks as 
it dries,) as a covering, which should he preferred in all cast - 
the evils may be reduced; but the best manner is. undoubted!] 
to pile the wood in single lengths, and if the fine coal is used 
to fill the interstices, and can be made subservient in it <=■ 
combustion to produce the required beat or any portion ot 
the heat necessary to char the wood, that portion which can b< 
so used is as effectual as the combustion of an equal portion of 
the char. The process being, when conducted in retorts, similai 
to that of distillation, the qualities of the wood necessar} to I" 
expelled being volatile, no necessity exists that any combustion 
should take place either in the wood or char: yet this cannol 
be entirely prevented, in the common process, unless som 
means are devised to burn the hydrogen gas which escapes. and 
make it applicable to produce the heat necessary to char th( 
wood as is done when the process is conducted in retorts. Tie 
hard texture of the coal will be in proportion to the heat given it. 
and the exclusion of air; the advantage therefore of using clay 
will be obvious from its being a bad conductor of heat, and a 
good barrier to exclude the air. 

I have been informed by a gentleman well acquainted with 
the iron works in this state, that in consequence of the slow 
growth of the extensive forests belonging to the same, not 
being sufficient to furnish a constant SUppIj of charcoal, man) 
of the works are obliged to suspend their operations, about 
three months in each year, by which \eiy great loss is sustained. 
If an improvement can be made in the manner of producing 
the charcoal required, by which these works, and all other! 
similarly situated shall be enabled, from their present forests, 
to continue their operations without interruption, Buch an im- 
provement must be considered as important, not onlj to indi 
viduals, but to the community generally. 

A series of experiments was made on a largi numbi i ol 
woods, tn determine the difference, if any existed, in the pro- 
duct of charcoal from green and dry wood; and these being 
taken from the same sticks in equal weights when green, the) 
would both contain the same quantity of ligneous matter. Thi 



iJG ON THE HEAT EVOLVED 

product was not found to be essentially different, but, invariably, 
rather larger from the dry than from the green wood, and the 
specific gravity of the former was also greater ; I have no hesi- 
tation, however, in saying that there will be less loss in charring 
wood in the large way by using dry w r ood, as it can be ignited 
more equally, and w r ith greater facility. 

It is my intention, so soon as my other avocations will per- 
mit, to make some experiments in the charring process in the 
large way, and to use the fine coal as suggested, for which 
purpose a number of cords of wood have been cut for a con- 
siderable period of time. 

Dead wood w r as found to produce the same quantity of 
charcoal as the same w r ood in a living state, and the limbs of 
trees produced coal of much greater density than the trunk. 
Among the most dense woods, stove dry ebony, sp. gr. 1.090, 
gave a product of charcoal from 100 parts of wood, of 33. S2, 
which is larger than was obtained from any other wood, and 
its specific gravity was also greater, being .888 ; its fracture so 
much resembles that of some of the mineral coals, that it is 
difficult to say in what respects they differ. Stove dry live 
oak, sp. gr. .942, gave 32.43, sp. gr. .591. Tortoise-shell 
wood, sp. gr. 1.212, gave 30.31, sp. gr. .866. Cocoa, sp. gr. 
1.231, gave 28.53, sp. gr. .742. Turkey box, sp. gr. .933, gave 
27.24, sp. gr. .622. 

A piece of box wood polished, lost very little of its lustre 
by charring in powdered coal, and the beautiful variations in 
the grain of the wood were as apparent in the coal as in the 
wood, and this experiment may be considered as conclusive, as 
to the complete exclusion of air by this process. 

It does not appear from the products of charcoal from the 
different woods, that their density or durability is to be attri- 
buted to the quantity of carbon they contain. As the woods 
^lifter materially in the quantity of charcoal product by mea- 
sure, it appeared necessary to give the product from a cord of 
each in bushels, and as the value of these can only be deter- 
mined by their weight, this also appeared necessary, both of 
which will be found in the table. 



FROM WOOD AND COAI 37 

The bushel generally used in this country contMns 2150.4 

cubic inches, but as coals arc sold by what is termed "rounded 
measure," or partially heaped, it became necessary to ascertain 
the cubical content of a body of coal thus measured. For this 
purpose one bushel of charcoal was made perfectly dry. and tin 
mean specific gravity of a large Dumber of pieces was found 
to be .285, and the weigh! of the bushel of coal was fifteen 
pounds avoirdupois, or 105000 grains, and the absolute w< ighl 
of a cubic foot of coal whose specific gravity is . Js~>. is 1 1 n;87 
grains, and a cubie foot being 1728 cubic inehes, then wehavethi 
following statement: As 124687: 1728: : 105000: I 155 solid 
inches of coal in the bushel, which being known, tin absoluti 
weight of a bushel of each of the coals was calculated from 
their specific gravities, in the following manner: 

The weight of a cubic foot, or 1728 cubic inches of any 
substance, whose specific gravity is 1. being 1000 OUUCCE 
consequently the weight in ounces of a bushel containing l 155 
cubic inches of any substance, of the same specific gravity, will 
he found by the following proportion : 

V~ 1728:1000 :: 1455 : 842 = 52.62 pom,!-. 

Now to find the weight of a bushel of a SUbstanci of an\ 
other specific gravity, we say: As unify is to (52.8 1) the weight 
of a bushel at specific gravitj t,so la the given specific gravity. 
to the weight of a bushel at that specific gravity. Thus foi 
white ash charcoal, we have, As 1 : 52.62::. 547: 28.78po Is 

From a number of comparisons, made by actual measure 
ment, of different mineral coals, it is believed the weights <\ 
pressed in the table will be found sufficiently correcl iii even 
instance. 

The hydrostatic balance made use of to asa rtain the specific 
gravities of the different bodies expressed in the table, is .,n. 
sibly affected by ,.'; part of a grain, when not loaded, ami tin 

Weights wire made to twentieth parts of < grain in i\' i\ in 

stance. 

From experiments mad< to ascertain tin w< ighl of moistun 
absorbed b\ tic differenl woods, which had previousrj been 

VOL. HI. — k 



38 ON THE HEAT EVOLVED 

made perfectly dry. and afterwards exposed in a room in which 
no fire was made during a period of twelve months, the average 
absorption by weight, for this period, was found to be 10 per 
cent, in forty six different woods, and 8 per cent, in the driest 
states of the atmosphere, and an unexpected coincidence was 
found to exist in the absorption by weight of forty six pieces 
of charcoal made from the same kinds of wood, and similarly 
exposed, the latter being also 8 per cent. 

The quantity of moisture absorbed by the woods individually, 
was not found to diminish with their increase in density ; while 
it was found that the green woods, in drying, uniformly lost less 
in weight in proportion to their greater density. Hickory wood 
taken green, and made absolutely dry, experienced a diminu- 
tion in its weight of 37|- per cent., white oak, 41 per cent, 
and soft maple, 48 per cent. ; a cord of the latter will therefore 
weigh nearly twice as much when green as when dry. 

If we assume the mean quantity of moisture in the woods, 
when green, as 42 per cent., the great disadvantage of attempt- 
ing to burn wood in this state must be obvious, as in every 100 
pounds of this compound of wood and water, 42 pounds of 
aqueous matter must be expelled from the wood, and as the 
capacity of water for absorbing heat is nearly as 4 to 1, when 
compared with air, and probably greater during its conversion 
into vapour, which must be effected before it can escape, the 
loss of heat must consequently be very great. 

The necessity of speaking thus theoretically on this point, 
is regretted ; but, it will be apparent, that this question of loss 
cannot be solved by my apparatus, as the vapour would be con- 
densed in the pipe of the stove, and the heat would thereby be 
imparted to the room, which, under ordinary circumstances, 
escapes into the chimney. 

The average weight of moisture in different woods which 
have been weather seasoned from eight to twelve months, will 
not be found to vary materially from 25 per cent, of their 
weight; every economist, therefore, will see the propriety of 
keeping his wood under cover in all cases where this is practi- 
cable. 



PROM WOOD AAli COAL. 3f> 

Numerous experiments have been made to determine tin 
law which obtains in the cdbling of heated bodies. Although 
my apparatus did not admit of making experiments on tin's 
subject at high temperatures, yet it appears in one respect 
better adapted for the purpose than any other which has. to my 
knowledge, been made use <>f. as we are enabled to maintain 
both the heated body and the refrigerating medium at the same 
difference of temperature, for a sufficient period of time, to 
determine the question with accuracy. My experiments con- 
sisted in maintaining the temperature of the interior room 10 
20°, 30°, and 40° above the temperature of the exterior mom 
for the same period of time, and the quantity of fuel required 
was found to be directly proportional to the increased diffe- 
rence in temperature. These results are in agreement with 
the assumption of Newton, the geometrical law of Richmann, 
and also correspond at these differences of temperature with 
the experiments of MM. Dulong and Petit, although the 
latter gentlemen found very different results at higher tempo- 
ral ores. 

The usual method which has been adopted to determine this 
question, by finding the period which fluids require, when 
heated, to cool through a given number of degrees in different 
parts df the scale of a thermometer, appears liable to rami 
objections, which it becomes inc. however, to notice with de- 
ference. The shape or size of the containing vessel is aof 
perhaps, material, lint as spheres have been most generally used. 
my remarks will he confined to thai shape. 

We will, for illustration, assume thecontainingvessel t" be the 
hulh of a thermometer two inches in diameter, and filled with 
mercury. This we will suppose to he heated to i" 1 * "i Fahren- 
heit, and placed in vacuo, in which case it is said to Insc its beat 
by radiation only Now. a- the stratum of mercury in contact 
with the bulb, parts with i1s heat, it contracts and occupies |< — 
•pace in the hulh. which causes a portion of that within tin 

tube to sink into the hulh in order to supply the deficiency. 
This e\teri.. i stratum must tin n he supposed, from its |,,s, ,.| 

heat, to have acquired gr< ater density, and t" \< ave 'he sides ol 



4U ON- THE LOSS OF HEAT 

the bulb ; henee, motion in the fluid commences, and in pro- 
portion to its heat will be its fluidity, and consequently, the 
velocity with which the change will be made, and as the strata 
lessen in volume as they approach the centre of the bulb, their 
heat must either be transmitted through the exterior interven- 
ing strata, or be subject to the necessary delay in coming in 
contact with the bulb, in consequence of the decreasing velocity 
with which the changes are made ; and, in either case, the cool- 
ing process will be retarded. If we suppose the fluid, under 
the circumstances described, incapable of locomotion, it will 
not be denied that the interior strata will require more time 
to impart the same heat than the exterior, consequently, pro- 
portional to the cooling of the body must be the increased time 
required to deprive it of any given number of degrees. 

Experiments upon this subject would be much more satis- 
factory, and would probably give different results from those 
hitherto obtained at high temperatures, by using an apparatus 
which should admit of maintaining the heat at fixed points 
upon the scale of the thermometer; in which case motion in 
the fluid would be immaterial, and an equally heated surface 
would always be exposed to the refrigerating medium. 



Experiments to determine the comparative loss of Heat sustained 
by different constructions of apparatus ordinarily used for 
the combustion of Fuel. 

The comparative loss of heat which arises from the different 
manner in which fuel is consumed, is a subject intimately con- 
nected with the question of economy in its use, but it is a distinct 
subject of inquiry from the former investigation, which was to 
determine the comparative heat disengaged in the combustion 
of the various kinds of fuel. It is presumed the remarks 
which have already been made, in anticipation, on this point, 
in detailing the first course of experiments, (at page 23,) will 
be considered conclusive- 



FROM DIFFERENT APPARATt -. II 

For the purpose of performing these experiments, a slight 
alteration, only, of the interior room, was required. 

The chimney of the exterior room being situate within 
twelve inches of the board partition on the east side of the 
interior room, an opening was made through the partition of a 
sufficient size fairly to expose the fire-place of the ehimney to 
the interior room ; the sides, top, and bottom of this aperture 
were then closed by boards perfectly tight, ami may now be 
considered as forming part of the interior room. 

All the apparatus, with the exception of the stove, remained 
the same, and was made use of as has been before described. 

Those constructions of apparatus in most common use, and 
of proper size for the room were selected. The experiments 
could not, without great inconvenience, be extended so as to 
embrace all the inventions which have been presented to tin 
public as improvements upon these constructions, but it is be- 
lieved those selected will be sufficient for the object of th» 
inquiry. 

This course of experiments was conducted on the same plan 
as the former, namely, by determining the period of ntffft 
which the air of the interior room could be maintained 10" 
of temperature above that of the exterior room, in the combus- 
tion of equal quantities of fuel, by weight, in each apparatus. 
In some cases, indeed, it was necessary to use larger quantities 
of fuel than in others, in order to make satisfactory experiments, 
yet the results arc given for equal weights, and exhibit flit 
tune which the air of the room was thus maintained by each 
apparatus, and are compared with the time which the saint 
Weight and kind of fuel had maintained the same differ* ne« 
of temperature in using apparatus No. M. in the former slat. 
of the room; a correction having been made for the slight in- 
crease in it> size, in consequence of the alteration which lia- 
been described. The fuel used in all the experiments \\a« 
shell-bark hickory wood, of the same quality, and absolutely 
dry. 

It had been apprehended that considerable difficulty would 
be experienced in producing the required equality in the ten 

VOL. III. 1. 



42 ON THE LOSS OF HEAT 

perature of the interior room, from the absence of proper 
means, in some of the apparatus experimented upon, to regu- 
late the combustion ; but from very few trials with each, 
it was found less difficult than had been anticipated, and 
that the difficulty could be entirely avoided by making the 
quantity of fuel administered to the fire, the regulator of the 
rapidity and extent of combustion necessary to be produced, 
which was effected by using the wood in small pieces. 

The results have been thrown into a tabular form, and ex- 
hibit, as before stated, the comparison of each apparatus with 
No. 9, in which it is assumed that no loss of heat is sustained, 
this assumption being necessary, for the purpose of determining 
the comparative loss of heat sustained by each apparatus, which 
is the object of the experiments. 

The manner of obtaining the results in time, having been 
stated, it is evident, that, as the same quantity of fuel was con- 
sumed in every experiment, consequently the same quantity of 
heat must have been generated. In all the experiments, (ex- 
cept the standard experiment No. 9,) we find part of the heat 
escaped by the pipe or flue of the grate and fire-place into the 
chimney, and was lost, and proportional to this loss must have 
been the quantity of the fuel required to be consumed in a 
given time, to maintain the temperature of the room, and, con- 
sequently, the duration of each experiment was proportionally 
affected thereby. The numbers, therefore, which express the 
duration of each experiment, are proportional to the heat 
saved, and assuming the positive quantity of heat generated as 
100, this being the result of apparatus No. 9, if the time occu- 
pied in any other experiment is deducted from 100, the re- 
mainder gives the positive loss sustained in every hundred parts 
of heat generated by using this apparatus, and by which we de- 
termine that in using No. 1, as only 10 parts in every hundred 
parts of heat generated are saved, consequently we lose 90 per 
cent of heat. 

As the important difference which exists in the quantity of 
fuel required to be consumed in different apparatus to produce 
the same effect, might not in all instances be obvious by a cur- 



FROM UlPPERENT AIM' V If LTU8 

•;ory inspection of the numbers in the first column of the table, 
the second column of numbers lias been inserted to facilitate 
these comparisons, and the great disparity in the quantity ol 
fuel required to produce the same effect in No. 1 and No. 2, may, 
at first view, appear paradoxical, if compared with the quantity 
of heat saved by each, from 100 parts generated, as onlj 8 parts 
more heat are saved by No. 2, than is saved bj No. I, and 
yet the positive saving in fuel by using No. 2. is nearly I pi I 
cent. 

To find the numbers in the second column, we assume th< 
fuel used in all the experiments as 100; and tor the facility ol 
comparison, we will say this quantity of fuel maintained tin 
temperature of the room 100 minutes when consumed in ap 
paratus No. 9. In experiment No. l,we find this quantity 
of fuel maintained the temperature of the room only 10 
minutes, and, consequently, it would have required 10 times 
as much fuel as apparatus No. 9, (or 1000,) to maintain tin 
room at the same temperature for 100 minutes. In the sunn 
manner the other numbers arc found. 

The proportion for the experiments will be clearly explained 
in the following manner: As the time of the experiment is to 
the quantity of fuel consumed, so is the assumed time of com- 
parison, to the fuel that would be required for (hat time. Thus 
for experiment No. 2: A- 18 : 100 : : 100 : 556. 

By an examination of the numbers in the second column oi 
the table, it will he seen that one dollar expended in fuel con 
sumed in apparatus No. !>, is as effective as ten dollars expended 
in the same kind of fuel consumed in No. I, the same quantity 
of heat being imparted to the room in both casi a. Th< com 
parison may be extended in the Bame manner between anj 
two experiments inserted in the table, and the figures in th< 
second column will be found to express the n lative vslvu of fuel 
for each apparatus, in dollars and cents. |,\ adding a decimal 
point at the left hand of the two last figures. 

Experiments No. 6, ?. and 8, were made with the same 
stove tor the purpose of determining the diffi rence in the I 
of heat by different constructions and posHiene ol pip< ol th< 



44 ON THE LOSS OP HEAT 

same length, which in all other respects were similar. From 
these experiments it will he seen, that the same length of pipe in 
elbow joints is much more efficacious in imparting heat to the 
room than straight pipe, and as the length of pipe producing 
a descending current, was nearly equal in experiments No. 6 
and No. 8, the great advantage which has been supposed to 
be derived from the descending current, does not appear to 
exist, although it is undoubtedly more efficacious than the same 
length and position of pipe producing an ascending current, as 
the velocity of the current in the former is diminished by the 
increased resistance which must necessarily be overcome in its 
descent, while the latter gives greater facility for the heated 
air to escape than is given by any other position in which the 
pipe can be placed. Experiment No. 7 shows that pipe placed 
horizontally is more efficacious in imparting heat, than when 
placed in a vertical position either for an ascending or descend- 
ing current. 

The causes which operate to render the same length of 
pipe in elbow joints more efficacious than any other con- 
struction, may be satisfactorily explained. The shape of the 
pipe forces the current of heated air to make abrupt turns, 
in doing which it impinges against the elbows with sufficient 
force to invert its internal arrangement, by which change from 
its former relative situation with the sides of the pipe, a new 
stratum of hot air from the interior of the current, is brought 
more frequently in contact with the sides of the pipe, which 
facilitates the process of imparting heat, particularly by being 
brought in contact with the lower half of the horizontal part 
of the pipe, which is necessarily the coldest from various causes, 
and is of very little service in imparting heat to the room with- 
out the aid of elbow joints. 

From experiment No. 8, an important inference may be 
drawn ; that the advantage gained under ordinary circumstanes, 
by increasing the length of the pipe, has a limit very far short 
of that which is found to be necessary to impart all the heat 
generated to the air of the room, as in this experiment, only 
five parts of the heat were lost in using 13^ feet of pipe, con- 



FROM 1MF1 BRENT AI'IWKATI - | 

sisting of nine elbow joints : whereas, in apparatus No. 'i. eight 
additional elbow joints, with sixteen and a half feet of straighl 
pipe, amounting together to 28^ feet of pipe, were required to 
save these five parts of the heat which would otherwise have 
escaped into the chimney. The reason for this limitation will 
appear evident, by reflecting that a heated body loses less in 
equal periods of time, as its temperature approaches that of th< 
surrounding refrigerating medium, and that the loss of heal 
will be in the proportion which the volume of air in the pipe 
bears to the volume of air in the room; and, afeo, proportional 
to their ditference of temperature. 

It must not, however, be inferred from this experiment, that 
13£ feet of pipe of any diameter, and thickness of iron, m 
into elbow joints, will produce the same effect; as the length 
will require to be increased with the increase in its diameter, 
and this will appear obvious, from the fact, that the surface of 
the pipe does not increase in the ratio of its ana ur contents 
of heated air, and as this surface is the medium by which the 
heat is imparted to the room, and that being effected princi- 
pally by contact with the sides of the pipe greater length will 
be required to produce this necessary contact. 

The great advantage of sheet iron stoves, is obvious, from 
the slight obstruction which they present to the rapid commu- 
nication of the heat generated, to the air of the room. 

From experiment No. 2, the advantage gained by lessening 
the current of air into the chimney is clearly demonstrated; 
this being the principal cause why this apparatus i< more effi- 
cacious id warming the room than No. i ; and this advantage 
does not arise so much from the excess of hea! which enters 
the room by using Wo. 2. as from the diminished quantity of 
cold air necessary to be admitted to supply tile place of the air 
that /tits been heated, and of which, bv using No. I. the room 
is constantly deprived in much larger volume than by N i. I 
The advantage derived from using stove pipe of small diami I 
arises from the same cause, and whether tie velocity of tl 
current of heated air i< diminish) d l>y the construction, position, 
or length of the pipe, or it- volume is diminish* d by n during 
the diameter, the same effect is produced in every c 

VOL. HI. M 



46 ON THE LOSS OF HEAT 

I am not in possession of the results of any experiments, if 
such have ever been made, to determine the ratio of friction 
experienced by air, when compared with water, in their pas- 
sage through pipes, under the same pressure. That air does, 
however, experience a diminution in its velocity from this 
cause, will not, it is supposed, be doubted, and this must affect, 
very materially, the current of air through pipes and chimneys. 
In practical hydraulics, it is well known, that, without alter- 
ing the column of pressure, the quantity of water discharged is 
greatly diminished, by merely lengthening the conduit-pipe. 
" Comparing the experiments on the flow of water through 
conduit-pipes, as recited in Bossuet's Hydrodynamiquc, I find, 
after making the proper reductions, that the velocity o f p ro- 
jection from the bottom of a cistern, is diminished about five 
times in the passage through an horizontal tube of one inch in 
diameter, and fifteen feet long. Consequently, while one part 
of the actuating force is discharged from the orifice, twenty- 
four parts are consumed in gliding against the sides of the pipe. 
Every particle contained must hence have repeated its contact 
no less than twenty-four times, before it made its escape ; that 
is, the whole column of fluid must have inverted its internal 
arrangement at each interval of l\ inches."* 

The principal article of fuel used in the United States, is 
forest wood, which, from necessity, or choice, will continue to 
be so in many sections of the country, notwithstanding the 
abundant supply of anthracite and bituminous coals already 
discovered in some of the States. 

The difficulty of consuming small quantities of anthracite 
coal in open grates, must operate to prevent its general intro- 
duction into use, unless this difficulty can be removed; any 
suggestions, therefore, which may possibly tend to lessen this 
objection to an article of such vast importance to the commu- 
nity, will not be considered irrelevant to my subject. 

It is very well known, that no particular difficulty is ex- 
perienced, under ordinary circumstances, in consuming small 

»Mr. Leslie on Hea' 



FROM DIFFERENT APPATJA1 i ~ |* 

quantities of this coal in sheet iron cylinder stoves lined with 
lire brick; and it is as well known, that an equally small 
quantity of this coal cannot be consumed in an open grate. 
The inference, therefore, which should be drawn from the 
knowledge of these facts, is, that the open grate is an impro- 
perly constructed apparatus to obtain the desired object, iml. - 
pendent of the deleterious gas which it imparts to tin- room. 
The question which then presents itself, is. whal arc the quali- 
ties possessed by the former apparatus in which the latter 1- 
deficient ? 

In the former, the coal is known to be completely sur- 
rounded by a thick substance, which, when heated, retains ii 
with great tenacity. The air admitted is in small quantity, 
and, from the construction of the stove, it is necessarily consi- 
derably elevated in its temperature, before it conns in contact 
with the burning body. We infer from these tuts, tint 
anthracite coal requires a very high temperature to produce 
ignition, and. as we know that combustion cannot take |i! 
without this prerequisite, the necessary means to effect it. are 
consequently, indispensable. We also infer, that the commonlj 
received opinion, that this coal requires a very large quantity 
of air, or "strong draught,'' to cany mi its combustion, is ool 
correct; the converse of tin's opinion being nearer true: ami 
this may in part hi' demonstrated by an examination "i a single 
piece of this coal which has been ignited. If we break the pi 
of coal, the interior will presenl its original black colour ami 
lustre, with the exception of an inconsiderable portion near th< 
surface ; the body of the coal being sufficiently dense to exclude 
the access of air. no combustion of iis interior can take plai 
and, consequently, the quantity of air ni c< s e admitted 

to thi- coals, is nearly proportional to the quantity of coal con- 
tained in their surface*, hut not in proportion to their positive 
quantity, as would lie nearer the case, if this article were as 
pervious to air as charcoal. Am excess of air, therefore, is 

injurious in proportion as the quantity exceeds that which can 

unite with whai is termed tin- combustible or base, inasmuch 
is it tends to reduce its temp rature, and thereby renders it 



J8 UN THE LOSS OF HEAT 

less capable of rapid union with the air, to produce the combus- 
tion ; and as each successive portion of air in excess robs the 
combustible of its heat, we see the fire languish for a short 
period, and then expire 

Although atmospheric air is generally necessary to support 
combustion, an excess of it, it is well known, will, in some 
cases, extinguish a burning body, as expeditiously as water ; and 
from this circumstance it may be inferred that, for ignition, 
the air requires to be heated as well as the combustible body. 
We may also infer, that the intensity of heat produced by the 
union of the two bodies will be proportional to the excess with 
which their united heats exceed their mean heat of ignition. 

Having had occasion, during the past winter, to warm two 
warehouses, of different sizes, and it being necessary that the 
temperature should be permanent during the night season, two 
cylinder sheet iron stoves, of ordinary construction, lined with 
fire brick, were procured, of different sizes, which were sup- 
plied with Lehigh coal. 

The construction of the stoves being favourable to apply on 
a large scale what I had found so advantageous in my experi- 
ment stove, there being considerable space between the grate 
and the bottom of the ash pan, this space was converted into a 
reservoir for heating the air, by closing the apertures usually 
made for its admission in the front of the ash pan. During 
the igniting process, the ash pan was drawn out, but when this 
was effected, it was closed as perfectly as its construction would 
admit, leaving only the small crevices at its junction with the 
body of the stove for the admission of air, and although the 
largest stove usually contained more than half a bushel of coal, 
this supply of air was found ample for producing intense com- 
bustion, and the quantity of coal remaining on the grate un- 
consumed, was found to be much less than when the stove was 
supplied with a larger quantity of air, and a very important 
saving was made in the heat by the diminished quantity and 
velocity with which the current of heated air passed into the 
chimney. Very important improvements may be made in the 
construction of sheet iron stoves, for burning anthracite coal, 



FROM DIFFERENT Vl'I'AltA 1 I - I" 

and it" provision is made for supplying tin- burning body with 
Intensely heated nir. any required quantity of coal may be con- 
sumed, and the present manner of lining them with (hiek brick 
maybe entirely dispensed with, by substituting either thin 
tiles,' or a thin coating of clay lute, sufficient to preserve the 
iron from fusion or oxidation, and as this would present less 
obstruction to the speedy communication of the heal generated 
to the air of the room, consequently less would escape into the 
chimney. 

In examining the construction of the open parlour grate, \\< 
do not find in it one entire quality possessed by the close stove ; 
the only one which hears any approach to similarity. is that 
three sides of the grate are lined with fire brick, hut as the 
fourth is almost wholly exposed, its utility is thereby defeated. 

It is admitted that the combustion is very perfect and rapid, 
when the sheet iron door, or "blower" as it is technical!.! 
termed, is applied to close the front of the grate : and this must 
be a necessary consequence, as its application transforms the 
open grate into a powerful air furnace, by which the que. 
for the admission of air is very much reduced, and the air ifl 
also, probably, reduced in quantity, this not being compensated 
by its increased velocity, and as the blower defends the body 
of coal in front from the cold air. to which it was before expott d, 
the required elevation in temperature is effected and main- 
tained without difficult] . 

It is only by radiation that any heal is imparted to the room 
from coal consumed in open grates, and as the radiated heal is 
known to be very small limn the surface of that portion of 
COal which i> exposed to the front or open part of the urate. 
the amount of heat imparted to the room would not probabrj 
be diminished, but rather increased, by using a thin plate I 
cast iron tor the front of the grate, by which the difficult; "< 
consuming small quantities of coal would be rery much dimi- 
nished : and this would not he less agreeable in ij~ BJ |" ■■•r.me. 
than the equally aombn aspect presented bj the u«ignited coal 
in the front of the generality of small grates, and particularly 
as the top of the coal would' be exposed to m w,and pre* nt 
more luminous appearance 

VOL. III. N 



AU ON THE L.OSS OF HEAT 

Although iron is a good conductor of heat, the plate suggested 
would become sufficiently heated to maintain the necessary 
temperature of the coal to carry on the combustion of the sur- 
face exposed to it, with the exception of the points actually in 
contact with it, which would be unimportant ; and this being 
the case, its conducting power would, in other respects, be 
obviously advantageous, and no danger of melting the iron, in 
this situation, need be apprehended. If, however, danger from 
melting or oxidation of the iron is feared, as a flat plate of iron 
could not be permanently covered with any composition of clay, 
it should be made circular, and defended at the top and bottom 
by a flange projecting on the inside, the required thickness of 
the clay. In addition to the plate suggested to cover the front 
of the grate, a still further improvement might be made by 
enclosing the ash pit also, both of w r hich might be done with 
one plate of iron, and the grate for sustaining the coal might 
rest upon cleats projecting from the interior, taking care to 
give sufficient room for the expansion of the grate, to pre- 
vent its being pressed outwards. A door for the removal of 
ashes and the admission of air would be required, by which the 
necessary quantity of air could be admitted without an ex- 
cess. This construction would also be favourable for heating 
the air which is to supply the combustible body, the advantage 
of which must be obvious, when we reflect on the necessity of 
cooling the burning body as little as possible. By the greater 
expansion of the air, the quantity which comes in contact with 
the burning body would be less in excess, at any one time, and 
better adapted to attain the object ; the contact being more 
frequent, from its increased velocity, the quantity actually united 
in any given time, would probably be greater, and more heat 
would consequently be produced. This construction, besides 
the advantages already stated, would be more cleanly than the 
open grate, would not require the blower, and could also be 
made us-> of for culinary purposes, which is a very desirable 
object to be attained. 

The construction of many grates is very objectionable, in an 
important particular not yet noticed, which is. making the 



FROM DIFFERENT APPARATUS. ,1 

receptacle for the coal of greater Length lhan it has breadth 
or depth, by which the body of coal is not as much heated, 
and requires to be replenished more frequently to maintain 
the relative position of the coal, necessary to continue the 
combustion. A much better shape, and which would requun 
less coal at any one time, would be in the proportkaa of twelve 
inches deep, to eight inches square at the top. and gradually 
diminished to six inches at the bottom, by which the heat 
generated in the combustion of the coal at the lower part of 
the grate, in its passage to escape into the chimney, would 
come in contact with nearly the whole body of coal, and keep 
it heated, which cannot be the case in the former shape, sup- 
posing the contents of the two grates, and the coal in each to be 
equal; and if we suppose them to be only half filial with coal, 
the position of that in the deep grate, will be eery favourable 
for combustion, although less in quantity; while that in the 
shallow grate, from the unfavourable situation in which it i< 
placed, would scarcely burn at all. The advantage of placing 
the body of coal in a deep grate, asdescrihed. may he illustrated 
by the well known fact, that a stick of wood burns much man 
rapidly in a vertical, than in a horizontal portion, and for the 
reason already described. 

Being Well aware of the strong predilection in favour ol 
those constructions which will permit tin- burning body to be 
seen, which, with other reasons, prevents the not of close stoves 
in many instances, and particularly where elegance is required, 
the necessity is apparent, thai sonic new eonstruetion should 
be devised, which can he substituted for the open urate, that 
will obviate the difficulty, not only of cousuming anthracite 
coal in small quantities, lor rooms of small dimensions. but. 
what is a still greater objection made to its use generally, that 

the quantity cannot lie varied to meet the changes in tie tl in 
perature of the atmosphere. 

In the plan which 1 will venture to suggest, a partial com 
promise must lie made in tie- first particular Stated, but all th< . 
others may be realized. 

In those instances where simplicity of construction i v nquir 



12 ON THE LOSS OF HEAT 

ed, take a cylinder, or rather, an inverted conical frustum, of 
cast iron, of any required thickness and diameter, and of suffi- 
cient height to form the receptacle for the coal and ashes ; in- 
sert a grate at a sufficient height from the bottom to leave the 
required room for the ash pit, which should be provided with 
a door to remove the ashes and unconsumed coal, as usual in 
close stoves, and, also, to regulate the admission of air, which 
may be heated as in those stoves. This cylinder may be 
bricked in the ordinary manner on the outside ; and this can 
be done with greater facility than for the grate, and the cylin- 
der will remain more permanently fixed, as it will rest on the 
hearth. From the satisfactory experiments which have been 
made in double cylinder stoves, in which the interior cylinder 
is made of cast iron, without any coating of clay, it is not 
probable that this construction would require it. In those 
instances in which beauty of construction must be consulted, 
the ornamental parts or appendages to the open grates may 
be added ; the only change suggested, being the substitution 
of a cylinder, or other shape more desirable, of cast iron, in 
place of the open grate. 

The particular requisites necessary to be attended to in the 
construction of any apparatus intended for the combustion of 
anthracite coal, in small quantities, having been sufficiently, 
and, perhaps, tediously expatiated upon, those whose business 
it is to construct, will apply any suggestions which may be 
considered as valuable. 

Before closing my paper, I cannot forbear making a few 
desultory remarks ; and, first, on the commonly received opi- 
nion, that the " draught" of a chimney, or, more properly, the 
current of air through it, has greater velocity under one degree, 
of barometric pressure than another, and that this is the cause 
why a combustible body burns better at one time than another. 

That the velocity of the current cannot be greater under 

one degree of atmospheric pressure than another, caeteris pori- 

, bus, may be satisfactorily shown, by supposing a room, with 

'one window open, in which is a fire-place and chimney, and. 

that the temperature of the air in the room, and that within the 



FROM DIFFERENT APPARATUS. 

chimney, is the same as the temperature of the atmosphere 
No current of air would he found to pass either up or down 
the chimney, hecau.se the pressure of the column of air in the 
room would be counterbalanced by the equal pressure of ih< 
column of air within the chimney, and. consequently, both 
must remain stationary. If the temperature of the air within 
the chimney he elevated by any means, it expands, and becomes 
specifically lighter, and an ascending current will he produced; 
and if the same elevation of temperature remain, and we sup- 
pose any change, however great, in the pressure of the atmo- 
sphere, as that change must, of necessity, operate on both 
columns of air, consequently, the velocity of the current musl 
remain the same. The current of air through a chimney, be- 
ing wholly an artificial production, its velocity will always 1" 
proportional to its temperature above that of the exterior air. 
whereby the column of air in the chimney being rendered 
lighter than the exterior column, yields to its superior pressure, 
and thus the current is established. 

If the air in the room is warmer than that in the chimney, 
a descending current will be produced ; which shows the pro- 
priety of closing, during the winter season, those lire-places not 
used, to prevent the descent of cold air and smoke from tin 
adjoining flues; and the advantage of leaving them open during 
the hot season, when the exterior.air is known to be at a Iowa 
temperature than the r is with which they are connected 

The existence of counter currents in a chimney, when in use, 
and properly supplied with air. spoken of by some writers llM 
this subject, appears to he an illusion, produced by eddies in 
the air. at the sides of the chimney, as it i at n from the room, 
as it would be difficult to assign any satisfactory cause for such 
an effect under the circumstances described. 

In ti^ht rooms, where fire-places are hit open, and are not 
in use, counter currents will exist, so long as difference in tem- 
perature exists between the air of the room and tin extern. d 
atmosphere. 

In those instances where the room is too tight t<> admit ail 
in sufficient <piantity to supply the current m ci ssarv '■■ ' ik< 

VOL. III. O 



64 ON THE LOSS OF HEAT 

off' the smoke, a descending current is produced, and the smoke 
is driven into the room as a necessary consequence. The pas- 
sage of the external air through the small crevices of the room, 
is not only diminished by the increased friction which it sustains 
in passing through a large number of crevices, instead of only 
one of equal capacity, but the pressure is absolutely prevented 
from exerting its full influence in raising the column of air 
within the chimney, by which the smoke is made to ascend. 
If we open a window, the air within the chimney, which be- 
fore was the heavier column, will become the lighter, and con- 
sequently the current will be inverted, and the evil thereby 
instantly corrected. 

It is not my intention to notice the various causes which 
operate to produce what are termed "bad draughts" to chim- 
neys; there is one cause however of considerable importance, 
which will be noticed. Chimneys which are new, are found very 
frequently, if not invariably, to smoke, when an attempt is made 
to use them before they become perfectly dry. This being attri- 
buted to their bad construction in many cases, alterations are 
consequently made, without knowing the true cause, which will 
generally be found to be entirely owing to their not being dry. 
The materials of which they are composed being damp, they 
are consequently good conductors of heat, and unless very 
large fires are made, it is difficult to elevate the temperature 
of the air, throughout the chimney, sufficiently, to produce an 
ascending current ; but when the chimney beeomes dry, and 
covered with carbonaceous matter, it presents a bad conducting 
surface, and, if then found to smoke, this may be attributed to 
its bad construction, for whieh, however, no necessity exists 
in any case, save that the highly important class of artisans, 
who wield the trowel, have, too generally, discarded science 
from their craft. 

A sufficient quantity of air must be admitted into every 
room to supply the demands of respiration and combustion, but 
any excess is injurious. The usual manner of admitting air 
for these purposes, through the joints or crevices of the doors, 
windows, and other parts of the room, appears very objectionable. 



VROM DIFFERENT APFAHATI B. 

as the cold air, thus admitted, is very annoying in its passage to 
the fire-place, and particularly to those seated mar (lie doors or 
window-;. Now, these inconveniences may be entirelj avoided, 
and all parts of the room rendered equally i ifortable, bj fur- 
bishing the room, as is now done in some instances, with a 
supply pipe mar the lire-place, for the admission of air. In 
this pipe there should lira valve, to regulate the quantity of air 
necessary to be admitted, by which the pressure of the externa] 
air. at the joints, or nv\ ices, may not only be wholly taken off, 
but an outward current produced, through the crevices at the 
higher parts of the room. 

The objection which has been made to this manner of ad- 
mitting the air, that it does not change the air in the room 
sufficiently for respiration, appears to be gratuitous, and has 
been disproved by experience, in rooms of ordinary size, when 
not unusually crowded. 

An additional improvement, to obviate the inconvenience 
experienced by over-heated or crowded rooms, would be to 
furnish a ventilator in the chimney, near the ceiling; but tin 
most rational plan, in these eases, would be to remove the cans, 
by diminishing the lire. 

Having shown very (dearly, during the preceding remarks, 
that the reason why a combustible burns better at one timi 
than another, cannot be owing to an\ change in the veloeitj 
of the current within a chimney, in consequence "I chan| 
in the pressure of the atmosphere, it becomes obligatory on mi 
;«s an objector to this opinion, to assign a more satisfactory 
cause. 

The fact that combustible bodies generally hum better, 
when the barometer is at m. than when it is at J s inch 
other things being equal, is admitted. The principal causi ot 
this, appears to be, that the air is generally drier, and bettei 
adapted to produce rapid combustion, having less aqueous 
vapour mechanically mixed with it. Now moist air n tarda 
combustion, and cools the burning body, more than dry air. 
because it posa m sa greater capacity for hi at, and. consequently 
requires more from the burning bodj to raise its U mp ratun 



5b ON THE LOSS OP HEAT 

the point of ignition. In chimney fire-places, it is geueralh 
observed, that wood fires burn most rapidly in cold weather : 
and, even while the air of the room is quite cold, they are 
known to burn very well. This fact will probably be urged, 
to disprove the necessity of heating the air, to produce more 
complete combustion in anthracite coal. It should be recol- 
lected, however, that wood ignites at a much lower tempera- 
ture, and, that in very cold weather, a much larger quantity is 
required to be in combustion at one time, than in moderate 
weather ; and, consequently, that the air within a few feet of 
the fire, and before it comes in contact with it, is more heated 
than it is at the same distance in moderate weather, when less 
fire is required. 

The intense heat produced by an air furnace, does not appear 
to be in consequence of an increase in the volume of air, as 
those furnaces which are said to have the strongest "draught," 
will be found to have the most contracted throats. But, by 
thus contracting the throat, the friction of the air is increased, 
and its velocity being also increased, the sound which is said 
to denote a strong "draught," follows, as a necessary conse- 
quence. The air being very much expanded from its increase 
in temperature, and its rapid escape in large volume, being 
prevented by the contraction of the throat, the contact with 
the combustible is not only prolonged, but the real quantity in 
contact, at any one time, may be supposed to be considerably 
diminished; yet, this being more frequent and rapid, the union 
is more perfect, and, consequently, more intense heat is pro- 
duced. 

The superior light of an Argand lamp, is, probably, in con- 
sequence of surrounding the burner with a glass chimney, by 
which the current of air is considerably elevated in its tempera- 
ture, and the volume admitted is diminished, and not increased, 
as is generally supposed. Whether its increased velocity 
through the chimney is advantageous in the process of com- 
bustion, when abstractly considered, may be questionable; 
but, it is evidently advantageous in dissipating the products of 
combustion, or rather, imperfect combustion, which would 



I ROM DIFFERENT APPARATUS. o? 

otherwise remain longer in contact with the flame. If tin 
chimney be removed from (he burner, the flame will be increas- 
ed to double its former length, yei the light is pale, and the 
quantity emitted is much less. When the burner is surrounded 
by the glass chimney, if the wick remain at the same height, the 
strength of light required can be better regulated by the quail' 
tity of air admitted, than in any other manner; and for tin* 
purpose, these lamps should be Furnished with delicate valv< s, 
and the most intense light will not be found, when the largest 
quantity of air is admitted. 

The advantage of elevating the temperature of the air. i- 
demonstrated by the increased intensity of Light, which is pro- 
duced by the button sometimes used in these lamps. 



VOL. in. 



tiU 



GENERAL TABLE. 



Common Names of Woods and Coals, 



WHITE ASH, 

APPLE TREE, 

WHITE BEECH, 

BLACK BIRCH, 

WHITE BIRCH, 

BUTTER-NUT, 

KED CEDAR, 

AMERICAN CHESNUT, 

WILD CHEKRY, 

DOG WOOD 

WHITE ELM, 

SOUR GUM, 

SWEET GUM, 



SHELL-BARK HICKORY, . 

PIGNUT HICKORY, 

RED-HEART HICKORY, . 

WITCH-HAZEL, 

AMERICAN HOLLY, 

AMERICAN IIORNBEAN, . . . 
MOUNTAIN LAUREL, 



Botanical Names. 



Specific 
Gravities 

nt 'drv 
Wood 



Product 
Avoirdti- of 

pois Charcoal Specific 
pounds from 100 Gravities 
parts of of dry 



ot dry 
Wood in 
one cord. 



dry 

Wood by 
weight. 



HARD MAPLE 

SOFT MAPLE, 

LARGE MAGNOLIA, 

CHESNUT WHITE OAK, . . 

WHITE OAK, 

SHELL-BARK WiflTE OAK, 
i BARREN SCRUB OAK. . . . 
; PIN OAK, 

SCRUB BLACK OAK 

BED OAK, 

BARREN OAK 

ROCK CHESNUT OAK, . . . 
'YELLOW OAK, 

SPANISH oak 

PEItSIMON 



Fraxinw americana, . . . 


.772 


3450 




.697 
.724 


3115 




3236 




.697 
.530 


3115 




2369 




.567 


2J34 


Juniperus Tirginiana, . . 


.565 


2525 




.522 


2333 


Cerasus virginiana, .... 


.597 


2668 




.815 


3643 




.580 


2592 




.703 


3142 


Liquiilambar sturacijiua, 


.634 


2834 




1.000 


4469 




.949 


4241 




.829 


3705 


Hamamelis virginica, . . . 


.784 


3505 




.602 

.720 


2691 


Carpi?ius americana, . . . 


3218 




.663 


2963 




.644 


2878 




.597 


2668 


JWagriolia gramlijlora, . . 


.605 


2704 


Querent jmnur, pahtstrit, 


.885 


3955 




.855 


3821 




.775 


3461 




.747 


3339 




.747 


3339 




.728 


3254 




.728 
.694 


3254 


Qucrcus femiginea, . . . . 


3102 


Quercus firijius monticoUu 


.678 


3030 


Quercus primis acuminata 


.653 


2919 




.548 


2449 


Diospyros virginiana, . ■ 


.711 


3178 



25.74 

25 

19.62 

19.40 

19 

20.79 

24.72 

25.29 

21.70 

21 

24.85 

22.16 

19.69 

26.22 

25.22 

22.90 

21.40 

22.77 

19 

24.02 

21.43 

20.64 

21.59 

22.76 

21.62 

21.50 

23.17 

22.22 

23.80 

22.43 

22.37 

20.86 

21.60 

22.95 

23.44 



Coal. 



Pounds 

or 

dry Coal 

in one 

btishel. 



.547 

.445 

.518 

.428 

.364 

.237 

.238 

.379 

.411 

.550 

.357 

.400 

.413 

.625 

.637 

.509 

.368 

.374 

.455 

.457 

.431 

.370 

.406 

.481 

.401 

.437 

.392 

.436 

.387 

.400 

.447 

.436 

.295 

.362 

.469 



Pounds i 

of 1 
Charcoal 
from one 
cord of 

dry 
Wood. 



Bushel 

of 

Chnrcoal 

from one 

cord of 

drv 
Wood. 



28.78 

23.41 

27.26 

22.52 

19.15 

12.47 

12.52 

19.94 

21.63 

28.94 

18.79 

21.05 

21.73 

32.89 

33.52 

26.78 

19.36 

19.68 

23.94 

24.05 

22.68 

19.47 

21.36 

25.31 

21.10 

22.99 

20.63 

22.94 

20.36 

21.05 

23.52 

22.94 

15.52 

19.05 

24.68 



883 
779 
635 
604 
450 
527 
624 
590 
579 
765 
644 
696 
558 
1172 
1070 
848 
750 
613 
611 
712 
617 
551 
5S4 
900 
826 
745 
774 
742 
774 
630 
694 
632 
631 
562 
745 



31 

33 

23 

27 

24 

42 

50 

30 

27 

26 

34 

33 

26 

36 

32 

32 

39 

31 

25 

30 

27 

28 

27 

36 

39 

3: 

3S 

32 

38 

30 

29 

28 

41 

30 

30 



Time 10° of 
Heat were 
maintained 
in the room, 
by the com 
bustion of 
one pound of 
each article 



H. M. 

6 40 

6 40 
6 
6 
6 
6 

6 40 
6 40 
6 10 
6 10 
6 40 
6 20 
6 

6 40 
6 40 
6 30 
6 10 
6 20 
6 

6 40 
6 10 
6 

6 10 
6 30 
6 20 
6 20 
6 30 
6 20 
6 30 
6 20 
G 30 
6 

6 10 
6 20 
6 30 



Value of I 
specified I 
quamiti' s ol 
each article,' 
compared 
with Shell- 
bark Hicko- 
ry as the 
standard. 



GENERAL TABLE C0NTIN1 ED. 



Common Name, of Wood, ami Coals. 



FELLOW PINE, (SOFT,) .. . 

JERSEY PINE, 

PITCH IMXK, 

WHITE PINE 

YELLOW POPLAR 

LOMBARD? POPLAK, 

SASSAFRAS 

WILD SERVICE, 

SYCAMORE, 

BLACK WALNUT, 

SWAMP WHORTLE-BERRY, 



LEHIGH COAL, 

LACK \ WAXEN COAL, . 
RHODE-ISLAND COM., . 
SCHCYLK1LL COAL, . . . 
SUSQUEH VNNA COAL, 

-U MARA COAL, 

WORCESTER COAI 



Botanical ■Time*. 



Pi mis mills, 

Pimis inops, 

Pimis rigitla, 

Pinus strobus, 

Lyriodeiuiron tnlipifcra, 

Popuhis dllatata 

Imuius lustafrus 

Jironia ariorea, 

.tccr pscuilo-plataniu, . 

JugUitis nigra 

Vaccinium corymboBwity 



Avoirdu-| 
Spa ific [Hut 
fVi i\ Mr , poundi 
of ill , 
Wood. Wood in 



Product 

Ml 

Charcoal' Spi elbc Poandi 

fVuin lOOJGftvkM 



|mrt, hi 
iri i^-ln' 



CANNBL COAI 

LIVERPOOL COAL, 

NEWCASTLE COAL, 

SCOTCH COAL, 

KAKTIIALS COAI 

RICHMOND i >>\l 

STONY CHEEK ( OAL, .... 

Ilir KORY CHABCO U . 

MAPLE <:u IRCOAL 

OAK CHARCOAL 

PINE CHARCOA1 

COAK, 

COMPOSITION OF TWO 
PARI - LEHIGH COAJ . 
ONE CHARCOAL, \M> 

ONECL U , Bl u l. m.II i . , 



551 
478 
426 
418 
563 
397 
618 
887 
535 
681 
752 



2463 
2137 
1 'l 
1868 
2516 
1774 
2762 
3964 
2391 
304-1 
3361 



23.75 
34.88 

36.76 

21.81 

25 

22.58 

22.62 

23.60 

22.56 

23.30 



ill ilr\ 
Coal. 



P U 

01 

If;. Cflal 1 1 "in on- 

lb] 



. II. .1 »,t. .|- 

Charr. 



in one 

iiiiiln i 



.385 
.298 
.293 
.383 

346 

.427 
.594 

.418 

.505 



20.36 

15.49 

20.15 

: ,7 
31.26 
19.68 
33 

26.57 



copl ol I h»i»- 
Wood, each articlr. 



1 78.61 



1 .400 

! 

1.37.5 



73.67 
75.67 
76 46 
72.25 



1 15'.) 76.77 



I'M 



1.140 

.6:5 
.431 
.401 
.285 
.557 



110.71 

65.25 
70.04 
63.35 

66.46 
65.56 
73.46 

15 



585 
532 
510 
455 

549 

ill 
. 
897 
564 
687 
7 ■ 



JO 

26 
33 
30 

28 
29 
29 
31 



II. M. 

6 40 
6 40 
6 40 
6 10 
6 40 
6 20 
6 20 
6 30 

6 20 

l ■ kfl 
9 30 
l i 

7 50 

9 10 

. 

9 30 
9 50 

I I 
: I 
i • 
is 
13 50 

13 30 



ttaitiUnl. 

54 

.- 

4U 
59 

84 

65 

99 
99 

85 

l"0 llu.l.H. 

330 
315 
198 

lit 



TABLE, 

Exhibiting the results of experiments made lo determine the comparative !<>s* of heat 
tained by using apparatus of different constructions, for the combustion of fuel 






sua 



No. 



Description of Apparatus used. 



Time the room to 
maintained at the 
same temperature 

in the combustion, 
of equal wet. 
fuelcomparcd w ith 
apparatus No 9. 



Weight of fuel re- 
ij'iin ilby each ap- 
paratus to main- 
tain the room the 
same time and 
temperature cum 
pared with 



CHIMNEY FIRE-PLACE, of ordinary construction for burning 
Wood, 

OPEN PARLOl'R GRATE, of ordinary construction for burning 
anthracite Coal, 

OPEN FRAN REIN STOVE, with one elbow joint and 5 feet 
of six inch pipe placed vertically, the fire-place being closed 
with a fire-board, 

CAST IRON TEN PLATE STOVE, with one elbow joint and 
five feet of four inch pipe placed horizontally, entering the 
fire-board 

SHEET IRON CYLINDER STOVE, the interior surface 
coated with clay lute, with one elbow j"itit ami .> feet 
of two inch pipe placed horizontally, entering the tir>- 
board, .......... 

SHEET IRON CYLINDER STOVE, as before describe.!, with 
three elbow-joints, 4J feet, and 9 feet of two inch |>i|>' . 
the whole placed as follows: 3j feet horizontally, • fed 
vertically, tor an ascending current, and 5 feet vertically fbl 
a descending current, entering the fire-board, 

SHEET IKON CYLINDER STOVE, as beft lescribed, with ] 

three elbow joints, 4{ feet, and 9 li't ..I two inch pipe, placed 
as follows: nine inches wrtn ally and \Zi feet horizontally 
entering the fire-board i 



SHEET IRON CYLINDER STO\ K. a- In fore <!,•,, .,!,.■, I. with 
nine elbow joints, measuring 134 ^ eet "' <»" inch pipe, enter, 
ing the fire-bo. u d, 

SHEET IRON I fLINDEB 9TOVB, aa before described, with 

4C feet ol two inch pipe, as used in the course of experiment! 
on fuel, .....••••• 



10 
18 

'•: 

43 
67 






Bfl 









1000 

053 






i:: 






100 



No. II. 

A Grammar of the Language of the Lenni Lenape or Drla. 
ware Indians. Translated from the German Manuscript 
of the late Rev. David Zeisberger, for the . American Phi- 
losophical Society, by Peter Stephen Duponcmu. 
Presented to the Society, 2d December 1816. 



fftje ^Translator's iprrfarr. 

THE astonishing progress which the comparative science 
of languages has made within the last thirty years is not 
among the least important of the many wonders which 
the present a»;e has produced. The first strong impulse 
was given towards the close ol the last century by the pub- 
lication of the Comparative Vocabulary*, compiled by pro- 
fessor Pallas, under the direction ol the empress Catharine 
of Russia ; a work indeed better conceived than executed, 
but which nevertheless has been and still is of ureal use to 
the learned, in the prosecution ol* philological studies. This 
work, which was left incomplete, being confined to the lan- 
guages ol Europe and Asiaf, was followed in this country 

* Liognarom lottos ■ >rl n~ vocabolaria comparativa, augustissims cura 
collecta. Petrop. 1786—1 787, Ito. 

+ The empress, wishing ber work t" I"- completed, committed it to 
M. Theodore Jankiewitsch <lr tliriewo, with ■■< view, it i- presumed, 
that he -li'iulil Dierelj add t" the European and Asiatii words winch Pal 

VOL. III. It 



66 GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

by Dr B. S. Barton's " New Views of the Origin of the Tribes 
and Nations of America." The object of the learned au- 
thor at first was to supply the deficiency of the great phi- 
lological monument which the empress Catharine had begun 
as far as related to the languages of America. Happy would 
it have been if he had not suffered his imagination to draw 
him away from that simple but highly useful design ! But 
he conceived that by comparing the American with the 
Asiatic languages he could prove the origin of our Indians 
from the nations which inhabit the opposite coast of Asia ; 
and thus he sacrificed the real advantage of science to the 
pursuit of a favourite theory. He has nevertheless brought 
together, in a comparative view, fifty-two select words in 
about thirty or forty of our aboriginal idioms; by which he 
has shewn, that he might, if he pleased, have completed 
professor Pallas's Vocabulary, as far as it could have been 
done at that period, when we had not the means that have 
been obtained since. His was the first attempt to collect 
and compare to some extent* specimens of our Indian lan- 
las had given the corresponding terms in the African and American lan- 
guages. But M. Jankiewitsch took upon himself to alter the whole plan 
of Pallas's work, and, instead of pursuing the original system, which was 
to give the same Russian word in the different languages in due succes- 
sion, he made an alphabetical catalogue of exotic words, which he ex- 
plained into Russian, and in which he mixed all nations and languages 
together, with a view to shew how the same sounds received different 
meanings in different idioms. The empress was displeased, and the 
edition was suppressed. A few copies, however, have gone abroad, one of 
which is in the library of the American Philosophical Society. 

M. Jankiewitch did wrong in not following the plan of his predecessor, 
whose work he thus left incomplete, when its completion was the very 
object which was entrusted to his care. He should first have executed his 
task: he might afterwards have published a vocabulary on his own sys- 
tem, which would have been a useful counterpart to the other. Indeed 
these two parts seem essential to a good comparative vocabulary, pre- 
cisely as in a dictionary of two languages there must be a part beginning 
with each and explaining the words of each into the other. 

* Relandus, in tlie third volume of his dissertations, published voca- 
bularies of nine American languages, extracted from different authors. 
They are the Brazilian, Chilese, Peruvian, Poconchi, Caribbee, Mexican. 
Massachusetts which he calls Virginian, Algonkin, and Huron. 



OF THE LENNI LENAPE INDIANS. I.; 

gua^es, and as such it is useful to philologists and entitled 
to respect. 

The next performance that appeared on a comprehensive 
scale on the subject of languages was the Mithbidatbs, 
the glory of our science. I have spoken of it at large in 
my Report to the Historical Committee, made in the year 
1819. on tin progress then made in the investigation com- 
mitted to me respecting the character and gra nmatical forms 
of the languages of the American [ndi ns*. Excellent as 
the Mifhridates was at the time when it was published, Buch 
is the progress which the philological science has made 
since that period, that it would require to be almost end rel) 
written anew. Hut Vateb is no more, and who will ven- 
ture to assume his vacant plac< f ? 

About the same ti ue appeared at Madrid, in sj v octavo 
volumes. "A catalogue of all the known languages, classed 
according to the diversity of their idioms and dialects." by 
the Ahl>e Don Lorenzo HervasJ. It had been before pub- 
lished in Italian at Cesena, in the Roman states, as pari of 
a great encyclopedical performance, by the same author, 
entitled "An idea of the universe." in ;> i volumes quarto. 
The live last volumes (except the I7'h which treats of the 
arithmetic of nations) relate exclusively to languages. The 
17th volume contains the catalogue above mentioned. The 
18th is a treatise on the origin, formation, mechanism, and 
harmony of languages. The tilth i- entitled •• \ polyglot 
vocabulary ol more than one hundred and fifty languages." 
And lastly, the ^tst volume is a practical essa) on lan- 
guages, with prolegomeua, and the lord's prayer in more 
than three hundred languages and dial* dsi. It 1- probable 
that the Spanish translation, though it would seem that it 
only bears the title of the 17th volume in the Italian, con. 

* Historical Transact s, Vol. 1. p. nix. 

f Professor Vater died it Halle on the 16th of March 1 
J Discourssur I'Etude Philosophiqoe des Langues, par M. de Volnej 
o. 31. 

Eichhorn, Geschichti der neuen Sprachkunde, Vol l p 



()8 GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

tains all the philological treatises of the author, or at least a 
great part of them. As, however, neither the original nor 
the translation have, to my knowledge, made their way into 
this country, I can not say any thing more upon the subject, 
nor can I form a judgment of the merits of the work itself: 
all I can say is, that it does not appear to have been written 
on the same plan with the Mithridates*, whose authors, how- 
ever, have occasionally availed themselves of its contents, 
but always with due acknowledgment. 

Since that period nothing has appeared, as far as I know, 
in Europe or elsewhere, embracing the whole science of 
languages; and indeed the works which I have cited cannot 
be said to he entitled to be so considered; for the Compa- 
rative Vocabulary is purely etymological, and the Mithri- 
dates, although it takes in a much wider scope and gives 
a view of the structure and grammatical forms of the 
different languages, is in an important point entirely defi- 
cient, being confined exclusively to oral language, while the 
various modes by which nati-ms express their thoughts in 
writing are a no less interesting part of the philological 
science. I have heard of an Ethnographical Adas by M. 
Balbi, which has lately appeared at Paris, containing a de- 
scription of the world geographically divided by languages 

* The title of this work in Italian is Idea delV Universo, Cesena, 1778 
— 1787,21 vols, quarto. 

The 17th volume is entitled Catalogo delle lingue conosciute, e notizia 
delle loro affinita e diversila, 1784. The 18th, Origine, formazione, 
mecanismo, ed ammonia degli idiomi, 1785. The 1 9th, .iritmetiea delle 
nazioni e divisione del tempo fra gVorientali, 1786. The 20th, l-'ocabu- 
lario poliglotto con prolegomeni sopra piii di 150 lingue. And the : 1st, 
Saggio prattico delle lingue con prolegomeni, e una raccolta di orazioni 
domenicali in piii de trecento lingue e diuletti, 1787. The exotic words 
arc all written in Roman characters. 

As some of the public libraries of this country may wish to become 
possessed of this work or some of its parts, these titles are given in order 
to facilitate the means of obtaining them. I have not the Spanish title 
of the Madrid translation. The 1st volume was published in 1800, and 
the 6th and last in 1806. Volney, Discours sur I'ttude philosophique des 
langues, Paris, 1821. 



OF THE LENNI LENAPE INDIANS. (ill 

and dialects. The late M. Malte limn, in a review to which 
he affixed his name*, spoke favourably of this performance. 
If well executed, it will afford considerable aid to the 
learned. 

It is very doubtful whether philology has yet reached that 
degree of advancement that will allow of its various parts 
being methodized and reduced to a general system. There 
are yet, perhaps, too many unsettled opinions to be fixed, 
too many prejudices to be dispelled, before we can lake a 
clear, distinct, and comprehensive view of the various modes 
by which mankind communicate their perceptions and ideas 
to each other, through the medium of the senses, and trace 
with a steady eye their origin and progress. New and 
important facts are daily exhibited to us by the unwearied 
labours of learned men, which overthrow long established 
theories and turn in a great measure the current of our ideas. 
By means of the light afforded in the works of Morrison, 
Marshman, Abel Remusat, and l)e Guignes,we have acquired 
a clear conception of the nature and character of the writ- 
ing of the Chinese, about which so many fatties have been 
disseminated by missionaries and others, who echoed the 
boastings of the literati of that countryf. We no longer 
believe it to be an original written language, unconnected 

* Journal des l> bate, 1st December I^2i;. 

f Les caracterea chinoia sonl signes immediate des idees qu'ils cx- 
priment. On ilirait <|iie cette ecriture aurait ct<- invent) e par dea muets 
qui ignorent I'usagedes paroles. Nous pouvons comparer lescaract* " 
qui la enmpuseni a\ee nos clulVres uiimeraux, avec lea signea algebriques 
qui expriment lea rapports dans nos livres de mathematiques, & i <Aue 
I'oji presente nne demonstration de geometrie exprimee en caract< res 
aJgebriqaes aux yeux de dix mathematiciens de pays differents; ils en- 
tendront la m me chosi i n< anmoina ces dix hommea Bonl supposes parler 
dea languea dlfferentes, et ils ne comprendronl rien aux termes par les- 
quels ils exprimeront ces idees en parlant. C'est la meme chose a la 

Chine; I'ecrituie est non seulement comn ■ I toua lea peuplea de ce 

grand pa\s, qui parlent des dialeetes ms differents, mais encore aux 
japonais, aux tonqutnois, « t aux cochinchinois, donl lea languea Bont to- 
talemenl distingueea du chinoia. — Rtflexiona bw lea principei gin rmta 
rfe Fart tTfcrire, & c. p:ir M. Fr< ret, in ili< Memoirs of the \cademy ol 
Inscriptions and Belles Li ttres. Vol. VI. p. I 

VOL. III. S 



70 GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

with and independent of speech, conveying ideas imme- 
diately to the mind, and which may he read in all the diffe- 
rent idioms of the earth. Philology has taught us the 
impossibility of the existence of such a cosmopolite writing. 
The important discoveries of M. Champollion the younger* 
have also drawn aside the mystic veil which concealed the 
real character of the writing of the ancient Egyptians; he has 
shewn it beyond all controversy to be chiefly alphabetical, 
with some auxiliary abbreviations of the hieroglyphic kind, 
such as we use in our almanacs to represent the sun, the 
moon, and other planets, and the signs of the zodiac, and in 
our books of mathematics to express certain words which 
often recur in the science. From all these lights it seems 
to result, that a purely ideographical system of writing is a 
creature of the imagination, and cannot exist anywhere but 
for very limited purposes. The paintings of the Mexicans, as 
they are called, remain to be investigated, in order to fix our 
ideas on this interesting subject. This task ought properly 
to belong to the learned societies and individuals of this con- 
tinent, who, it is to be hoped, will emulate those of the old 
world in prosecuting researches so interesting to the philolo- 
gical sciencef. In this pursuit the method which M. Cham- 
pollion has followed of making the oral language subservient 
to the study of the written characters cannot be too strongly 
recommended ; for it is by audible sounds that the ideas of 

* Precis du systeme hieroglyphique des anciens egyptiens, par M. 
Champollion le jeune, Paris, 1B24. 1 Vol. 8vo, 410 pp. with a volume of 
plates. 

f It is now very difficult to procure original specimens of the Mexican 
paintings; the government of that country having lately established a 
museum in their capital where all that can be collected are to be pre- 
served, and taken measures to prevent any being exported to foreign 
countries. Our learned associate, Mr Poinsett, minister to that republic 
not only of our government but of science, gives us reason to hope that 
correct fac similes can be obtained, by means of which this study may 
be pursued to a certain extent ; but certainly not with the same ad- 
vantage as in the city of Mexico, where the ancient language is still in 
use, and where a large collection of written monuments will be at aH times 
accessible. 



OF THE LENNI LENAPE INDIANS. 71 

mankind are embodied, and acquire an outward form to the 
ear and an inward form to the mind ; while writing is but a 
secondary mode of communication, much more limited in 
its objects and use, and which is in necessary connection 
with the oral signs of ideas. It seems idle at this day to 
talk of a written language, entirely independent of speech, 
and unconnected with it. There is little reason to doubt but 
that such a connection will he discovered in the Mexican 
writing, as it has been in the Egyptian and Chinese. 

Auxiliary to these vast labours, Europe has produced, 
since the beginning of the present century, a great number 
of grammars ami dictionaries of languages, which till then 
were little known, and some of them not at all*. Several 
of those which had been composed by the catholic mission- 
aries, and either never published or printed solely for the 
use of the missions, have been drawn forth from their re- 
cesses, and published with learned notes and ad htions. 
Anions; them we remark the Chinese d ctionary of Father 
Basil de (ilemona never before printed, which was published 
at Paris by M. de Guignes, in the year is 13, by order of 
the emperor Napoleon, in a lame folio volume of 1 1 14 
passes, with a supplement by M. Klaproth, and the Japanese 
giammar of Father Rodriguez translated into French and 
printed at Paris by M. Landresse with valuable additions by 
M Abel Hemusat and a supplement by baron W. HumboMtf. 
The Asiatic Society of Calcutta are prosecuting their learned 

* Several exoeiierrl grammars have also been published of languages 
already known, as the Amine. Hebrew, A <■ among which arc remarked 
those of Gesenius, Silvestre de Sacy, ami several other eminent philolo- 
gists. The Arabic grammar of the latter is particularly esteemed. As 
an orientalist and a writer on general grammar, M. d< Sac) enjoys u 
In j li and 1 1 1 - 1 1 \ acquired reputation. 

i Elements de la Grammaire Japonaise, |>ar le P. BLodriguez. Traduil 
do Portugais -nr le MS. de la Biblioth que du Roi, el collationni av< i la 
Grammaire publiee par le m mi a Nangasaki en 1604. Pal M. <'• Lan- 
dresse. Precede d'un explication des Syllabaires Japonais, avec deux 
Planches. Par M. Abel RLemusat. Paris, 1825. 

Supplement i la Grammaire Japonaise du P. Rodriguez, ifcc. Par M. 
le Baron G. d<; Humboldt. Pari*. ls2'3. 



72 GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

labours, which have thrown much light on the languages of 
hither and farther India. A society established at Paris 
since 1822 emulates their exertions, and its numerous pub- 
lieations are highly valuable : among these we cannot help 
noticing the learned and interesting essay of Mess. Burnouf 
and Lassen, on the Pali or Bali, the sacred language of the 
peninsula beyond the Ganges*. The Journal Asiatique, 
published by that Society, of which nine volumes have already 
appeared, and the tenth will be completed in June next, is 
full of instructive matter concerning the languages of Asia. 
The same may be said of the Melanges Asiatiques of M. 
Remusatf, and the Memoires relatifs a l'Asie of M. Kla- 
prothf. The Asia Polyglotta of the latter is a work of great 
merit§. 

There is also in London, as we are informed, an Asiatic 
Society lately established, but their memoirs have not yet 
reached us. 

It is said that the sacred scriptures, or parts of them, have 
been translated into one hundred and fifty different lan- 
guages or dialects by the exertions of the British, Russian, 
aud American Bible Societies. The christian missionaries 
of different sects and countries, and the European and 
American navigators and travellers, have immensely in- 
creased our stock of vocabularies and other specimens of 
languages hitherto unknown. Among the latter we are 
bound to notice lieutenant John White of the United States 
navy, who brought to this country, from Cochin China, 
a comparative vocabulary of the Chinese and Cochin Chi- 

* Essai stir le Pali, ou langue sacree de la presqu'isle au dela du Gange, 
avec 6 planches. Par E. Burnouf & Chr. Lassen. Paris, 1826. 

f Melanges Asiatiques, ou choix de morceaux de critique relatifs aux 
religions, aux sciences, &c. des nations orientales. Par M. Abel Remusat, 
2 vols, Bvo. Paris, 1815. 

[ Memoires relatifs a l'Asie, contenant des recherches historiques, 
geographiques, et philologiques sur les peuples de l'orient. Par M. J. 
Klaproth. 2 vols, 8vo. Paris, 1824 — 1826. 

§ Asia Polyglotta von Julius Klaproth. 1 vol. quarto, with an atlas of 
languages, folio. Paris, 1823. 



OF THE LENNI LENAPE INDIANS. 73 

nese languages, which he has deposited in the Marine East 
India Company's Museum at Salem in Massachusetts, an 
extract from which is subjoined to the History of his Voy- 
age to the China Sea*. It is hoped that the Boston Academy 
of Arts and Sciences will cause the whole to be published in 
their valuable Transactions. It will be interesting not only 
to the learned of this country, but also to those of Europe ; 
as it not only shews the degree of affinity in the idioms of 
the two nations, Chinese and Cochin Chinese, but also in 
what manner the characters of the former are employed lo 
represent the words of the latter, when they differ in sound 
or in sense : It proves to demonstration that the Chinese 
characters cannot be read alike in every language; not even 
in those which have the greatest resemblance to that of 
China and may be considered in a measure as Chinese 
dialects. 

Thus learned and industrious men are collecting in all 
parts of the world the valuable materials out of which is to be 
erected the splendid edifice of Universal Philology. Various 
attempts have been made to reduce this science into a body 
of doctrine, but none has completely succeeded, because 
the facts on which it rests have not yet been sufficiently 
ascertained. Innumerable works have been written on the 
origin of language, while the greatest number of the idioms 
of the earth were entirely unknown. Theories have been 
accumulated instead of facts, every one of which had its day 
until superseded by some newer and more fashionable sys- 
tem. Now and then some gifted men pierced through the 
cloud of darkness by the mere force of their intuitive genius, 

* lli-tory of a Voyage to the China Seas. By John White, Lieutenant 
■ ii the I • S. Navy. Boston. Wells & Lilly. 1823. 

This book has been Bince reprinted in London. Hut the booksellers, 
probably for want of Chinese characters, 1 1 : » v < • lefl out of their edition all 
that relates to the Cochin Chinese language. Thus in our American 
edition of Marrow'- Travels in china, the specimens of Tartar charai ter- 
have been omitted, because the hook-. Hers did not think h ezpedienl to 
have them cast or engraved. In this manner trade prospers 81 the I » 
pense of science. 

\ Oli. III. T 



74 GRAMMAR OP THE LANGUAGE 

and their writings have not a little contributed to the ad- 
vancement of knowledge. Among those we must place 
in the first rank the illustrious president l)e Brosses, whose 
excellent treaiise on the mechanical formation of language* 
contains more correct reasoning than any other work on 
the same subject. Nor can 1 pass over in silence the 
lights that are diffused through the Elements of Ideo- 
logy of our venerated associate Destutt Tracvf, so fruit- 
ful of important principles that still remain to be applied 
to various unsettled points of our science. But. with these 
helps and many others that could be mentioned, we are 
not yet prepared for a general elementary treatise on phi- 
lology taken in its whole extent: more facts are yet to be 
collected, and inveterate theories submitted to the test of 
truth, before this great woik can be undertaken with hopes 
of suecess. 

Philology in fact, in the sense in which I wish to be 
understood, is of immense extent. It not only embraces 
oral language in all its varieties, but also writing and all 
the signs by means of which ideas are communicated 
through the organs of sight. The language of signs which 
the deal' and dumb make use of is alone a science. But 
setting ihese aside, and confining out selves to speech pro- 
perly so called, we find in that alone a boundless field of 
inquiry. We are arrested in the outset by the unnumbered 
languages and dialects which are spread over the surface of 
the earth, of which a very few only can be acquired by any 
individual. But philology comprehends them all, it ob- 
liges us to class and compare them with each other, for 
which we have no other aid than the knowledge more or 
less perfect of a few, and a superficial view of the rest. The 
philologist must learn to catch the prominent traits !>y 
w. ich the different modes of speech are distinguished, 

* Traite dc la formation mecanique des langues et des principes 
physiques de l'etymologie, 2 vols, limo. Paris, An IX. 

f Elements d'ideologie, par A. L. C. Destutt Tracy, Scnateur, 3 vols. 
Svo. Paris, 1804 — 1805. 



OF THE L.ENNI LENAPE INDIANS. 73 

and for that must trust to the labours of others in the 
shape of grammars, dictionaries, vocabularies, and other 
w«nks of detad. This is enough to occupy a whole life. 
Bui it is not all. The single branch of philology which 
relates to oral languages lias its subdivisions, eacli of which 
may be consideied as a separate science: There is phono- 
liigy. which teaches us to distinguish the various sounds 
produced by die human voice, with their tones, accents, and 
inflections, to analyze, class, and compare them with each 
other, and represent them, as much as possible, by visible 
sign>* ; etymology, or the knowledge of those constituent 
paits of language that we call xvords. by means of which we 
are enabled to trace the affinities of the different idioms of 
the earth, and the filiation of the numerous races and fami- 
lies of men who inlianit it ; and lastly, ideology, or the com- 
parative stiidv 01 the grammatical forms and idiomatic con- 
struction of languages, by which we are taught to analyze 
and d >tingu s i the different shapes in which ideas combine 
themselves in order to fix perceptions in our minds, and 
transmit them to those of others; while we observe with 
wonder the effects of that tendency to order and method 
and that natural logic which God has implanted in the mind 
of every man. A considerable time must elapse before we 
shall have collect d a sufficiency of facts to enable us to 
generalize (o a certain extent our ideas on these various 
subjects, the attempting of which too soon has hitherto been 
the great error of philologists. It is astonishing to see what 
efforts have been made by men of superior as well as those 
of inferior talents, to discover the origin of human speech, 
to trace an original or primitive language in those which 
now exist, to invent a universal or- philosophical idiom, a uni- 
versal grammar, a universal alphabet, and so many other 
universal.?, while the particulars are yet to be learned. 

* I lin\ «■ treated of this nibjecl separately, merely in its application to 
the English language, in the lir-i volume ol the present si rii - <>! these 
Transactions, |>. 228. A reference to that essaj will shew the- iromenw 
extent of this branch of the philological science. 



76 GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

When we find such men as Court de Gehelin, Bishop Wilkins, 
Maupertuis, Rousseau, Adam Smith, and so many other*, seri- 
ously employed in the pursuit of those unattainable objects, 
we can but lament the disposition of the human mind to 
transgress the bounds which Eternal Wisdom has prescribed 
to human knowledge and human power. 

If philology had no other object than to promote and fa- 
cilitate the intercourse between nations, and make men 
better acquainted with the globe they inhabit, it would be 
well worth all the trouble and labour that may be bestowed 
upon it. What further results it may produce, useful or 
interesting to mankind, it is impossible to foretel. Thus 
much is certain, that no science more powerfully excites 
that desire of knowledge which is inherent in our nature, 
and which, no doubt, was given to us by the Almighty for 
wise purposes. 

Moved by these considerations, the American Philosophi- 
cal Society have thought it incumbent upon them to add to 
the mass of facts which are accumulating on all sides, by the 
publication of this grammar. While the languages of Asia 
occupy the attention of the philologists of Europe, light is 
expected from this quarter to be shed on those of our own 
continent. This Society was the first to discover and make 
known to the world the remarkable character which per- 
vades, as far as they are yet known, the aboriginal languages 
of America, from Greenland to Cape Horn. In the period of 
seven years which has elapsed since the publication of the 
Report presented to their Historical Committee in 1819*, all 
the observations which have been made on Indian languages, 
at i hat time unknown, have confirmed their theory, if theory 
it cun be called, which is no more than the general result of 
a multitude of facts collected with care. This result has 
shewn that the astonishing variety of forms of human speech 
which exists in the eastern hemisphere is not to be found in 

* Transactions of the Historical and Literary Committee of the Ame- 
rican Philosophical Society, vol. 1. Philadelphia, 1819. 



OF THE LENNI L.ENAPE INDIANS. 77 

the western. Here we find no monosyllablic language like 
tht* Chinese*, and its cognate idioms; no analytical lan- 
guages like those of the north of Europe, with their nume- 
rous expletive and auxiliary monosyllables ; no such contrast 
is exhibited as that which is so sti ikin*z; to the most su- 
perficial observer, between the complication of the forms 
of the Basque language and the comparative simplicity of 
those oils neighbours the French and Spanish; but a uni- 
form system, with such differences only as constitute vari- 
eties in natural objects, seems to pervade them all, and this 
genus of human languages has been called polysynthetic, from 
the numerous combinations of ideas which it presents in the 
form of words. It has also hem shewn that the American 
languages arc rich in words and regular in their forms, and 
that they do not yield in those respects to any other idiom. 
These facts have attracted the attention of the learned in 
Europe, as well as in this country; but they have not been 
able entirely to remove the prejudices that have been so 
long entertained against the languages of savage nations. 
The pride of civilization is reluctant to admit facts like these 
in thcii utmost extent, because they shew how little philoso- 
phy and science have to do with the formation of language. 
A Vague idea still prevails that the idioms of barbarous tribes 
must begieatl) interior to those of civilized nations, and rea- 
sons are industriously sought for to prove that inferiority, not 
only in point of cultivation, which would readily be admitted, 
but also to shew thai their organization is comparatively 
in perfect. Thus a learned member of the Berlin Acade- 

* By a monosyllabic language, I do doI mean one every word of which 
consists of a single syllable, but one of which ever] syllable is a complete 

word. The learned M. !!■• sat has satisfactorily proved in his M hinges 

. I.tiiilii/urs. vol. J. p. it. .iiiii in the third volume of the Mines de VI rant, 
thai the Chinese language is not monosyllabic in the first of these sensi s; 
but ;ii the same time, I think it cannot be denied that it is so in the second, 
its polysyllabic words being formed l>\ the junction of two or more vo- 
cables, each consisting only of one syllable, in the same manner as our 
compound English words welcome, welfare, &c. There may be a few 
exceptions; but they prove nothing against the general rule. 
vol. in. — u 



78 GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

my of Sciences, in an ingenious and profound disserta- 
tion on the forms of languages*, while he admits that those 
of the American Indians are rich, methodical, and arti- 
ficial in their structure, yet will not allow them to pos- 
sess what he calls genuine grammatical forms (sechte for- 
men), because, says he, their words are not inflected like 
those of the Greek, Latin, and Sanscrit, but are formed by 
a different process, which he calls agglutination, and on that 
supposition, he assigns to them an inferior rank in the scale 
of languages, considered in the point of view of their capa- 
city to aid the development of ideas. That such prejudices 
should exist among men who have deservedly acquired an 
eminent reputation for science is much to be regretted; and 
it is particularly with a view to remove them from the minds 
of such men, that this grammar is published. The learned 
baron will, I hope, recognize in the conjugations of the Del- 
aware verbs those inflected forms which he justly admires, 
and he will find that the process which he is pleased to call 
agglutination, is not the only one which our Indians em- 
ploy in the combination of their ideas and the formation 
of their words. 

But it is not in Europe alone that we find persons dispo- 
sed to disparage every thing that belongs to the American 
Indians. The same spirit prevails, I am sorry to say in a 
much higher degree, among many in this country, particu- 
larly those who inhabit our frontier settlements, where causes 
of difference too often arise between the two races. This 
feeling, when once entertained, knows no bounds, and men, 
in other respects gifted with judgment and talents, feel its 
influence unperceived. I have been led into this observa- 
tion by a well written and otherwise interesting article on 
the Indians and their languages, which appeared in the North 
American Review for January, 1836, the anonymous author 

* Ueber das Entstelien der grammatischen Formen, und ihrcn Einfluss 
aufdie Ideen Entwicklung. Von Baron Wilhelm von Humboldt. Pub- 
lished in the Transactions of the Berlin Academy of Sciences for the year 
1822. Historical and Philological Class, p. 401. 



OP THE r/RNNT T.P.TJAPP. INTITANS. 79 

of which labours hard to depreciate the unfortunate Indians, 
and make them appear the most stupid as well as the most 
barbarous race of men, and their languages of course as cor- 
responding with that degraded character. It is a matter of 
regret that this writer should have been carried so far away 
by his prejudices, as to charge the venerable Heckewelder, 
who resided nearly forty years as a missionary among the 
Delaware Indians, not only with ignorance of their language, 
but with fabricating Delaware words, in order to suit a par- 
ticular purpose*. This is carrying too far the maxim tiul- 
lins in verba, and the reviewer who ventures so much ought 
first to have convinced his readers that he was himself per- 
fectly acquainted with the Delaware language, while, on the 
contrary, after mentioning a few of Mr Heckcwelder's sub- 
stantives, the sounds of which it seems are not pleasing to 
his ears, he exclaims in disgust, "Pronounce these who can ; 
we eschew the task." This strong expression of an un- 
pleasant feeling is not natural to one who is conversant 
with a particular idiom : such a one, besides, must be pre- 
sumed to be in some degree familiar with its sounds, and 
to be able, at least, to articulate them. 

The reviewer that I speak of pays no greater respect to 
Mr Zeisherger, the author of this grammar. If he does not 
expressly charge him with forgery, he at least tries to make 
it appear that he did not know the language on which he 
wrote. In this grammar, in the conjugation of the causative 
form of the verb wulamallsin, to be happy, will be found the 
participle present wulamalessohaluwed, he who makes hap- 
py, which in the transitive form is changed into ici/lainalcs- 
sohalid, he who makes me happy, and this last word, taking 
the vocative termination an. becomes wulamalessohalian, 
O thou who roakest me happy! The reviewer is pleased 
(p. 73.) to turn this beautiful grammatical form into ridicule, 
and expressly denies there being such a one in the language. 

* This word (elumiangeUatschik) lias been evidently formed to meet 
ihe case, and formed on erroneous principles. N. A. Review, p. 76. 



S(> 6BAMMAH OF TTIF. T.VNGt'VGE 

Among other reasons equally unsatisfactory, lie object* that 
the pronoun who or its elements are not to be found in the 

composition of the word: as it' this pronoun could not be un- 
derstood, as it is in the participial tonus of all languages, when 
used as substantives. Thus the Latin participle amans may be 
translated he who loves ill,- qui amat. and yet. not a trace 
ot 'the pronoun qui is found in it. In the English langua $e the 
participle present is not generally employed in a substantive 
sense, therefore the word loving can not be translated by 
he who lows, hut the meaning of the noun substantive 
lover may be thus rendered, ami the participle past beloved 
is often used in that sense, as the bflaveil. he who is he- 
loved, the pronoun 7r/>o beinsi understood. But the reviewer 
goes farther, and pretends that there is no word in any In- 
dian language answering to our pronoun who*. Be i so; 
but the idea which it convey? certainly exists in the minds of 
the Indians, and therefore there is the greater necessity for 
words in which that idea may he comprehended when it 
cannot be separately expressed. These specimens are suffi- 
cient to give an idea of the reviewer's course ot' reasoning, 
nor do the limits of this preface all >w me to pursue it far- 
ther. 

It is difficult to know to what Indian language this gentle- 
man's intention has been particularly directed. If we arc to 
judge from his numerous specimens of Ind an phrases, he 
should be equally familiar with the idioms of the Delawares, 
ChippewaySj Sioux, IGckapoos, Sacs ami Foxes. Po ow.no- 
mi s. Wyandots, an I Shawanese, in all which lie ftiro shes us 
with sentences, without any apparent object than to show that 
those languages are poor and illy constructed. Our author, 
Mr Zeisberger, did not pretend to so much knowledge; the 
li l.iware and the Ononda^owere all lie prof's, oil to know, 
and h - proved the justice o( his el dm. by a dictionary of the 

* On the contrary, the pronoun who ha* an equivalent in even Indian 
lan-Mkiize that I know ot": IV law-are. outre?* ^see this grammar'' : Onoct- 
dago, seta schune. schuns- schunt Renter's Dictionary ;Meno- 

ruonie. own; Dahcota or Siou.v. tuaa. A.*.. iVo. 



OF THE LENNI LENAPE INDIANS. 81 

one, and grammars of both. Mr Heckewelder pretended 
only 'o know the Delaware, and his correspondence with 
our Historical Committee, in the first volume of their Tran- 
sactions, appears sufficient to support his pretensions. Both 
these gentlemen spent the greatest part of their lives among 
the Indians on whose languages they wrote; while the ano- 
nymous reviewer docs not tell us that he ever resided 
with any of them. If he derived his information from In- 
dian traders and interpreters, he is not probably aware that 
they are not the proper sources from which the knowledge 
of the grammar of those languages is to be obtained ; they 
do not pretend to be men of science, and it is a well known 
fact that even Indians, who are much in the habit of convers- 
ing with while men, will adapt their forms as much as pos- 
sible to the construction of our own language, expecting 
thereby to be better understood. It is thus that we often 
speak broken English, when addiessing foreigners, and that 
nurses will lisp when speaking to children; but it is not so 
that Indian orators express themselves when addressing their 
tribes on important subjects. 

I should not have taken notice of this anonymous publi- 
cation, but that the high character and extensive circulation 
of the Nor h American Review, in which it would seem 
that it was inadvertently inserted, made it incumbent 
upon me to say something to counteract the effect of asser- 
tions so boldly ma le, and therefore calculated to make an 
impression on those who have not leisure to investigate the 
subject. It is but lately that the forms of the languages of 
the American Indians have begun to attract attention ; I am 
satisfied that the more they are known, the greater astonish- 
ment they will excite in unprejudiced minds. In the mean 
time we must expect that ancient prepossessions will have 
tli ir way, and that d priori reasoners will not see their favou- 
rite theories disturbed without a struggle; but facts are 
stubborn, and their evidence must ;it la^l prevail. 

The most curious thing, undoubtedly, thai exists in the 
languages of the Indians, is the manner in which they com- 

VOL. III. X 



82 GRAMMAR OP THE LANGUAGE 

pound their words. It was first observed by Egede in his 
account of Greenland, and Mr Heckewelder explains it at 
large in the eighteenth letter of his correspondence*. By 
this means, says governor Coldeh, speaki >g of the Iro- 
quois, these nations can increase the number of their words 
to any extent. None of the languages of the old world that 
we know of appear to possess this prerogative: a multitude 
of ideas are combined together, by a process which may be 
called agglutination, if the term be found agreeable, but which, 
whatever name it may receive, is not thp less a subject of 
real wonder to the inquiring philologist. I have not space 
to give here many examples of this manner which the In- 
dians have of combining several ideas together into one 
locution. I must therefore refer the reader to those ad- 
duced by Egede and by Mr Heckewelder. in the above cited 
passage of his correspondence. 1 shall, however, select a 
word from the Delaware language, which will convey a char 
idea of the mode of formation of all others of the same kind. 
I have chosen this word for the sake of its euphony, to which 
even the most delicate Italian ear will not be disposed to 
object. When a Delaware woman is playing with a little 
dog or cat, or some other young animal, she will often say 
to it kuligatschis ! which I would translate into English, give 
me your pretty little pau\ or what a pretty little paw you 
have! This word is compounded in the following manner: 

A" is the inseparable pionoun of the second person, and 
may be rendered by thou or thy, according to the context. 

Uli (pronounced oolee) is part of the word rvulit, which 
signifies handsome or pretty. It has also other meanings 
not necessary to be here specified. 

Gat is part of the word wichgat, which signifies a leg or 
paw. 

Schis is a diminutive termination, and conveys the idea of 
littleness. 

* Hist. Trans, p. 405. 



OF THE LENNT LENAPE INDIANS. 83 

Thus in one word the In lian woman says to the animal. 
Thij pretty little jiuw ! and according to the tone in which 
she speaks, and the gestures which she makes, either calls 
upon it to present its foot, or simply expresses her fondling 
admiration. In the same manner I'ilape, a youth, is formed 
from Pihit. chaste, innocent, and Lenape. a man*. It is dif- 
ficult to find a more elegant combination of ideas in a single 
Word of any existing idiom. 

I do not know of any language out of this part of the 
woild in which words are compounded in this manner. The 
process consists in putting together portions of different 
womIs so as 10 awaken at the same lime in the mind of the 
bearer the various ideas which they separately express. 
There are prohahly principles or rules pout ins; out the 
particular parts that are to he selected in order to form 
the compound locution. Sometimes a whole syllable, 
and perhaps more; so netimes a single sound, or, as we 
Would call it. a single letter': to discover those rules 
would require a great proficiency in the language, and at 
tin same time a very sound discriminating mind ; qualities 
which are seldom found united ; perhaps also the ear, an 
Indian ear. is the guide which is generally followed: but the 
ear has also its rules, to which the mind imperceptibly con- 
foims: however it may he, this is an interestimc fact in the 
natural history of human language, justly entitled to the atten- 
tion of philologists. 

This is not the only manner in which the American In- 
dians combine their ideas into words. They also have 
many of the forms of the languages which we so much ad- 
mire, the Latin, Greek, Sanscrit. Slavonic, fyc. mixed with 
others peculiarly their own. Their conjugations are as re- 
gular as those of any language that we know; and for 
the proof of i is I need only to refer to the nu neroua 
paradigms of Delaware verbs thai are contained in this 
grammar, in which will he found the .justly admired in- 

• M.S. letter of Mr Heckewelder, 22d uf October 1818. 



84 GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

flections of the languages of ancient Europe. Although 
they do not appear to have the numerous tenses which 
the Greek boasts of, they are not, however, deficient in 
the expression of the relations of the present, past, and 
future to each other. There is no shade of idea in respect 
to the time, place, and manner of action which an Indian 
verb cannot express, and the modes of expression which 
they make use of for those purposes are so numerous, that 
if they were to be considered as parts of the conjugation of 
each verb, one single paradigm might fill a volume. Thus 
n'mitzi signifies I eat, in a general sense, and n'mamitzi. I am 
eating at this moment. Each of these verbs is separately 
conjugated in all its forms. 

Indeed, the multitude of ideas which in the Indian lan- 
guages are combined with the verb has justly attracted the 
attention of the learned in all parts of the world. It is not 
their transitive conjugations expressing at the same time 
the idea of the person acting, and that acted upon, that have 
excited so much astonishment. They are found also, though 
not with the same rich variety of forms, in the Hebrew 
and other oriental languages. But when two verbs with 
intermediate ideas are combined together into one, as in 
the Delaware n'schitighuipoma, I do not like to eat with 
him*, which the Abbe Molina also declares to exist in the 
idiom of Chili f; there is sufficient cause to wonder, particu- 
larly when we compare the complication of these languages 
with the simplicity of-the Chinese and its kindred dialects in 
the ancient world. Whence can have arisen such a marked 
diversity in the forms of human speech ? 

Nor is it only with the verbs that accessary ideas are so 
curiously combined in the Indian languages ; it is so likewise 
with the other ports of speech. Take the adverb for in- 
stance. The abstract idea of time is frequently annexed to 
it. Thus if the Delawares mean to say, If you do not return, 

* Hist Trans, p. xxvi. 

f Iduancloclavin, I do not wish to eat with him." Hist, of Chili. 
Append, on the Chilian Language. 



OP THE EENNI EENAPE INDIANS. 85 

they will express it by mattatsch gluppixveque, which may be 
thus construed : 

Malta is the negative adverb no; tsch is the sign of the 
future, with which the adverb is inflected ; gluppiweque is 
the second person of the plural number of the present 
tense of the subjunctive mood of the verb ghtppiechton. 
To turn about or return. In this manner every idea meant 
to be conveyed by this sentence is clearly understood. 
The subjunctive mood shews the uncertainty of the action, 
and the Bign of the future tense coupled with the adverb 
points to a time not yet come when it may or may not take 
place. The Latin phrase nisi veneris expresses all these 
meanings ; but the English If you do not come, and the French 
Si vmis ne venez pas, have by no means the same elegant 
precision. The idea which in Delaware and Latin the 
Subjunctive form directly conveys is left tn he gathered in 
the English and French from the words z/and si, and there 
is nothing else to point out the futurity of the action. And 
where the two former languages express every thing with 
two word-, each of the latter requires five, which yet repre- 
sent a smaller number of ideas. To wl'ich of these gram- 
matical forms is the epithet barbarous to be applied ? 

This very cursory view of the general structure of the 
Indian languages, exemplified by the Delaware, will at least 
convince the reader that a considerable degree of art and 
method has presided over their formation. Whether this as- 
tonishing (act is to be considered as a proof (as many are 
inclined to believe) that this continent w;is formerly inha- 
bited by a civilized race of men, or whether it is nut more 
natural to suppose thai the Almighty Creator has endowed 
mankind with a natural lo»;ic which leads them, as it were, by 
instinct, to such methods in the formation of their idioms as 
are best calculated to facilitate their use. I shall not at pre- 
sent inquire; I do not. however, hesitate to say, that the 
bias of my mind is in favour of the latter supposition; be- 
cause no language has yet been discovered, either among 
savage or polished nations, which was not governed by rules 

VOL. III. Y 



86 GRAMMAR OP THE LANGUAGE 

and principles which nature alone could dictate, and human 
science never could have imagined. Various attempts have 
been made towards the formation of a philosophical lan- 
guage: none of them has ever gone beyond the imitation of 
those which were previously known ; neither Leibnitz nor 
Bishop Wilkins, neither Monboddo nor l)e Brosses, nor any 
of diose illustrious philosophers who have written so much 
on the origin and formation of languages, could have disco- 
vered « priori the curious combinations by which the Ame- 
rican Indians form their words ; nor the manner in which 
they associate with the verb such an immense number of 
accessary ideas; we are therefore compelled, when endea- 
vouring to account for the variety of modes in which men 
represent their perceptions through the organs of speech, 
to al-andon all vain theories, and look up only to nature 
and nature's God. 

I have been led into these preliminary observations far- 
ther than I expected ; I feel that I have been insensibly 
drawn beyond the legitimate bounds of a preface; it is, 
however, necessary that I should say something of this 
grammar and of its author. 

The Reverend David Zeisberger was a native of Mora- 
via, where he was born in the year 1721. He was edu- 
cated at Herrnhut in the principles of the religion of the 
United Brethren. At the age of seventeen he came to this 
country, and landed in Georgia, where his co-religionists had 
begun some settlements. Thence he came to Pennsylvania. 
In the year 1746, (being twenty five years of age) he was 
sent out as a missionary to the Noith American Indians, 
in which employment he continued, with few and short 
intervals, until his death, which happened in the year 1808. 
He died at Goshen, in the state of Ohio, at the advanced 
age of eighty-seven years. 

Thus this venerable missionary resided upwards of sixty 
years among the Indians of this country, preaching the gos- 
pel to them in their native idioms. In this manner he 
acquired several of their languages ; but was particularly 



OF THE EENNI EENAPE INDIANS. 8/ 

skilled in the Onondago (an Iroquois dialect) and theLenni 
L' nape or Delaware. On the former he wrote three gram- 
mars, two in German* and the other in Knglishf, and a 
dictionary. German and Indian, consisting of seven volumes 
in quarto. These works, all in manuscript, arc deposited 
in our Society's library. 

Those on the Delaware, except this grammar, have heen 
all printed. They consist of a copious spelling hook in De- 
laware and English, of which two editions have heen pub- 
lished!. Sermons to Children in Delawaie§, and a Collection 
of Hymns in the same language||, all which appeared in 
his life time. After h's death hi* translation into 1) la- 
ware of Lieherkuhn's Harmony of the Four Gospels^! was 
given to the public by the care and at the expense of 
the Female Auxiliary Missionary Society at Bethlehem, 
aided by private subscribers, among whom the late Ho- 
nourahle Elias Boudinot of New Jersey was conspicuous. 

The original manuscript of this grammar the author order- 
ed by his will to remain deposited in the library of the 
United Brethren at Bethlehem, where it now is. In the 



* Onondagoische Grammatica. M.S. 4to, pp. 176; and a shorter one 
also in tto, pp. B7. 

| Essay of an Onondago Grammar, or :i short introduction to learning 
the ' nondago alias Maqua tongu.e. MS. tto, pp. f>7. 

Di laware and English Spelling Book, lor the use of the Missions of 
the United Brethren. Philadelphia, 1776 and 1806. The second edition 
is much improved, and contains pp. I TV. 12mo. 

Ehelittonhenk li amemensak gischitak Elleniechsink, untschi David 
/ berger Philadelphia, 1803, pp. 116, !2mo. 

i| A Collection of Hymns tor the use of the Christian Indians of the 
Mission of the United Brethren in America. Philadelphia, 1803, pp. 
12mo. 

These hymns are all in the metre of German poetry, and are t" be sung 
to German tunes. It would have required mor< g< nius than falls to the 
common l"t of man t'> have discovered a rhythm auited t<> the charactei 
of the language, and melodies adapted t" it. Such diversified talents 
are Beldom t" I" looked l<>r in those « ho devote their lives to the conver- 
sion of -a\ age nations. 

" Blekup Nihillalquonk woak Pemauchsohalquonk Jesus Christ, seki ts 
lanchsitup wochgidhakamike. New if ork, 1821, pp. 222, l2mo. 



88 GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

year 1816, our late lamented associate, the Reverend John 
Heckewelder, having been requested to aid our Historical 
Committee in their investigation of the forms and struc- 
ture of the Indian languages, was kind enough, with the 
permission of his superiors, to confide to them that va- 
luable manuscript for their temporary use. The Commit- 
tee ordered it to be translated into English; and I willingly 
undertook the task : various circumstances have hitherto 
prevented its appearance. Several learned men, however, 
both in Europe and in this country, having repeatedly ex- 
pressed their wish to see it in print, its publication could 
no longer be delayed. 

The reader must not expect to find here a philoso- 
phical grammar, as this was not made for the use of philo- 
sophers, but of young missionaries — its object was entirely 
practical. The author never dreamt that the theory of 
the Indian languages would ever become the subject of philo- 
sophical study. He has followed the usual divisions of the 
parts of speech ; but has not endeavoured, like the Spanish 
American grammarians, to force the Indian forms of lan- 
guage into too close an analogy with our own. To a cer- 
tain degree it is necessary to explain the forms of the 
Indian languages by those to which we are accustomed ; 
to do otherwise would be following the old exploded me- 
thod of teaching the Latin language by means of a giam- 
mar written entirely in Latin ; at the same time, the peculiar 
forms of the new idiom ought to be pointed out in a clear 
and intelligible manner, and their principles analyzed so 
as to lay down their rules, when differing from our own, 
with the greatest possible perspicuity. It were to be wished 
that our author had devoted a chapter to the syntax and 
phraseology of the language; but that, I presume, he left 
to be acquired by practice. Upon the whole, however, 
I think his grammar the best that I have seen of an Ame- 
rican dialect. It is copious and rich in examples, and 
his paradigms of the conjugations of Indian verbs are suf- 
ficiently numerous to give a correct idea of the manner in 



OF THE EENNI LENAPE INDIANS. 89 

which that part of speech is constructed. The personal verbs 
or transitions are fully and dearly explained. Indeed, it 
may he said that lie has the merit of clearness throughout; 
a merit so very rare, that it deserves to he noticed. Those 
who before him have treated of Indian languages have either 
not always understood themselves, or not been very anxious 
to lie understood by others. I do not even except the vene- 
rable Eliot, whose Grammar of the Language of the Massa- 
chusetts Indians is not free from obscurities ? some of which 
the present one of its kindred dialect, the Delaware, will 
help to clear up. 

The Indian words in this Grammar are to he pronounced 
according to the powers of the German alphabet, which Mr 
Zeisbergef thought proper to adopt*. !t has long been a 
desideratum in the philological science, that there should be 
a uniform mode of writing exotic words, in order to convey, 
as much as possible, the same idea of their sounds, at least 
to the learned, through the civilized world. Rut, independ- 
ent of the numerous difficulties which naturally attend such 
a design, from the almost entire impossibility of conveying to 
the mind through the eye the idea of sounds which the ear 
never heard, an ill understood national pride makes every 
nation desire that their own alphabet should be chosen as die 
medium of communication. The least prejudiced on this 
subject insist at least on the Roman character being univer- 
sally used. The celebrated Volney wished all the Oriental 

* The translator has preserved the orthography of the original, except 
that he has substituted the letter y for the German j, because y ha^ the 
same Bound according to tin English and German pronunciation. \l*o 
where the author \>.i- introduced the vowel " after to, in order t" Bhew 
that the latter is to have the English and nol the German sound, and so 
writ' - iDoagam t>> be pronounced wagan, the translator has auppn ssed 
the o. thinking it sufficient to give notice thai w consonant is always to 
be pronounced as in English, whether it l><- followed l>\ another conso- 
nant or bj a vowel. In the former case a sheva <>r mute rowel is interposed 
between th> two sounds: thus, adonis (daughter) is pronounced w'danis 
and nut oo-danis. r'ollou in<; the same principle, when the author »i 
wiquoam (a house) th< translator writes u-ikwam, which 11 precisely toe 
sound which Zeisbergei meant i" represent. 

VOL. III. — / 



90 GRAMMAJl OP THE LANGUAGE 

languages to be written in that character, and not only pro- 
posed a plan to that effect, but left a considerable legacy by 
his will to be employed in premiums to those who should 
suggest the best means of carrying it into execution. This 
shews how far a favourite idea may take hold of the mind of 
a man, however distinguished by his genius and talents. 

It is not for those languages that have already an alphabet 
and an orthography of their own that a uniform mode of 
writing their words is desirable ; uniformity in this respect, 
even among the nations that use the same characters, is ab- 
solutely unattainable. All that is desired is a common mode 
of communicating the sounds of unwritten languages, in or- 
der to facilitate the comparison of their words and gramma- 
tical forms with eaeh other with the greater exactness. To 
this object the powers of our English alphabet are not ade- 
quate ; because its vowel sounds are uncertain and a great 
part of them are represented by diphthongs. But most nations 
seem to think that their national honour is concerned in 
forcing their own orthography upon the learned world. 
Thus since the study of the Chinese language has become 
fashionable in Europe, the Portuguese mode of spelling Chi- 
nese words, to which all were before accustomed, has been 
entirely abandoned, and the English and French have each 
adopted the orthography of their own language; so that it is 
sometimes difficult to recognize the same words in ihe giam- 
marsand dictionaries which they have respectively published. 

In this country we are free from this prejudice; therefore 
my learned friend Mr Pickering, with the liberality which 
characterizes an American man of science, has proposed a 
uniform mode of writing the words of our Indian languages*, 
which 1 am happy to find has been almost universally 
adopted by our Missionaries not only on this continent, but 
in the South Sea Islands. 1 am also informed that our go- 

* An Essay on a uniform Orthography for the Indian Languages of 
North America. By John Pickering. Published at Boston in the Me- 
moirs of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Vol. IV. p. 319. 



OF THE LENNI EENAPE INDIANS. i) 1 

vernmont, who, it is reported and generally believed, are 
preparing to publish an important national work on the 
languages of the Ind'ans who inhabit those United States on 
the model considerably improved of that of the empress Ca- 
therine, have recommended to the agents and other persons 
emploved in collecting the materials to conform themselves 
as much as possible to the alphabet proposed by Mr P ck- 
ering. Thus America will have the honour of giving an 
example which it is to be hoped will he more generally 
followed. 

This alphabet is entirely formed of our Roman characters. 
The vowel sounds are those of the G< rnian and Italian lan- 
guages. I he nasals are expressed by a comma or ctililla 
Ui der each nasal vowel, after the Polish manner. The En- 
glish s/t is preserved, and its correlative zh is adopted for the 
sound of the French and Portuguese j. The compound 
consonant sounds are represented by their component 
signs, thus A\s, ksh, ts, tz. fyc. The Author has been care- 
ful not to introduce any new characters. Even the sound 
of the Greek x and Spanish joia is expressed in the most 
usual manner by kh ; and although there is a real diffe- 
rence between these two sounds, the one being A\ and 
the other g aspirate. Mr Pickering did not think it ne- 
cessary to appropriate to each a separate character, well 
knowing that approximation is all that can be reached, and 
that every attempt to distinguish nice differences of sound 
would eventually prove vain. 

Thus, with a liberality which cannot he too much praised, 
Mr Picketing has selected among the various powers which 
the nations of Europe have given to the characters of the 
Roman alphabet those which best suited his purpose, without 
shewing i'a\ our or partiality to any country, and least to 
bis own. His plan, moreover, is simple and easy of execu- 
tion. If it is not the best that could possibly be devised, it is 
the one that is most likely to be certainly adopted. Bril- 
liant theories and highly complicated schemes may dazzle 
for awhile: but simplicity in plans presented for general 



92 GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

practice is the mark of true genius, and must ultimately pre- 
vail. 

Before I conclude this preface, I bea; leave to say a few 
words respecting; the present translation. When, eleven 
years asso, I undertook to make it for the Philosophical So- 
ciety I had never turned my attention to the Indian lan- 
guages, and I was entirely ignorant of their forms and con- 
struction. I therefore thought of nothing beyond a close 
and literal translation of the manuscript. I soon per- 
ceived, however, that it had been written on loose sheets, 
which had been bound together after the Author's death 
by persons not conversant with the subject. It also became 
clear to me that Mr Zeisberger had not siven the last finish- 
ing hand to his work. He probably meant to have con- 
densed it, and to have exhibited the various forms of the 
conjugations of the verbs in a lesser number of paradigms. 
These observations struck me as I went on with the transla- 
tion which I finished as I had heaiun it. 1 left out only one 
chapter, in which the author explained the manner of ex- 
pressing the German compound verbs into the Delaware 
language; as it would have required too much labour to adapt 
it to the English forms of speech, and would have participa- 
ted in too great a degree of an original composition. I 
regret, however, that I did not attempt it. It is now too 
late, as Mr Zeisberger's manuscript has been returned to the 
Bethlehem library. 

I had no idea at the time that this grammar would ever 
be published. Since the Society came to a resolution to 
commit it to the press, it became my duty to revise what 
I had done; I saw that it would require to be almost entirely 
recast, and above all to be considerably abridged, in order to 
give it that form which alone could satisfy the taste of the 
present age. But on this I could not venture. For more 
than ten years, indeed, 1 have applied myself to the study of 
the Indian languages, and have become more conversant 
with their structure and forms than those who have not paid 
a similar attention to the subject. Besides the usual helps 



OF THE EENNI L.ENAPE INDIANS. JM 

of grammars, dictionaries, vocabularies. c^c. I have had the 
benefit of correspondences and personal Communications 
with Indians, missionaries, and other persons from various 
parts of this hemisphere, more or less skilled in those 
idioms. With regard to the Delaware. I have received much 
information from my deceased friend Mr Heckewelder. 
whom I always found ready to answer my queries, and solvB 
my doubts, whenever 1 thought proper to communicate them 
to him. II he were still alive, I would not have hesitated, 
with his kind assistance, to have presented this grammai in 
a more acceptable form lo the public. Without such aid I 
could not undertake it, being in want of that practical know- 
ledge which can only be acquired by a long residence 
among the Indians. 

Anothei reason has induced me not to make ton free with 
this grammar, although I am satisfied that it might have 
been advantageously abridged. Several gentlemen, par- 
ticularly of the army, who are stationed or reside in the 
vicinity of the Indian country, and consequently have much 
intercourse with the aborigines, have expressed a wish that 
Mr ZrisbiTger's Work should be given in as ample a form 
as possible, as it would he of great use to them in studying 
not only the language of the Delaware?, but also those of 
the Chippeways. Menotnonies. and other ornate idioms. 
Therefore it is to be considered that it is not only intended 
as an exhibition of the forms of the Indian dialects in a 
scientific point of view, but also as a guide to those who 
may be engaged in the study of this language. To them 
the multiplicity of examples which others may think unne- 
cessary will be ol great \alue, as there are no other writ- 
ten sources from which they can derive information, if we 
except Mr Zeisberger's Spelling Book, which has long been 
out of pi int. and his Translation of Lieheikuhu's Harmony 
ol the Gospels* which was printed only for the use of inis- 
sionaiies. and is not to be purchased. Neither is the Trans- 
lation of St John's Kpistle by Dencke to be bad in the shops. 
It is much to be regretted that a certain number of copied 

VOL. III. 2 A 



94 GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

of such works are not put in the hands of booksellers for 
sale. They would be purchased, at leasi, by the public libra- 
vies of this country, and perhaps also, of Europe. 

For these reasons I have ventured upon few alterations 
of the Manuscript now published. 1 have, however, some- 
times varied from the Author's method, when 1 thought 
it too defective, and I have modified his explanations, so 
as to give them (as I thought) a greater degree of clear- 
ness and precision, and make them more easily under- 
stood. I have even occasionally, always with the same 
view, added some facts and illustrations which were not 
in the text. But this I have chiefly done in the form of 
no'es at the bottom of the pasje, under my own name 
and responsibility. Upon the whole, I have taken no 
liberty with the Author's work which I was not sure he 
would have approved of if he had been living: As a fair 
copy of the original manuscript of this translation still re- 
mains in the Society's library, the alterations which I have 
made may be seen and judged of by all who will take the 
pains to compare it with the one now published. 

I hope this Grammar will convince those who may still be 
incredulous, that I did not go too far when I asserted in my 
Report to the Historical Committee that the Indian lan- 
guages are rich in words and grammatical forms, and that 
their general structure displays as much order and me- 
thod as that of any of those that exist on the face of the 
earth. They are highly synthetical, and combine ideas toge- 
ther- in a manner so artificial and so uniformly consistent 
with the rules of analogy, that it is not to be wondered at if 
men. reasoning d priori, have thought it impossible that such 
combinations could proceed from the minds of savages. As 
the fact cannot be denied, the pride of civilization has 
at last found out that it is very natural that it should be 
so ; because analysis is the most difficult operation of the 
human mind, and barbarous nations being incapable of it, 
their languages must necessarily be synthetical. Rut Mr 
Adam Smith, who lirst broached this doctrine in a disser- 



OP THE LENNI I.ENAPE INDIANS. 95 

tation on the origin of language subjoined to his Theory of 
Moral Sentiments, and who has been highly applauded for 

this discovery. (I'd not surely consider thai before the Indans 
could have combined their ideas, and arranged them in re- 
gular oitler in the forms in which they now appear, they 
must first have analysed them, otherwise they could not have 
discovered their analogies and adhered to them so closely. 
But in this they did not proceed as philosophers Would have 
done in their closets ; the operations of nature are much 
quicker than those of science, and perhaps are not the less 
sure. I leave it to others to explain the details of this pro- 
cess ; my task is to exhibit the facts, not to trace them to 
their origin. 

I am not an enthusiastic or exclusive admirer of the In- 
dian lamrua^es, and am far from being disposed to assert 
thai their forms are superior to those of others. Compa- 
risons on such subjects appear to me idle, and can lead to 
no useful results. Language is the instrument of thought 
and must always he adequate to its object. Therefore no 
language has yet been and probably never will be found, des- 
titute of forms; for without them none can exist. By forms 
I do not mean only inflexions of words and the like: I 
mean every regular and methodical arrangement of the ele- 
ments of speech for practical purposes. This the Chinese 
have as well as the Delaware's, although in vulgar accepta- 
tion it is commonly said that the Chinese idiom has no 
forms. Like every thing else in nature, the forms of lan- 
guage, are various, and in that variety consists die chief 
beauty of the works of the Almighty Creator. A lan- 
guage, it is true, may lie more or less adapted to certain 
objects. Some aie more poetical than other-, while there 
are those which are better suited to the perspicuity of 
logical reasoning. But it is only after they have been 
moulded by the hand ol' genius that this particular cha- 
racter becomes apparent. Who can say what Homer 
would have produced if he had had for his instrument 
the language of the Lenni Lenape? This, however, we 



90 GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

may with safety assert; that lie would have been ahle to say 
more in fewer words, than even in his own admirable Greek. 
Every mode of speech has its peculiar qualities, susceptible 
of beinu developed and improved by. cultivation ; but,- like 
flowers and pints, all languages have a regular organiza- 
tion, and none can be called barbarous in the sense which 
presumption has affixed t<> that word. An unorganized lan- 
guage would be a chaos, unfit to be used as the medium 
of intercourse between men. No memory could retain a 
long list of arbitrary words, if order and method, founded 
on analogy, did not come to its aid. Grammatical forms, 
therefore, are as necessary to human languages as the or- 
gans of life and vegetation are to animals and plants. Nei- 
ther could exist without them. 

In the idiom before us we have an example of what na- 
ture can produce, unaided by the theories of science and the 
refinements of art. To assign to each its proper share in 
the composition of such noble instruments as the languages 
of men is not among the least important questions which 
philology presents to our inquiry. It deserves to be tho- 
roughly investigated. The result, it is true, will be morti- 
fying to our pride; but that pride, which makes us ascribe 
so much to our own efforts, and so little to the silent and 
unperceived operations of nature, is the greatest obstacle 
that we meet in our road to knowledge, and we cannot pro- 
ceed very far in the discovery of natural causes while we 
remain disposed to attribute every thing to our so much 
boasted civilization, our limited sciences, and our mimic arts. 



OP THE LENNI LENAPE INDIANS. 97 



INTRODICTION. 



THE Delaware Indians have no /nor r in their language*. 
I Ik letters must l>e pronounced as in German or Latin. 
The language has no resemblance to any of ours; it lias, 
however, its own fixed rules, to which those must conform 
wlio will speak intelligibly. Whoever will speak Indian 
nuM learn to think in Indian. 

This treatise will greath facili'ate those who wish to learn 
this lansua^e. if they will only impress themselves with the 
rules, which are neither numerous nor difficult. In propor- 
tion as the knowledge of them is acquired, a greater plea- 
sure will be found in this study, and every day new treasures 
will be discovered; but above all. there must be a desire to 
learn, without which nothing can be effected. 

JVbte by the Translator. — The DcUwum «li<> inhabited PennaytvuU, irfaOa it mi nodai 

''"' B» edi h dotnin used the - instead »l the ' Thi \ called themselves Renni !<■ napt 

Luthin OateeMmut, OeficeruUpaoJimerican-Virginitke Spraoket. Stockholm, 1999, Thii 

race appears to be extinct. 



VOL. III. 2 B 



98 GRAMMAR OP THE LANGUAGE 



GRAMMAR. 



I SHALL treat in this essay of the different parts of speech, 
to wit : * Noun, Pronoun, Verb, Adverb, Preposition, Con- 
junction, and Interjection. 

&— #f Nouns. 

Nouns are of two kinds, substantive and adjective. 

Of the Noun Substantive. 

The Tndians have no declensions, properly so called ; that is to say, the 
nouns are not declined by inflections, as in the Latin and Greek, except 
in two cases, the vocative and the local. In the others the place of these 
terminations is supplied by the relative position of the noun, or by gram- 
matical forms or combinations of the verbs and other parts of speech, as 
wrll be shewn in the following examples. These grammatical forms or 
combinations are peculiar to the Indian languages, and I believe are not 
to be found in any others. They will be more fully explained under their 
proper heads. At present I shall only shew in what manner what are 
commonly called the cases of nouns are expressed or indicated. 

Nominative. 

This case (if it may be so called) has no particular form or inflection. 
It is simply the name of the substantive, as in English. 



Lenni, the man 
Ochqueu, the woman 
Wikwam, the house 



Sipo or sipu, the river 
Getanittowit, God 
Gischuch, the sun. 



* Note by the Translator. — The Author does not speak of the article ; yet there is one in the 
Delaware language, the article 7110, which is used either in a definite or indefinite sense, as 
m'hittuck, a tree or the tree. The Minsi say michtuk. Thi^ article was discovered hy the Trans- 
lator in the Massachusetts language, and on inquiring of Mr Heckewelder, he said that the same 
article was also in the Delaware, but was not frequently used, because tin- word was sufficiently 
understood without it. See his letter ti> the Translator in the notes to Eliot's Grammar, 11th Mas- 
sachusetts' Historical Collections, Second Series, p. xv. 



OF THE LENNI LENAPE INDIANS. 
[of nouns.] 



90 



Genitive. 

The genitive is expressed by placing the noun employed in that sense 
immediately before that which is used in the nominative Sometimes 
also by prefixing to the nominative the inseparable pronoun of the third 
person w, as we say in English John his book for John's book. 



Getannittowit quistll, God's son 
Nihillalqunnk wtanglowagan*, the Lord's death 
Getannitowit wiahoaltowagan, God's love 
Getannitowit gcktemagelowagan, God's mercy 



Lennowikit. tht^ man's boose 
Getannitowit wtallewu-^owagan, God's ma- 
jesty 
Nilullalquonk allogcwaganall, the Lord's works. 



The Dative 

Is expressed by inllections in the verbs and by prefixes and suffixes 
which will be more particularly explained. 



Ni mil in, I give (to) him 
Hilap, he gave to him 
Ndcllap, I said (to) him 
Nowitschemap, 1 (etched (to^ him 
Melat hallemiwi pommauchsowoagan, eternal 
life 



Ndatscbimolschap, I related to him 
Notschapi 1 went, came to him 
Nowitschewap, I went with him. 



The Accusative 
Is likewise expressed by means of the verbs, as is said above. 



Ndahoala, I love him 
Nowaha, I know him 
Npcndawa, I understand him 
Npcuauwelema, I take care of him 



Npennauwa, I look at him 
N i m lielema, I honour him 
Getanittowit nquitayala, I fear God. 
fear him). 



(God I 



The Vocative 



Is expressed in the singular by the termination an, and by enk, when 
coupled with the pronoun our. 



Wo Kit.uiitinwiant ! God! 
Nihillalan! O Lord I 
Nihillalian ! my Lord ! 
Nihittahyenk ! (> our Lord ! 
Elangomellau ! O my friend ! 
PfatochemeUan ! <) my father ! 
W< tochemeflenk ! O our father ' 
Wi'tocliemuxian! O father ! 



Pemaurliioliali.m ! (> rn\ Saviour ! 
Pemaacbaohaluweyan I (> Saviour) 
Nocha I l" Nochan), (> my father! (says a 

child i" it- lather) 
Elenapewian! Thou Indian! 
Bhawanowian! Thou Sliawaneso ' 
Metapewian ' wicked man! 
Welilissian ! pious man ! 



The Local case\. 

This as well as the preceding ma] be properly so railed. It is formed 
by means of the miffixei ink and link, and expresses in, in the, on, out of. 

• .Viifr by ihr Translator. — yvtanglowagan. In this word, angloteogon signifies death, from 
aagel, to die. II' i- the inseparable pronoun hit, and lis Interpoa I foi eupbonj - 

t JVott by the Translator. — The Authoi frequently uses the letter! n and A and J and t indis- 

i*rinni, ' 

t JYbte by the Translator — The Author calls this case the ablative I have prrfeirrd tl 
i indnan'on local. 



100 



GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

[of nouns.] 



EXAMPLES. 



Utenink (from Uteney, a city or town), in the 

town, in town 
Utenink nda, I am going to town, or into the ; 

i own 
Utenink noon, I am coming from or out of 

town 
Sipunk (from Sipo, river, creek, water), to or 

into the river 
Mbink (from Mbi, water), in the water 
Hakink (from Hacki, earth, ground), in or on 

the earth 



Awossagamewunk (from Awossagame, hea- 
ven 1 , in heaven 

Wachtsehunk nda (from Wachtschu, hill, moun- 
tain ), I am going up the hill 

Wachtsehunk noom, I come from the hill 

Gamunk nda or noom, I am going over the wa- 
ter or coming from thence 

Machtschikamigunk, in the hole (meaning a 
hole in the ground) 

Ochunk, at his father's. 



OF NUMBERS. 

The singular has in general no particular inflections to distinguish it 
from the plural, except in the third person, where it ends in I, but most 
commonly in wall. The plural is variously inflected. There is a singu- 
lar number combined with the plural, as in our fatlier, my fathers, and a 
double plural, as in our fathers. These are distinguished by particular 
inflections, the double plural, by the duplication of a syllable. Substan- 
tives are generally combined with the inseparable possessive pronoun, 
which in the singular is n for the first person, k for the second, and w or 
o for the third. The inseparable pronoun is often omitted in the plural 
and in the third person singular, and the sense is determined by the nu- 
meric inflection, which is at the same time pronominal. Those inflec- 
tions are na or nana in the first person, wa or waiva in the second, and 
wall, ivak and ivawall in the third. The duplication of a syllable, asnff- 
na, wawa, tvawawall, indicates the double plural. 



EXAMPLES. 



Wetoochwink, Father. 

Singular. 

Nooch, my father 
Kooch, thy father 
Ochwall, his or her father 

Singular with Plural. 
Noochcna, our father 
Koochuwa, your father 
Ochuwawall, their father. 

Double Plural. 
Noochenana, our fathers 
Coocfaew&wa, your fathers 
Ochuwawawall, their fathers. 



Gahotves, Mother. 

Singular. 
Ngahowes, my mother 
Kahowes, thy mother 
Gohessal, his or her mother. 

Singular urith Plural. 
Gohessena, our mother 
Kohessuwa, your mother 
Gohessuwawall, their mother. 



The double plural is formed as in the pre 
ceding example. 



Sometimes the singular receives numerical inflections, and the substan- 
tive itself is Bomewhal modified as we have already seen in wetoochwink. 
rather, from winch are formed nooch, kooch, itc. So in the following ex- 
ample : 



OP THE LENNI LENAPE INDIANS. 

[OK Nol \-.J 



101 



. Ichpoan, Bread. 



Singula! . 
$ poanum, my bread 
KMappoanaum, thy bread 
Wdappoanum, bis broad 



Plural 

N'dappoanummena i bread 

K'dappoanuntoit a, youi bread 
W'dappoanumowawall, their bread. 



The following examples are sufficient to point out the general form of 
numerical declension : 



llaki/iacan. the Geld or plantation, 

Singular. 

N Nihacan, my plantation 
R'dakihacan, thy plantation 

W 'dakiti.u mil his plantation 

Plural. 
V, 1 Aitiacanena, our plantation 
K'dakihacanena, your plantation 
W'daliihacanowawall, their plantation. 



lluschkiitk, the eye or sight. 
Singular. 

N'-, I, kink, my -i^ht or eye 
Keachkink, thj right in eye 
H usi hknik, hia sjghl • >> eye 

Plural. 

■Ncsrlikinkuna. ouraigfat 01 
Eeschldnbinra, your sight or eye 
WuscbJdnkuwawail, their >i K bt' or eye. 



The singular with plural and the double plural are formed as in the 
former examples. 

The termination naninga is employed in the double plural, when 
speaking of deceased persons. 



i.\ WIPLES. 



Nochena, our father 
Noch>-nana, our fathers 
Nipi 'heiianinga, our deceased fathers 
Muchomsena, our grandfather 



Muchotnscnaninga, our deceased grandfathers 
KiniachtenaniDga, our deceased brothera 
( beanrassenaninga, mir deceased listen 

(Johcsseuaninga, our deceased motlieis. 



Substantives without the prefixed pronouns are generally inflected in 
the plural by ail ox ak. the former termination being applied to inanimate 
and tin latter to animate objects. Trees and the larger plants are con- 
sidered animate. There are some exceptions to this rule, as for instance 
names8aU, fishes, which takes the inanimate termination ; hut they arc not 
numerous. 



II .iklhar.ih ill, plant 

Men ichgaquall, fern e taJb 

dl f riversi creeks 
\ 11. houses 

(J teneyall, cities, towns 



Lennowak, men 
Ochquewak, women 
Amemenaak, children 

VOL. III.- 



i \ IMP] l - 
l/miiiiiiate Form. 



AchsinaD, itonej 

l 'laki i< 

\ , li-l ill, eanoca 

' i vi. ill, ihlpi 

meat or flesh. 



.IniiiKih Form. 



Unangan equak, large fishes 
ITiposa .. hi d , fowls 
\> bJUUttmlnschUk, sugar trees 



102 



GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

[of nouns.] 



Wschumaissak, cows, calves 
Nenayungesak, horses 
Hi quak or liitgook, trees 



Tscholensak, birds 
Tsquallak, frogs. 



Substantives derived from active or neutral verbs take in the plural 
the termination ik : 



EXAMPLES. 



Wcnitschanit, father or mother, parent, from 
Wentschikin, to descend, grow out of) 

Wenitschanitschik, parents 

Wdallemansitschik, the owners of cattle, birds, 
fowls, &c. 

Pemsitschik, those who are going 



Peyatschik, those who are coming 
Elemussitschik, those who are going away 
Wikhetschik, the cultivators of the earth 
Mikemossitschik, labouring people 
Mannachetschik, hewers of wood 
Elauwitschik, hunters. 



Of the various kinds of Substantives. 

The substantive combines itself in this language vvitli almost every part 
of speech, but principally with the verb. We have seen those immediately 
derived from active or neutral verbs : we shall now proceed to others of 
an analogous description. 

1. There are substantives derived from passive verbs: they end in iva- 
gan and have no plural : 

EXAMPLES. 



honour, the being ho- 



Machelemuxowagan 
noured 

Gettemegelemuxowagan, the being shewn fa- 
vour, mercy, tenderness 

Mamschalgussowagan, the being held in re- 
membrance 

Mamiutochimgussowagan, the being esteeroed 

Wulakenimgussowagan, the being praised 

And many others of the same kind. 



Machelemoachgenimgussowagan, the receiv- 
ing honour and praise 
Amangachgenimgusswagan, the being raised or 

elevated by praise 
Schingalgussowagan, the being taken 
Mamachtschimgussowagan, the beiug insulted 
Pilsohalgussowagan, holiness, purity 



Note. — It might, indeed, be said that substantives in this language 
have a passive mood, so nearly are they allied to verbs, as will be shewn 
in its place. 

2. There are, moreover, substantives which are akin to participles, 
such as, 

Ahoalgussit, the beloved 
Mi( -hclcmuxit, the honoured 
Nilchgussit, the killed 
Lckhikit, the one who is writing 



Mikemossit, the one who is labouring, the la- 
bourer 
Nanbillowit, the one who takes care of the dead 
Schingaluesit, the enemy, the adversary. 



3. There are also those which are derived from verbs but assume the 
character of participles, such as, 



Ppmmauchsow&ganit, he who is living 
\hoaltowagaiiit, he who is love 
Wulainorwaganit, he who is the truth 
Wacheyekumuil, he who is the li^hi 
Wdallcmunsit, the owner of the cattle 



Wewikit, the master of the house 
Weiiilsch.itiil, ,[ child's father or mother 
Gettemagelowaganit, he who is mercy 
Tschitanessowagauit, he who is strength. 



OF THE IXNNI LENAPB INDIANS. 

[of nouns.] 



103 



4. There are also substantives formed of two substantives together, or 
a substantive with an adjective or verb : 



Yagawan, a hut 



EXAMPLES. 

i hen or fowl. 



From which two words are formed. 



Tipasi^awan, the hen coop 
Qoschgoschieawan, the bog sty 

Mosigawau, the cow stable 

Also, 

Pemauchsowaptonamik, the word of lifo 
WulelendaJOMW^tonamik, the glad titling 

gospel 

Ktemakauschsowagan, .1 poor miserable life 
Inachtapan, bad. stormy weather. 

Mutalugacan, a bad wicked servant 



id 



Pitawikham, the front roof of a house 
Patamocwigaw in, a house of prayer, (the Lord's 
house, I "'I Pauunawos, God, the Lord). 



Pallalogasowagan, crime, evil deed 
M ttl dogasowagan, « wicked, -uil'ul act 
t discontent, unhappuiess 

I schitanatenawagan, strength ol the spirit of the 

inn. i in. in 
ix-chtcchaiiilisuwagan, a holy life and conduct. 



Diminutives are formed by the suffix tit*, as, 



Am- in. us. amementit, a little child 

Nitschan, nitsrhantit, my little friend (from 

Niu-. In. 'ii. 1; a coaxing expression used by 

parents tn their children) 
PDawetschitseh, ptlawetit, a little boy 
Ochquetit or quelil, a little girl 
Liiiii'iiii. ■ little man 
Wikwjiniit, a little room (house) 
Sipotit, a little creek or brook 



Hilguttit, a little tree 

. iiit, .i pig 
Tipatii, a chicken 
Motit, a little calf 

ArbjiD.intit. i little loaf or little piece of bread 
(lyuin. ,i little piece "i meat (us i- given to chil- 
dren) 
Tscholeiitit, a little bird— Tscholentittak, [Plur.) 



OF ADJECTIVES. 

There are not many of these, because those words, which with us are 
adjectives, here are verbs, and although they are aol inflected through 
all the persons, yet they It tv I inses. ["he a Ijectives proper end in uwi 
and oivi, and art; derived sometimes from Bubstantivea and Bometimes from 
verbs. 

I.\ WIN I s 



Hallcmiwi, eternal 

Genamnwi, grateful; from genam, thanks 

rgauchsawi l* I, kind; Inn .to be 

good Of kind 



Wulelendamuwi, merry; from wulelendain, to re- 
joice, t'> be i"\ ful at m< 

chanquiwi, spiritual; from irtschltschank, 
the spirit 



• .Voir by thr Translator — The diminutive tit i- only BSed In the iniiii.it.- gender. In Ihe 

iri.iiiiui ite the termination ' ived, as urikwantei, ,< -mill li tuse, amocholet, \ small ca 

[d etty tittle animal, the liminutive form Is i$,tchu,o\ mamalu, the 

lawn "I i deer, kuligaUehit, lh) prettj little tw ! 9ee tin' Pn nice | rhi re i • ■ ne eia p 
tion- to tlii- rule, a- lur instance, aBumei, a little dog;, In which thi in oimate dimlnutivi 

ployed, but these are not miii • 



104 



GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

[of nouns.] 



Hakeyiwi, corporeal ; from hakey, the body 
Pommauchsuwij living ; from pommauchsin, to 

live 
Wdehiwi, lieaity, cordial; from Wdehin, the 

heart 
Ahoaltiwi, loving; from ahoalan, to love 
Wachtuchwepiwi, personal, bodily ; from waeh- 

tuchwepi, the body, the flesh 
Pilsuwi, piluwi, clean, chaste; from pilsin, to be 

clean or chaste 
Wulatenamuwi, wulatenarnowi, happy; from 

wulatenamen, to be happy 
Wulamallessuwi, well, happy; from wulamalles- 

sin, to be in health or happy 
Allowiwi, more, yet more 

Nungiwi, trembling; from nungihillan,to tremble 
Schauwewi, tired, weak ; from schauchsin,to be 

weak 
Nolemiwi, invisible, unseen 
Apendawi, useful ; from apendamen,to enjoy, to 

make use of 
Mattelemuwi, contemptible ; from mattelendam, 

to despise 
Angellowi, anglowi, mortal ; from angel, to die 
Mboiwi, mortal; mboiwi wochganall, dead bones; 

from mboagan, death 
Awendamowi, awendamuwi, painful; from awen- 

dam, to suffer pain 
Ayandamuwi, ayandamowi, to desire, wish for 
Machtamallessuwi, indisposed, sick; from mach- 

tamalsin, to be sick 
Machtalenamuwi, discontented; from machtale- 

namen, to be dissatisfied or discontented 
Mhukuwi, bloody; from mhuk, blood 
Moschiwi, clear, luminous 
Tengandasuwi, pierced through 
Petapaniwi, at break of day; from petapan, the 

day breaks 
Nipahwi, at night, by night 
>Vschitscbanquiwi, ghostly, spiritual 



Gisehguniwi, in the day, by day 
Sedpokuniwi, early in the morning 
Wuschginquiwi, face to face; from wuschgink. 

face 
Wewatamowi, wise, prudent ; from wewoatam. 

to be wise 
Matiauchsuwi, sinful; from mattauchsin, to sin 
Mayauchsuwi, of one mind; from mayauchsin, to 

be of one mind 
Langomuwi, friendly, peaceably disposed 
Gettemagelensuwi, humble: from gettemagel- 

ensin, to be humble 
Gektemagelemuwi, gettemageluwi, merciful; 

from gettemagelin, to be merciful 
Allowelemuwi, valuable; from allowelenden, to 

esteem, value 
Wonattamowi, weak, impotent; from wonatam, 

to be weak, impotent 
Schahowapewi, heartless, desponding 
Awullsittamuwi, obedient ; from awulsittam, to 

be obedient 
Achwandoguwi, very peaceable 
Amemensuwi, childish; from amemens, child 
Schacachgapewi, an honest man, (from Schac- 

achgapewin, to be just, upright) 
Nihillowewi, murderous ; from nihillowen, to put 

to death, to murder 
Machelemuwi, honourable; from machelendam. 

to honour 
Langundowivi, peaceful, peaceable 
Tachpachiwi, little, tow 
Tachpachelensuwi. little, low, humble 
Wilawi, rich, valuable 
Askiwi, raw 

Tangelensuwi, tangitchewi, humble, modest 
Schawelemuwi, miserable, painful, burthensome; 

from schawelendam, to be burthened with 

sorrow, labour, or trouble 
Scattewi, burning 
Scattewi wdeliin, a burning heart. 



There are also adjectives with other terminations, as 

ood for nothing 



Nenapalek, unworthy 

Segachtek, ardent 

Segachtek ahoaltowan, an ardent love 

Srhcwek, weak, tired 

Wingimaktek, odoriferous, of good smell 

Nundeyek, defective 

Scattek, burning, ardent 

Wisawek, yellow 

Wapelechen, white 

A^gask, green 



Tekek, cold 

Kschittek, warm, hot 

Geschtek, ripe, cooked or done 

Allowad, allohak, powerful, strong 

Mequik, bloody 

Mechek, large, great 

Ktemaki, poo., miserable, infirm 

Gunigischuk, daily 

Esseni, stony, flinty ; from achsiu, a stone. 



DEGREES OF COMPARISON. 
The Comparative is expressed by allowiwi, more. 



OF THE LENNI LENAPE INDIANS. 

[of nouns. ] 



lOj 



KX Wll'l I S 



Wulit, good 

Comp. Ulowiwi wulit, more good, better 

Mchinqui, great 

Comp. Allowiwi m'chek, greater 



w abhellemat, wide 

Ulow iwi wahhellemat, wider 
There are some exceptions) as, 
Ika, yonder. Ik.dissi, further. 



The Superlative is expressed by eluiri, must or the most. 



i \ Wll'l I g 



Eluwiwulik, the very best, the supremely good 
Ulowilen, ehiwilek, that which is above everj 

lliuiil 
Eluwantowit, God above all 
Kluwiahoalgussit, the beloved above all things 



Eiuwassit, the most powerful, the most majestic 
Eluwitschitanessit, 1 1 ■ * - strongest of all 
Eluwitschiecbsit, the mostholy 
Eluwitakauwussit, the best, the supremely good 
Eluwilissit, the most gracious one 



OF GENDERS. 



The Rentiers in the Delaware are not divided as in our languages into 
masculine and feminine, but into animate and inanimate. To the former 
class belong trees and all plants of a large growth; annual plants and 
grasses to the latter. Adjectives of the former class grmialh end in t, 
those of the latter in A:. The masculine and feminine, where it is neces- 
sary to discriminate, are expressed in various ways. 

EXAMPLES. 



Animate, masculine and feminine, welsit, the 

best 
Inanimate, welbik, the beet 
.■Imntate, masculine and feminine, gunaxit, 

great, long 
Jniimnuiii , gunaquot, great, long 
eschiechsit, pun-, holy 
fmitumaft , geschiechek, pure, holy 

Allimati . piNlt. purr, i h 

Iiuinimitte, pilbik. purr, clean 

Animate, allauchsit, allowat, strong, mighty 

Inanimate, allohak, strong, mighty 



. hamate, scheuchsit, weak 
Inanimate, schawek, weak 
Animate, metzil, bad, tricked 
Inanimate, medhik, bad, uiekcd 
Animate, wacheyekumuil, he who is the liijht 
Inanimate, waeheyek. the ligbl 
.lmmiitt. pommauchsowaganit, be who is die 
life, from pommauchson &g in, life 
aft . lenk'iiii. rhe little 
liuuumati . leimettik, the little 



Speaking of quadrupeds, the masculine is generally expressed l>\ hn 
nowechum, which signifies the male of beasts, thus : 

Lennowechum nenaynnges, moccanen, gosch- i And of fowls and hiids, 

goscli. tlie male .,| tlie horse, dog, hog | Lennowelielleu, the Dale ol fowls, { 

The feminine of the human species is expressed as follows : 



Orhqueu. a woman 
Ochqnewak) women 
OchquetschitscD, .1 girl 
Orbdonm^, a woman's co 
Wast 1 nans, the eldei brothei 
hi in \li-, the elder sister 
* besmui ,thi rothei or riste \>> n bii !. 

is prefixed in the masculine, lenno, man. 

\ (»!,. 111. il I) 



and in the feminini ochqw fromochqueu. 

Woman 

Mate Rrfuchomes, the grandfather 

/■v in 1 Miiiiii. the grandinothei 
Nolium, kohum, ohumall, my, thy, bis or he 
grandmothei 

!.'■' 1 No 'Ink. in\ uncle 
1 1 m Piwitak, ibe aunt 



106 



GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

[of nouns.] 



The females of fowls and birds are called ochquehelleu, and those of 
quadrupeds ochquechum : 



Nunschetto.a doe 



| Nunscheach, a she bear. 



OF NUMERALS. 
Numerals may also be classed among adjectives, and are as follows : 

Nguttapachki attach newinaehke 140 

Nguttapachki attach palenach tchenachke 150 

Nguttapachki attach guttasch tchenachke 160 

Nguttapachki attach nischasch tchenachke 170 

Nguttapachki attach chasch tchenachke ISO 

Nguttapachki attach peschkonk tchenachke 190 



Ngutti ... 


1 


Nischa - 


2 


Nacha ... 


3 


Newo - 


4 


Palenach ... 


5 


Guttasch 


6 


Nischasch - 


7 


Chasch 


8 


Peschkonk - - - 


9 


Tellen - 


10 


Telk-ii attach* ngutti 


11 


Tellen attach nischa 


12 


Tellen attach nacha 


13 


Tellen attach newo - 


14 


Tellen attach palenach 


15 


Tellen attach guttasch 


16 


Tellen attach nischasch - 


17 


Tellen attach chasch 


18 


Tellen attach peschkonk 


19 


Nischinachke 


20 


Nischinachke attach ngutti 


21 


Nischinachke attach nischa 


22 


Nischinachke attach nacha 


23 


Nischinachke attach newo 


24 


Niscliinachke attach palenach 


25 


Nischinachke attach guttasch 


26 


Nischinachke attach nischasch 


27 


Nischinachke attach chasch 


28 


Nischinachke attach peschkonk 


29 


Nachenachke 


30 


Nachenachke attach ngutti 


31 


And so forth to 39 




Newinaehke 


40 


Palenach tchenachke 


50 


Guttasch tchenachke 


60 


Nischasch tchenachke 


70 


Chasch tchenachke 


80 


Peschkonk tchenachke 


90 


Nguttapachki 


ioo 


Nguttapachki attach gutti 


101 


Nguttapachki attach tellen 


110 


Nguttapachki attach tellen wak ngutti 


111 


Nguttapachki tellen v\ ;ik nischa 


112 


Nguttapachki tellen wak nacha 


113 


Nguttapachki tellen wak newo 


111 


And w forth '»119 




Nguttapachki attach nischinachke 


120 


Nguttapachki attach nachenachke 


130 



Nischapachki 

Nachapachki 

Newopachki 

Palenach tchapachki 

Guttasch tchapachki 

Nischasch tchapachki 

Chasch tchapachki 

Peschkonk tchapachki 

Tellen tchen tchapachki, or ngutti kitta- 

pachki 
Nischen kittapachki 
Nachen kittapachki 
Newon kittapachki 
Palenach tchen kittapachki 
Guttasch tchen kittapachki 
Nischasck tchen kittapachki 
Chasch tchen kittapachki 
Peschkonk tchen kittapachki 
Tellen tchen kittapachki 
Nischinachk tchen kittapachki. 
Nachenachk tchen kittapachki 
Newinachk tchen kittapachki 
Palenach tchenachk tchen kittapachki 
Guttasch tchenachk tchen kittapachki 
Nischasch tchenachk tchen kittapachki 
Chasch tchenachk tchen kittapachki 
Peschkonk tchenachk tchen kittapachki 
Nguttapachki tchen kittapachki 



200 
300 
400 
500 
600 
700 
S00 
900 

1000 
2000 
3000 
4000 
5000 
6000 
7000 
8000 
9000 
10,000 
20,000 
30,000 
40,000 
50,000 
60,000 
70,11(10 
80,000 
90,(100 
10(1,(100 
Nischapachki tchen kiltapachki 20(1,000 

Nachapachki tchen kittapachki 300,000 

Palenach tchapachki tchen kittapachki 500,000 
Guttasch tchapachki tchen kittapachki 600,(100 
Nischasch tchapachki tchen kittapachki 7(10,(100 
Chasch tchapachki tchen kittapachki 800,000 
Peschonk tchapachki tchen kittapachki 900,000 

We may either say 
Tellen tchapachki tchen kittapachki, 

ten humlieit times one thousand 1,000,000 
or 
Ngutti kittapachki tchen kittapachki, 

one thousand times one thousand 1,000,000 



.Voir In/ llu Translator.— -Attach mc;uis in \ ive (Zeisberger's Vocab.). 

Irn, attach ngutti means ten and one over, beyond, above, more. 



So that ti !■ 



OF THE LENNI LEHAPB INDIANS. 

[OF NiM MS. ] 



107 



Note. — Kittapachki, from kitta, great, properly means the great hun- 
dred. 



Kilt.tn, a great river 
Kittahican, the great ocean 



IKittoaltewall, the great ships 
Kitt.iiiitiowii, the Great Almighty Uod. 
And so on in many other in.-t, 



Able. — Although few of the Indians an- accusi id to calculate, so far 

as »■!_■ have seen. and in general they do not trouble themselves much ul><>ul 
it, because they have no use for it, yet their language lias the means of 
doing it as well as ours. Since the Europeans have been among them, and 
particularly since the wars, they have got more into the use of it. the 
armies having afforded them more frequent opportunities. The number 
of times is thus expressed : 



N : ten, once 
Nischeo, twice 
N i. Inn, 3 times 
\ tea, 4 times 
Palenach tchen, 5 < 

• ■It tchen, 6 times 
Nischasch tchen, 7 timed 
( b isch tchen, 8 times 
Peschkonk tchen, 9 times 
Tellen tchen, 10 times 



reDen tchen attach gutti, 1 1 timi - 
Tellen tchen attach nischa, 12 times, be. 
Nicbinachk tchen, 20 nines 
N.i. h. ii i, lik tchen, •'!" times 
Nouciiaehk tchen, 411 times 
Palenach tchenachk tchen, 50 times 
Guttasch tchenachk tchen, 60 times 
Nischasch tchenachk tchen. 7" limes 
t'li.i-ili tchenachk tchen, 90 tines 
Ngutta pacliki tchen, 100 times, &c. 



Speaking of inanimate tilings, as towns, rivers, houses, &c. they say 



Mawal, ngutti, one, only one 

And ui Hit Plural 
\i>< henol, 2 
! NjschenoD oteneyall, wikwahcmall, tiposall, 

wachtschawall, two towns, houses, rivers, 

mountains, ice.) 

N.iclieni'l. 3 

Nl'IM'lM'l. I 

I ' a ich tchennol. B 
Guttasch tchennol, 6 



Nischasch tchennol, 7 
i Ihasch tchennol, 8 
r.-.hkonk tchennol, 9 
Tellen tchennol, 10 

TelleO tchennol attach gntli, 11 
Tellen tchennol attach nischa, 12 
Tellen tchennol attach Dacha, 18 
Nischinachk tchennol, 30 
Nachenachk tcbenn 
Til. -ii ai htchennachk tchennol, 60 
pacliki tchennol, 100 



When men, animals, or other things are spoken of, which among the 
Indians are considered as belonging to the animated class "I beings, 

tin \ say : 

M uchsa, mayauchsu, one i>.r-"n. or a person, 
or living being 
It is truly incorret ' to - .\ . 

tan, Dgutti ochqueu, a woman. 



In the Plural tht y ray 
Nischowak lennowak, ochquewak, amemensak, 
wdallemanaaJt, tipaaak,8Lc. two men, wo- 
men, children, beasts, fowls, i*c. t^c. 
No hoik, 3 
N. \ uwak, I 

'. tchoak, .*> 
'Jullasch tele 



Nisch i-ili tchoak, 7 
<h .-eh tchc i 

■ I, k ii boat . 9 
Tellen t. noak, 10 
Tellen tchoak attach cutti. 11 
Tellen tchoak attach m-, ha, 12 
i, I... ik ittai h ii... h.i, 18 

u lik tchoak, 20 
boak, 80 
Ngutapachaowak, 100 

' n h iwak, 200 

■ h l. h i|i i. I. iwak, ".HO 

1 .11. i, i. b ipachawak, loon 



108 



GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

[of nouns.] 



ORDINAL NUMBERS. 



Netami, the first, (animate) 

N amiecfaen, the first, (inanimate) 

Tacquak, the second 



Nechit, the third 
Palenachtchit, the fourth 
Palenachtchegit, the fifth, &c. 



In the Preterite. 



Mauchsop, mayauchsop, there was one 

Ni-chopanik, there were two 

Na'-hopanik, there were three 

IV (vopanik, tliere were four 

P,ii ii.h-Ii tchopaniki there were five 

Tellen tchopanik, there were ten 

ft'ischiuachk tchopanik, there were twenty 



Nachenachk tchopanik, there were thirty 
Ngutta pachxopanik, there were a hundred 
Palcuach tchapachxopanik, there were five hun- 
dred 
Tellen tchapachxopanik, there were a thousand 
of them. 



OF THE COMPUTATION OF TIME. 

The days among the Indians are reckoned by nights. It is, however, 
not improper to say : 

Ngutti gischque, one day 
Nischa gischquewi, two days 



jNacha gischquewi, three days, &c. 



But the most proper and usual mode of computing nights, is 
lows : 



as 



fol- 



Nguttokuni, one night 
Nuktokuni, only ( ne night 
Nischogunak, two nights 
Nachogunak, three nights 
Newoguuak, four nights 



Palenach tchogunak, five nights 
Guttasch tchogunak, six nights 
Tellen tchogunak, ten nights 
Nischinachk tchogunak, twenty nights 
Newinachk tchogunak, forty nights, &.c. 



In the Preterite. 



The preterite is always connected with the plural, as below. You 
cannot say in the singular nguttokunakat, one night ago, as you say in 
the plural. You must say welaquik, last night, or ivulaque, yesterday. 

But speaking of several nights, you say : 



Nischokunakat, two nights ago 
Nachokunakat, three nights ago 
Ncwokunakat, four nights ago 
Palenach tchokunakat, five nights ago 
Tellen tchokunakat, ten nights ago 



Mischinachk tchokunakat, twenty nights ago 
Newinaschk tchokunakat. forty nights ago 
Palenach tchonachk tchokunakat, fifty nights 
ago. 



The Indians reckon their months by moons, from one new or full moon 
to another : 



Ngutti gischuch, one month 
Nischa gischuchak, two months 



j Naclia gischuchak, three months 
I Tellen tchi gischuchak, ten months. 



Their reckoning of the year is from one spring, summer, autumn, or 
winter, to another. They have properly no beginning of the year, ex- 
cept that they have learned from the Europeans to distinguish New 



Or THE LENNI LENAPE INDIANS. 
[of pbonotjns.] 



109 



Year's Day. Tliey reckon commonly from one seeding time to another, 
from the time when the deer are red in the Spring and grey in the Au- 
tumn, when the corn is ripe or cut down and laid up in heaps, iScc. and 



so back again. 

Ngutti gachtin, one year 
Nucha gachtin, two years 
Nacha gachtin, three years, &c. 
Ni-i Inn u-tik ntendchi gachtinami, 

years old 
Gaehdnamichamp {preterite), I 

years old 



The interval between is one year : 



I am twenty 
was twenty 



Newinachk tendchi gachlinamo, he is forty 

years old 
Newinachk tendchl gachtinamiyenk, we arc 



forty yean old 

Newinachk tendchi 
forty yean old 

Newinachk tendchi 
forty years old. 



gachtinamiyek, you are 
gachunauioak, they are 



NAMES OF THE MONTHS. 



Anixi gischuch (Squirrel month), January 
Tsqaafii gischuch i Frog month), February 
M'choamowi gischuch | Shad month), March 
Quitauwcuhcwi gischuch (Spring month), 

April 
Tauwinipen (Beginning of summer), May 
Kitschinipen (Summer), June 



Yugatamoewi gischuch, July 
Sakauweuhi'wi gischuch ( Dirr month,) AtlgUSl 
Eitscbitachquoak {Jtutwnn month |, Septembei 
Fooxit (Month of vermin), October 
Wini gischuch (Snort* month), November 
M'chakhocque (Cold month, the month when 
the cold makes the trees crack), December. 



.Vote by the Translator. — For the above explanation of the names of 
the months, the Translator is partly indebted to the Author's text, and 
partly to some notes of the late Professor Barton, which have supplied 
what was wanting in the original, except the meaning of the name of the 
month of July, which neither has explained. Loskiel calls it the month 
when the Indian corn is gathered. 



**.— <Df pronouns. 

Thf.mf. is little to be said about this part of speech, of which a view has 
already been given under the head of nouns. Personal pronouns are 
either separable or inseparable, but are much more frequently used in 
the latter form. 



The Separable Pronouns are . 



.Singular. 
Ni. I 
Ki. thou 
Nelca or nekarna, he or she 



Plural. 



Diana m niluna, we 

Kil'iw,i. you 
N'k.im.tw.i, they. 



The inseparable pronouns are in both numbers n' for the first person 
ff' iu the second, ir' in the third. When two pronouns are employed 
VOL. III. — a, E 



HO GRAMMAR OP THE LANGUAGE 

[of verbs.] 



in verbs, the last or the pronoun governed is expressed by an inflection, 
as in ft dahoalohhumo, I love you, k'dahoalineen, thou lovest us, kdaho- 
alawak, thou lovest them, as will be seen more fully under the head of 
conjugations. 

The possessive pronoun is the same as the personal, separable and 
inseparable, which is employed in a possessive sense. No ambiguity 
results from this similarity ; the meaning is always understood from the 
context or the form or inflexion of the word with which the pronoun is 
combined. 

The various combinations of these pronouns must be gathered from 
their connection with the other parts of speech, and cannot all be given 
under this head. Thus the personal pronoun combines itself with the 
conjunction also : 



Nepe, 1 also 
kepe, thou also 

Nepena or kepena, we also, (as the word is used 
in the general or particular plural) 



Kepewo, you also 
Kepoak, they also. 



Note by the Translator. — The particular plural refers to a certain 
description of persons, as we Delaivares, ive who are here together ; the 
other has a more general application, and shews that no discrimination 
is intended. In verbs, n prefixed (from niluna) indicates the particular 
and ft (from kiluna) the general plural, in the first person. See Hecke- 
welder's Corresp. in Histor. Trans, p. 429. The author is silent on this 
subject. 

DEMONSTRATIVE AND RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 

The modes of expressing these by various forms and combinations 
with other parts of speech are so numerous, that a few examples can only 
be given : 



Auwen, who .' 

Keku, ta, koen, what ? 

Auweni, who is he .' 

Auwcnik, who are they ? 

Won, this 

Na, nanne, nail, nan, that 

Wentschim na lenno ! call that man ! 

Naicka ni pawit, he that stands there 

Nil, nellnill, yuk, yullick, these 



Nik, nikik, those 
Weuii, all 

Wemi auween, every man 
Alende, some 
Alendemiyenk, some of us 
Alendemiyeek, some of you 
Alendeyuwak, some of them 
Mamayauchsiyenk, each of us 
Mamayauchsiyeek, each of you, &c. 



The remainder must be learned by practice. 



OF THE LENNI LENAPE INDIANS. 



Ill 



H*.-<Df Tnlis. 



There is a great variety of verbs in this language. To exhibit all 
their compound forma would be an endless task. Every part of speech 
may be compounded with the verb in many ways, as will be seen in the 
course of this work. 

The verbs to have and to be do not exist in the Delaware language, 
either as auxiliaries, or in the abstract substantive sense which they pre- 
sent to an European mind. The verb to have always conveys the idea 
of possession, and to be that of a particular situation of the body or mind, 
and they may be combined like other verbs with other accessary ideas. 
Thus the verb to have or possess is combined with the substantive, or the 
thing possessed, as follows : 



N'damochol, I have a canoe 
Wtamochol* he lias a canoe 
Matte a'damocholiwi, 1 have no canoe 
Voin ihic.ui. I have an axe 
Nowikin, t have a house 
W iku, he lias a house 



Wikuwek, they have a house 
N'dalleiiiansin, 1 have cattle 
Wtlallemansii, he has cuttle 
N'pachksik.m. I have a knife 
N'peyakhikan, I have a gun. 



The idea conveyed by the substantive verb to be is expressed by various 
combinations with other parts of speech, as for instance : 

With the Substantive. 

Nekamawa « M.iinochowawall, it is their canoe 
Ni n'dalloquepi, it is my bal 

Ki k'tlalloquepi, it is thy hat 

Nekatna wMalloqucpi, it is his oilier hnt 

Ni n'dacquiwan, it is my blanket. 



Ni nMamorhol, it is my canoe 

Ki k'damochol, it is thy canoe 

Nekama wMamochol, it is his or her canoe 

Kiluna tiMuuioehoh-iia, it is our canoe 

Kiluwa u'damocholuwa, it is your canoe 



Singular. 

I.wcnikia, who I am 
Kwunikian, who thou art 
Kwcnikit, who he is 



H ill* the Pronoun. 

. linn n, who. 



Plural, 
Ewenilriyenk, who we an 
EwenDriyek, who you arc 
Eweniidchtlt, who they are. 



Alemlemiycnk, some of us 
Alendemiyck, some ol you 



.llende, some. 

Plural. 

\l. mliiiiowak or alendcinichtit, some of them 



* JVolc li\f Ihe Translator. — The apostrophe- between the Inseparable pronoun and the noon ■ 
verb indicates a sheva or mute vowel. Eliot, in his Massachusetts Grammar, indicates it by the 
Boglish short » he would write, foi Instance, nultoppin [01 n'dappirt This apostrophe II 

times omitted in the course ol (Ins grammar, hut i- ilw tyi to be lindi rtood 



112 GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

[of verbs.] 

The idea of the verb to be is also combined with adjectives and 
adverbs, as will be seen under the heads of " adjective and adverbial 
verbs." 

OF THE CONJUGATIOiNS. 
There are eight conjugations. 
The first ends in in, as 

Achpin, to be there, in a particular place | Mikemossin, to work. 

The second ends in a, (Infinitive in an,) as 

N'da, I am going | Paan, to come. 

The third ends in elendam, and indicates a disposition of the mind, as 

Schiwelendam, to be sorry | Wulelendam, to be glad. 

The fourth ends in men, as 

N'gattamen, I request | N'pendamen, I hear. 

The fifth ends in an, as 

Ahoalan, to love. 

The sixth ends in e or we (infinitive en), as 

N'dellowe, I say | Infin. Luen, to say. 

The seventh ends in in. It has no simple active or passive voice, and 
is only conjugated through the personal forms or transitions, as 

Miltin, to give. 

The eighth ends in ton — has the simple active, but not the passive 
form, and has the personal indicative and subjunctive transitions, as 

Peton, to bring | N'peton, 1 bring. 

The same inseparable pronouns are used with the verbs as with the 
substantives. The letters which indicate the pronoun, and are prefixed 
to the verb, are n, k. and iv or o. They must be pronounced, with a 
short interval, when followed by a consonant. 



OF THE LENNI LENAPE INDIANS. 113 

[of verbs.] 

JFfott Coiijurj.itioii. 
No. I. 



POSITIl'E FORM. 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Achpin, to be there, in a particular place. 

PARTICIPLE. 

lingular. Plural. 

Epit", he who is there, being there | Epitschik, those being there 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 



Present Tense. 



Singular. 
N'dappin. I am there ( Lai adsum) 
K'dappin, thou .nt there 
(1 pin or achpin, he is there 



Plural. 
N'dappinecn or n'dappitiheno, we arc thcrcf 
K'dappihhimo, you are then 
Wdappinewo, lltcy an- there. 



.Vote. — Th:: plural is formed by suffixes as in the substantives, and the 
prefixes are preserved. 



Preterite. 



nlar. 
NM.ippineep orn'dappihuuip. 1 was there 
K ineepor Ic'dappilramp, thou wen there 

H ippiucep or achpop, he was there 



Plural. 
NMappibhenap, we were there 
K'dappiliimoap. ye were there 
Aclipo)' umik, they wore tlicre. 



• \'te by the Translator- I I in the sense of the preposition at. Philadelphia epit. 
at Philadelphia, or beingal Philadelphia.- Hoi rp. p. lio- 

* .\'»te by the Translator.— 'i)n* i> the particular plural iMiullfld, and 

ins who we pokenof; wnon aeral idea i- meant to be conveyed, 

another Sena i-* made use "I. and the in I I "I the pro- 

noun u. '1 1 1 1 1 - n'i>. nanu od n'penaameen " tns, wo who are here assembled 

!>iii it the plu d is used in a ense, it should bo k'penameen, k'pendamttiu 

Bee Hecken I in i His) Trans 128 The authot makes no menti I this G 

which is, howevi i toe hidlan languages, tabu 

been observed m thi ■ i did not write i"i Philologists and in- Ian man) curi- 

ous facts respecting the forms "t tin- language entirel) unnoticed, and to ; " aoanJred bj i 
l .i .Hi these interesting nil 

correspondence "i M H» where the] «ill find ena fj theii curiosity. 

rhe reader wO • vo differenl forms n'dap) dappi- 

hemti the words, wi Be dor- the same in many places Ih ougboul these 

•inn- This ^l I' -ii.l. was then ih.- inflect - "i the Delaware 

veit.- in tin- t'natm and ili»- .Unci dialect . and be promised to point oul to 'in- Translator, which 
belonged to tin' ■" . to the other. But he died beture he could lultil In- promise 

VOL. III. Z I 



114 



GRAMMAR OP THE LANGUAGE 

[first conjugation.] 



Future. 

The future is characterized by tsch; it is to be observed that when the 
verb is preceded by an adverb, preposition, or inseparable pronoun, it is 
frequently added to it. 

EXAMPLE. 

Plural. 
Kepenatsch n'dappineen,weshall orwill be there 
Witschitsch k'dappihhimo, ye shall or wiH be 

there 
Nekamawaktsch w'dappinewo, they shall or will 
be there. 



Singular. 
Ikatseh n'dappin, I shall or will be there 
Kepeisch k'dappin, thou shalt or wilt be there 
Nekamatsch w'dappin, he shall or will be there 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



Singular. 
Achpil,be or stay thou there 
Achpitetseh, let him or he shall or must be or 

stay there 
Achpitam, do thou let us be or stay there 



Plural. 
Achpik, be or stay ye there" 
Achpititetseh, let them or they shall or must be 

or stay there 
Achpitamook, do ye let us be or stay there. 



Note by the Translator. — There is such a compound mixture of per- 
sons and numbers in this mood, that it is impossible to designate either 
by marginal annotations. It is not one of the least remarkable particu- 
larities of this singular language. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



Singular. 
Achpiya, when or if I am there 
Achpiyane, when or if thou art there 
Achpite, when or if he is there 



Plural. 
Achpiyenke, when or if we are there 
Aehpiyeque, when or if ye are there 
Achpichtite, when or if they are there. 



Preterite. 



Singular. 
Arhpiyakup, as or when I was there 
Acbpiyanup, as or when thou waBt there 
Achpitup, as or when he was there 



Plural. 
Achpiyenkup, as or when we were there 
Aehpiyekup, as or when ye were there 
Achpichtitup, as or when they were there 



Singular. 
Achpiatpanne, if I had been there 
Achplanpanne, ifthouhadst been there 

Arhpitpaime, if he had been there 



Pluperfect. 

Plural. 
Achpiyenkpanne, if we had been there 
Achpiyekpanne, if ye had been there 
Achpichtitpanne, if they had been there. 



Note. — The subjunctive lias only a pluperfect in the active and passive 
voices, but not otherwise. 



OF THE LENNI LENAPE INDIANS. 
[first conjugation.] 



115 



I'ti tun - 



Singular. 

Achpfyaktseh, ii i'i when I am ot shall be then 

Achpiyanetsch, if or when thou art or shalt be 

\chpitctsch, if or when he is or shall be there 



Plural. 
Achpiyenkctsch, if or when wc arc or shall bu 

there 
Achpiyequetsch, if or when ye arc or shall be 

■here 
Achpichtitetsch, if or when they are or shall be 

there. 



Another form of this verb which may be called Adverbial. 

Prest ni. 



Singular. 
I i 'M. where I am 
K['i.u», where thou art 
Epit, where he is 



.Singular. 
F.piakup, where I was 
Epiyannup, wheie thou wast 
Epitup, where he was 



Singular. 

Tatschta epia, where I shall he 
Tatschta epian. where thou shalt be 
Tatschta epit, w here he shall be 



Plural. 
Epiyenk, where we are 
i k. where ye are 

Epichtit, where tiiey are. 



Preterite. 



Plural. 
Epiyenkap, where wc were 
Epiyekup, where ye were 
Epichtitup, where they were. 



Future. 



Plural. 



Tatschta epiyenk, where we shall be 
Tatschta eplyeek, where ye -ball be 
Tatschta epichtit, where they shall lie 



NEGATIVE FORM. 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 
(Aor given.) 



INDICATE E MOOD. 



Singular. 

M Ha ri'ihppiwi. 1 mi in'i than 
Malta k'dapi mi, ihon ut not then 
M.iii.i w'dappiwi, In- 1" not then 



Singular, 
afatta d dapphi Ep, I wai ool then 
Malta k'dappiwlp, thou waal not there 
Matta w'tUppiwip, he was not then 



Present. 



Plural. 



M.'i i n'.i ipprwtmeen, we .in- not then 
M 'dappiwihhuno, ye an • ■ • >t then 

Malta aebpiwiwak, they an not then. 



I'n I, nl, . 



Plural. 

M 'Hi o'dappiwunenap, we wen ool there 
Malta k'dapplwihhimoap, \< wen doi then 
I Malta achpiwipannik, la J wan not tbi • 



116 



GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

[first conjugation.] 



Future. 



Singular. 
Matta n'dappiwitsch, I shall or will not be there 
Matta k'dappiwitsch, thou shalt or wilt not be 

there 
Matta w'dappiwitsch, he shall or will not be 

there 



Plural. 
Matta n'dappiwuneentsch, we shall or will not 

be there 
Matta k'dappiwihhimotseh, ye shall or will not 

be there 
Matta achpiwiwaktsch, they shall or will not be 

there. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

(Not given.) 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



Singular. 
Matta aehpiwake, when or if I am not there 
Matta achpiwonne, when or if thou art not there 
Matta achpique, when or if he is not there 



Plural. 

Matta achpiwenke, when or if we are not there 

Matta achpiweque, when or if ye are not there 

Matta achpichtique, when or if they are not 

there. 



Preterite. 



Singular. 
Matta achpiwakup, when or if I was not there 
Matta achpiwonnup, when or if thou wast not 

there 
Matta achpikup, when or if he was not there 



Plural. 
Matta achpiwenkup, when or if we were not 

there 
Matta achpiwekup, when or if ye were not there 
Matta achpichtitup, when or if they were not 

there. 



Pluperfect. 

Singular. | Plural. 

Matta achpiwakpanne, if 1 had not been there Matta achpiwenkpanne, if we had not been there 
Matta achsiwonpanne, if thou hadst not been i Matta achpiwekpanne, if ye had not been there 
there Matta achpichtikpanne, if they had not been 

Matta achpikpanne, if he had not been there ' there. 



Future. 



Singular. 
Matta achpiwaklsch", when or if I shall not be 

there 
Matta achpiwounctsch, when or if thou shalt not 

be there 
Matta achpiquetsch, when or if he shall not be 

there 



Plural. 
Mattatsch aehpiwenque, when or if we shall 

not be there 
Mattatsch achpiweke, when or if ye shall not 

be there 
Mattatsch achpichtique, when or if they shall 

not be there. 



* Note by the Translator. — It will be observed that tsrh, the sign of the future, is here affixed 
in the singular to the adverb, and in the plural the verb is inflected by it. It will be found, in the 

preceding page, c bined in both numbers with the adverb ta, which signifies, where. 1 have 

been informed by Mr Heckewvlilei, that either form may be adopted, whether in the singular or 
plural, and thai the eai is the best guide in such cases. So the negative may be expressed by 
atta or matta, as the ear directs. 



OF THE LENNI LENAPE 1NOIANS. 

[FIRST i os. II i. \ I 1 1 in . | 



117 



X... II. 

Lissix, to be or do bo, to be bo situated, disposed, or acting. 



rosmrh: inn </ 



I.\TIMTI\ I. Mool). 
Present. I Preterite. 



Lissin, to be or do so 



Lissineep, to have beeu, or done so 

Future. 

Lissinitscb, to be or u> do bo al •> future lime. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



Singular. 
NMeBsiD, I am or do so 

KM. -ll-ni, llioii art or dost so 
W'dellsiu, he is or does so 



Singular. 

Vdidlsinecp, I was or did so 
KMellsineep, thou wert or didst so 
W'dellsineep, he was or did so 



Plural. 

Vdrllsineen. we are or do so 
R'deUsihbimo, ye are or do so 
\N 'dellsinewo, they are or do so*. 



Preterite. 



I Plural. 

NMi-ll-ilihonap, we were or did BO 
K'dellsihhimoap, ye were ot did bo 
Wdellsinewoap, the] wereoi did so, 



Future. 



ular. 

NaDtsch n'deusin, I ihall m «ill be or do 
Nantscfa k'dellsin, thou shall or wDI be 01 
Naotsch w'dettsin, he shall ot will be or do so 



Plural. 

Nantseb n'dellsineen, wo shall or wOl be <>rdos° 
Nantseb k'd.ll-ihlin ye shall or will be ■>' 

Nantsch w*dellsinewo, they ihall 01 will 
do so, 



. Inother form oftht Future. 

'ilar. 
NMeDsiDtchi, I shall be or do so 
K'delbintchi, thou shall beoi do so 

u Isinti bi i ■ -hall be or do so 



Plural. 
PrMellsineentsch, we shall be or do so 
K'dellsioewotscb, ye Bh dl 
W'delhdnewotsch, Ihej shall be or do so. 



• .V»r.- /.i/ IA4 Translator. — The verbs ending in ri and in are 1 onjiu ited ic< ording '•■ this rule, 

and In though nol aln tys, to prefixed and uori to the third pen 1 the 

singular. Examples; aekpin, to be there— w'dappm or aehpo hn is th 
paint, he Is sick ; rmAenwsstn, to work— miAemossn hi work Bb< 



VOL. 111. — 5 G 



118 



GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

[first conjugation.] 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



Singular. 
Lissil, be or do thou so 

Singular with Plural. 
Lissitam, do thou let us be or do so 

Singular. 
Lissititsch, be or do he so ; he shall be or do so 



Plural. 
Lissik, be or do ye so 

Double Plural. 
Lissitamook, do you let us be or do so 

Plural. 
Lissichtititsch, let them be or do so ; they shall 
be or do so. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



Singular. 
i,issiye, ifl am or do so 
Lissiyanne.if thou art 01 doestso 
Lissite, it' he is or does so 



Singular. 
Lissiyakup, if I was or did so 
Lissiyauuup, if thou wert or didst so 
Lissitup, if he was or did so 



Singular. 
Lissiakpanne, ifl had been or done so 
Lissiyanpanne, if thou hadst been or done so 
Lissitpanne, if he had been or done so 



Plural. 
Lissiyenke, if we are or do so 
Lissiyeque, if ye are or do so 
Lissichtite, if they are or do so. 



Preterite. 



Plural. 
Lissiyenkup, if we were or did so 
Lissiyekup, if ye were or did so 
Lissichutup, if they were or did so. 



Pluperfect. 

Plural. 
Lissiyenkpanne, if we had been or done so 
Lissiyekpanne, if ye had been or done so 
Lissichtitpanne, if they had been or done so. 



Future. 



Singular. 
Lissiyaktsch, I shall be or do so 
Lissiyantsch,if thou shalt be or do so 
Lissitsch, it be shall be or do so 



Plural. 



Lissiyenketsch, if we shall be or do so 
Lissiyeketsch, if ye shall be or do so 
Lissichtitetsch, if they shall be or do so. 



Another form of the same iierb. 
INDICATIVE MOOD. 



Singular. 
Elsiya, as I am or do 
Elsiyan, as thou art or dost 
Elsii, as he is or does 



Singular. 
Elsiyakup, as [ was or did 
Elsiyanup, as thou werl or didst 
Elsitup, as lie was or did 



Present. 



Plural. 
Elsiyenk, as we are or do 
Elsiyek, as ye are or do 
Elsichtit, as they are or do. 



Preterite. 



Plural. 
Elsiyenkup, as wi' wen' n did 
I Elsiyekup, a-- \< were or did 
I Elsichtitup, as they were or did. 



OP THE LENNI LENAPE INDIANS. 
[first conji ' \ i io\.] 



119 



Future. 



Singular. 
Tatsch" elsiya, i- I ihall or will be i 
Tatsch elsiyan, as thou shalt <n mil 
Tatsch elsit, as he shall or will be or do 



Plural. 
Tatsch elsiyenk, is we shall or will be or do 
1 H or will be or do 

Tatsch elsichtit, as the] -hall 01 will be or do. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



Singular. 
Ehayake, if I am or do so 

Kl-iy.uine. if thou art or dost so 
Elsite, if he is or does so 



Singular. 
trap, if I m< or did so 
KUiyannup, if thou wert or didst so 
Ehritnp, if he was or did so 



Plural. 
Elsiyenke, if we are or do so 
Elsiyeque, if ye are or do so 
EMchbte, il tiny are or do so. 



rrettriti . 



Plural. 



Elsiyenkup, if we weie 10 did so 
Elsiyeekup, if ye were or did so 
Elsiehutup, if they were or did so. 



Pluperfect. 



Singular. 
Elsiyakpantie, if I hail been or done so 
EMyanpanne, if thou hadst been or done so 
El-itpanue, if he had been or done so 



Plural. 
Klsiyenkpanne, if we had been or done so 
Elsiyekpanne, il ye hid been or done so 
Elsii htitpanne, if they had been or done so. 



Future. 



Singular. 
Elsryatsch, if I shall be or do so 
EUiyarniet-eh, if thou -dialt In- or do so 
Elsitetsch, if he shall be or do so 



Pii/ra7. 
Kl-iyetiket-eh, if we shall he or do so 
EMyequetsch, il ye shall or will do so 
Elsichotetseh, il they shall or will do so. 



Elek, as il is 
Eleknp, as it was 

i ' elek, i- it will be 
l.eu. it is so: it is true 



Impersonal Farms. 



il ivas so 
lewi, ii i- not so 
\tta ue lewip, it was not so. 



vhi.-rrirE form. 



INFINITIVE \KK)T). 

I i-.iwi, not to he or do so. 



Noit hi t the 7\an*lator. — Tin* word tatsch i- compounded ol t,i. which here is an advert) 
ol simOitnde, an.' ol ' •<•''. the usual indicail rl 'lie future, whieh l- sometime* affixed to the ad- 
verb and sometimes to the verb, as has before been observed. 



120 



GRAMMAR OP THE LANGUAGE 

[first conjugation.] 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



Singular. 
Matta n'dellsiwi, I am not or do not so 
Matta k'dellsiwi. thou art not or dost not so 
Matta w'dellsiwi, he is not or does not so 



Plural. 
Matta n'dellsiwuneen, we are not or do not so 
Matta k'dellsiwunewo, ye are not or do not so 
Matta w'dellsiwiwali, they are not or do not so. 



Preterite. 



Singular. 
Matta n'dellsiwip, I was not or did not so 
Matta k'dellsiwip, thou wert not or didst not so 
Matta w'dellsiwip, he was not or did not so 



Plural. 
Matta n'dellsiwuneenakup, we were not or did 

not so 
Matta k'dellsiwunewakup, ye were not or did 

not so 
Matta w'dellsiwipannik, they were not or did 

not so. 



Future. 



Plural. 



Singular. 
Mattatsch n'dellsiwi, 1 shall or will not be or 

do so 
Mattatsch k'dellsiwi, thou shalt or wilt not be As in the Present tense, with mattatsch pre- 



or do so 

Mattatsch w'dellsiwi, he shall or will not be or 
do so 



fixed. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



Singular. 
Katschi lissiharn, do not thou do so 



Plural. 
Katschi lissihek, do not ye do so. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



Singular. 
Matta n'lissiwake, if or when lam or do not so 
Matta lissiwonne, if or when thou art or dost 

not so 
Matta lissique, if or when he is or does not so 



Plural. 
Matta lissiwenke, if or when we are or do not 

so 
Matta lissiweque, if or when ye are or do not 

so 
Matta lissichtique, if or when they are or do 

not so. 



Singular. 

Matta n'lissiwakup, if or when I was or did not 

so 
Matta lissiwonnup. if or when thou wert or 

didst not so 
Matta lissitup, if or when he was or did not so 



Preterite. 

Plural. 
Matta lissiwenkup, if or when we were or did 

not so 
Matta lissiwekup, if or when ye were or did 

not so 
Matta lissjchtitup, if or when they were or did 

not so. 



The future is formed from the present tense, by affixing tsch to the 
adverb matta, as mattatsch n'lissiwake, &,c. 



OF THE EENNI EENAPE INDIANS. 

[FIRST CO VII I. VTIi'N.J 



181 



No. III. 

kCiKKMossnr, to work. 



POSITIVE Form 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 



Present. 

Mikemossin, to work 



Preterite. 

Mikeruo-sinep. to have worked. 



PARTICIPLES. 



Present 

Mikemossit, working 



Past. 

Mikemossitschik. having worked 

Future. 

Mikemossintsch, being to work, having work to do. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



Singular. 

Wlllill llimii. I work 
K 

iossu, he works 



- I 'i/.rr. 

N ilmmp. I worked 

K 'imp. thou workedst 

MQcemoamp, he worked 



S 'ilar. 
Vmik. -■ I -h.ill >>r will work 

K*mikemoMiuich, thou shall or wilt work 
Mikewossutsch, he ihaO "rwill work 



Plural. 
Mikemoashhena*, we work 

K'niiketiio—ilihinio. ye work 

Mikemoouwak, Ihey work. 



Preteritt . 

Plural 

- 

K*mikemowihhi ip, \ e we 

BfDa ■,. dtu \ worked. 

fill ure. 

Plural. 

'i. \\.- .lull 0f will work 
K shall or « n worii 

HOWItM li. the] -lull Of will work. 



* JVbft '"/ fAf Tran*lni'>r. — Thi* n a r - '.hummrnn D DMd 

for 'h. - luuhle A ban not a guttural «ound ; it nierelv ihewl 111 

ding vowel i- 



VOL. III. 



-Z If 



122 



GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

[first conjugation.] 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



Singular. 
Mikemossil, work thou 
Mikemossitetsch, let him work, he shall work 

Singular with Plural. 
Mikemossitam, do thou let us work 



Plural. 
Mikemossik, work ye 

Mikemossichtitetsch, let them work, they shall 
work 

Double Plural. 
Mikemossitainoak, do ye let us work. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



Singular. 
Mikemossiya, when or if I work 
K'mikemossiyan or yanne, when or if thou work- 

est 
Mikemossit, when or if he works 



Plural. 
Mikemossiyenk, when or if we work 
Mikemossiyek, when or if ye work 
Mikemossichtit, when or if they work. 



Preterite. 



Singular. 
Mikemossiyakup, when or if I worked 
Mikemossiyannup, when or if thou workedst 
Mikemossitup, when or if he worked 



Plural. 
Mikemossiyenkup, when or if we worked 
Mikemossiyekup, when or if ye worked 
| Mikemossichtitup, when or if they worked. 



Pluperfect. 



Singular. 
Mikemossiyakpanne, when or if I had worked 
Mikemossiyanpanne, when or if thou hadst 

worked 
Mikemossitpanne, when or if he had worked 



Plural. 

Mikeniossiyenkpanne, when or if we had worked 

Mikemosstyekpanne, when or if ye had worked 

Mikeinossichtitpanne, when or if they had 

worked. 



Future. 



Singular. 
Mikemossiyatsch, when or if I shall work 
Mikemossiyanetsch, when or if thou shalt work 
Mikemossitetsch, when or if he shall work 



Plural. 
Mikemossiyenketsch, when or if we shall work 
Mikemossiyequetsch, when or if ye shall work 
Mikemossichtitsch, when or if they shall work 



NEGATIVE FORM. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



Singular. 
Atta n'mikemossiwi, 1 do not work 
Atta k'mikemossiwi, thou dost not work 
Attta mikcmossuwi, he does not work 



Plural. 

Atta n'mikemossuwune or mikemossuwuneen. 

we have not worked 
Mti k'mikemossihhimowi, ye have not worked 
Atta wikemossiwiwak, they have not worked. 



OF THE LENNI LENAPE INDIANS. 

[first coNjrnATioN.] 



123 



Prett rite 

9l ^ular. 

Atta n'mikimossiwip, I did not worker have not 

worked 
Atta k'mikersosaiwi, thou didst not work or 

lw-t not worked 
Atta raikeraossuwik, he did not work or has not 

worked 



Plural. 
Au. i n'mikemosaiwunap, we did not work or 

bai e ii"i vi 01 k< d 
Atta k'mikemoseiwihhimoap, ye 'lid no) work 

"/ have not worked 
\tt.» mlkemoeaiwipamiik, thej did work or have 

not worked. 



Future. 



Singular. 
Atta n'niikeinos-uvit-ih, I shall not work 
Atta Ir/rolkeniosriwitsch, thou shall nui work 
Atta niikemossuwitsch, he shall not work 



Plural. 
Atta mikrmi>"i»im,it*i'h. we shall not work 
\u.i Ir'mikemossiwihhiniatsch, ye shah* not work 
All. i mikemossnwiwaktach, they shall not work. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



Singular. 
Katschi mikemossihon. work not thou 



Plural. 
' Katschi mikemossihek, work ye not. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



Present. 

Singular. 
Matta mjkemogsiwa, when or if 1 do not work 
Malta mikemosaiwonne, when or if thou dost 

not work 
Matta niikcmossique, when or if he does not 

work 



Plural. 
Matta mikemossiwink. alien or if we do not 

work 
M.iii.i mlkemossiwek, when or if ye do not work 
Malta mikemossichuk, when or if they do not 

work. 



Preterite. 



Singular. 
Matta ndkemoMfo drop, when or if I did not 

wurk 

Matta mikernosdwonnop, when or n tbon didfl 

not work 
Matta mikemossikup, when or if he did not work 



Plural 
Matta mlkemosaiweiikup, when M d we did not 

work 
Matta mikemossiwekup, when oi ii ye did not 

work 

M 'ii i miki mossichtitup, when or if they did not 
work. 



Futuri. 



Singular. 
\tta mikcmossiwaUch, wlirn or il I -lull not 

work 
Atta imkemossiwonnebrh. uhi'ii "I il ill"; shall 

nut work 
\tta mikomossiketsch, when or if he shall not 

work 



Plural. 
Ml. i HilkwilHWllwmkam'h. when nr if wr • hall 

III. I \\ n'k 

Ana mikemoalweketach, vhi n ei ii \> -li.illnoi 

work 
Atta mlkemoaaichtiktach, when <n it they shall 

not work. 



124- 



GRAMMAR OP THE LANGUAGE 

[first conjugation.] 



No. IV. 

Mitzin, to eat. 



POSITIVE FORM. 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 



Present. 



Mitzin. to cat 



Preterite. 

Mitzineep or mitzihump, to have eaten. 



Singular. 

Mitzit, he who is eating there 



PARTICIPLES. 



Plural. 

Mitzichtit, they who are eating there. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



N'mitzi, I eat 
K'mitzi, thou eatest 
Mitzu, he eats 



Singular- 



Plural. 
N'mitzineen or mitzihhenua, we eat 
K'mitzihhimo, ye eat 
Mitzowak, they eat. 



Preterite. 
Singular. 
N'mitzineep or n'mitzihump, I have eaten 
K'mitzineep or k'mitzihurnp, tliou hast eaten 
Mitzoop, lie has eaten 



Plural. 
N'mitzihhenakup, we have eaten 
K'mitzihhimoakup, ye have eaten 
Mitzopannik, tliey have eaten. 



Future. 

(Not given.) 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



Singular. 
ktitzil, eat thou 
Mitzitetsch, let him eat 

Singular with Plural. 
Mitzitam, do thou let us eat 



Plural. 
Mitzik, eat ye 

Mitzichtitetsch, let them eat 

Double Plural. 
Mitzitamoak, do you let us eat. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present. 



Singular. 
N'mitzianne, when or if I eat 
K'mitziaone, when or il thou eatest 
Mitzite, when or il he eats 



Plural. 
Mitziyenke, when or if we eat 
Mitztyeque, wh n ot d ye »-.it 
Mitzichtite, when or il they eal. 



OF THE EENNI EENAPE INDIANS. 
[FIRST i I'VM i. 1 i I. in. J 



tss 



Preterite. 



Singular. 
N'mttziyannup, when or if I did eat or have eaten 
K'mitzivaunup, when or it t lion didst eat "< hast 

Mitzite, when or if he did eat vr has eaten 



I'lunil. 
N'mitziyenkup, when "/ if we did eat <n have 

Mitziyekup, when or it ye did eat o% have eaten 
Mitzichtihip, when or it they did eat or have 
eaten. 



77tr Future 
Is conjugated like the present tense, n initzii/um tech, when o?' if I shall 
have eaten, &c. 

The preterite is often joined to or preceded by the adverb mctschi 

(ahead} . a~ for \u<\ :• metschi rmtziyotme, when or it I shall have 

eaten, metschi mitzite, when or if he shall have eaten. 



Pommissin, to go 



.■I//./, 
Pemsit, one who is going 



No. V. 

Poauussiir, to go, to walk. 



POSITIVE FORM. 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 
Present. Preterite. 



| PnramiwginpAp, to have gone. 

PARTICIPLES. 

I Plural. 

Pomxit^chik, those who us going, (cuntes, am 
bulantes) 



^ular 
\ i inui, 1 go 
K'pomsi, tliou gocst 
Porn-' 



_"</>/i 

PTpomsineep, I vi enl 
K | Dmaineep, thou did 
Pomuiissop. he went 



INDICATIVE mood. 

I'll SI III 

I'lural. 
N'pomraissineeo, we go 
Pom tlhhtmo, \ e go 

iieowak, they go. 

Preterite. 

I Plural. 

Poi uihhenakup, we went 
Pommissihhimoakup, \ e went 
Pommiasopannik, too} wi nl 



VOL. III. — 8 I 



126 



GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

[first conjugation.] 



The Future 
Is conjugated like the present, with tsch suffixed 



EXAMPLE. 



Singular. 

N'pomsitsch 
K'pom^itch 
Pomniissutsch or pomsutch 



Plural. 
N'pommissineentsch 
Ponimissihhiinotsch or pomsihhimotsch 
Pommissowaktsch. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



Singular. 



Pommissil, go thou 



Plural 



Pommissik, go ye. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



Singular. 
Pommissiyane, when or if I go 
K'pommissiyane, when or if thou goest 
Pommissite, when or if he goes 



Singular. 
Pommissiyaunup, when or if I went 
K'pommissiyannup, when or if thou didst go 
Pommissitup, when or if he went 



Plural. 
Pommissiyenke, when or if we go 
Pommissiyeque. when or if ye go 
Pomniissichtite, when or if they go. 



Preterite. 

Plural. 
Pommissiyenkup, when or if we went 
Pommissiyekup, when or if ye went 
Pouimissichtitup, when or if they went. 



Future. 

Singular. Plural. 

Pommissiyanetsch, when or if I shall go Pommissiyenketsch, when or if we shall go 

K'pommissiyanetsch, when or if thou shalt go Pommissiyequetsch, when or if ye shall go 

Poinmissitetsch, when or if he shall go Pouimissichtitetsch, when or if they shall go. 

Note. — This verb is not used in the sense of "going to or away from a 
particular place." In this case aan, to go, and allumsin, to go away, are 
used. 



No. VI. 

Gauwin, to sleep. 



POSITIVE FORM. 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 



Present. 



Gauwin, to sleep 



Preterite. 

Gauwineep, to have slept 



OP THE LENNI EENAPE INDIANS. 
[FIRST CONJUG vtiun.J 



187 



Future. 

Gauwintschi, to be about to sleep (dormiturus esse) 



Singular, 

Gewi, he who sleeps, (dormieus) 



Angular. 

Gewitup, he or one who has slept 



PARTICIPLES. 

Present. 

Plural. 
Gewitschik, they who sleep, (dormientes) 

Preterite. 

Plural. 
I Gewitpannik, they wlio have slept. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



Singular. 
N'gauwi, I sleep 
K'gauwi, thou sleepest 
tijuwiu, he sleeps 



Singular. 

N'gauwinecp, I slept 

i- wineep, thou didst sleep 

Gauwip, he slept 



ular. 
N'eauwint-rlu, I shall or w ill sleep 
i - mt-rlii, thou -hall »r wilt sleep 

Gauwiuchtscb, hi- -hall or will sleep 



Plural. 
Gaowineen, we sleep 
< ; ii'w ihhimo, ye sleep 
Gauwiwalc, they sleep. 



Preterite. 



Plural. 
Gauwihhenakup, we slept 
ttauwihhimoakup, ye slept 
Gauwipannik, they slept. 



Future. 

Plural. 
Ganwihhenatsch, we -hill or will sleep 
(jaiiwihhiinotsch. ye -lull "» will sleep 
Gauwiwaktscb, they shall or will sleep 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



Singular. 

Gauwil, sleep thou 

Gauwiwetsch, let him or he shall sleep 

'■<!,u with Plural. 
Gauwitam, do thou let us sleep 



Phuol. 

i ranwik, sleep ye 

Gauwii ■Imii-i-i ii. Ihey shall sleep 

V libit Plural. 
Gaowitamook, do ye let u- sleep 



31 BJUNCTIVE Mood. 
(.NW %iven.) 



.Vote. — (imnrohcen, to lie down to Bleep. 



128 



GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

[first conjugation.] 



No. VII. 

PoMMAUCHSIN, to live. 



POSITIVE FORM. 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 



Pommauchsin, to live 
Pommauchsineep, to have lived 



Pommauchsintsch, victurus esse. The idea 
cannot be expressed in English. 



PARTICIPLES. 



Present. 



Pemauchsit, living 



Perfect. 

Pemauchsitpannik, he who lived 



Future. 

Petnauchsitschiek,he who shall live. 



Singular. 
N'pommauchsi, I live 
K'pommauchsi, thou livest 
Pommauchsu, he liveth 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



Plural. 
N'pouimauchsihummena, we live 
K'pomraauchsihhimo, ye live 
Pommauchsowak, they live. 



Singtilar. 
N'pommauehsineep, I lived 
K'pommauchsineep, thou livedst 
Pomjuauchsop, he lived 



Singular. 

N'pommauchsitsch, 1 shall live 
K'pommauchsitsch, thou shall live 
Pominauchsutsch, he shall live 



Preterite. 



Plural. 



N'pommauchsihummenakup, we lived 
K'pommauchsik, ye lived 
Ponimauchsopaunik, they lived- 



Future. 



Plural. 



N'pommauchsihummenatsch, we shall live 
K'pou'inauchsihliiinotsch, ye shall live 
Pommauchsowaktsch, they shall live 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



Singular. 
Pommauchsil, live thou 

Future Singular. 

Potnwauchsitetsch, he sh;dl live 



Plural. 
Pommauchsik, live ye 

Future Plural. 
Poimnauchsichtitetsch, they shall live. 



OF THE EENNI EENAPE INDIANS. 
[FIRST conjugation.] 



lsg 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



Singular. 

N'pommauchsiyanne, if or ivtu'ii I live 
K'poniiiiaiK'li»iy.iiiiu', n Of when thou livest 
Pominauchsite, if or when he Bvea 



Plural. 
Pomnauchsiyenke, ii" or when we live 
Pommauchsi] eque, i! or ** ben ye 1 1 v .■ 
Pommauchsichate, if or when thej Inr 



S _ ultir. 
N'pommauchsiyannup, if or when I have lived 
K'ponunaurliMv u>iiu|>. if or when tnou baal lived 
Poimnauchsitup, if or when he hag lii 



Preterite. 

Plural. 
Ponunauchdyenknp, II tn when we have Hved 
Pommaucharyekup, il at when ye have Bved 
I'' lauchsichu'tup, if or when they have lived 



Pluperfect 
Singular. 

N'pommauchsiyanpanne, if or when I had lived 
K'pouiiii uichaiyaDpanne, if or when thou hadst 

lived 
Pommauchsitpanne, if or when he had Uved 



Plural. 

Pommauchaiyenkpanne, if or when we had 

lived 
Pominaiichsiyekpanne, if or when ye had lived 
Poininauchsichtitpaune, if or when they had 

lived. 



The Future 

I- like the present with only tsch suffixed: thus rfpommauchsiuan- 
netsch. k'}iommauchsiyanmtsch, &c. 



A-RGATll'K FORM 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 
(.Vot given.) 



IMHC \TI\ I! Mool). 
Present. 



j ular. 
Matta a'pommaucbaiwi, I do not live 
M '■ i k'pniuin mchaiwi, Ehoadoai not live 
M '" i pommauchsiwi, he does not live 



Plural. 
M.iH.i ri'pommaiirli.iw iju. <n or Q*ponilDinchal 

V\ rlik , We dO DOl ll V <■ 

Mim. i k'pamjnauchatwunevo •" fpommauchi 

Weak, y 'In mil live 

I I <TiiMiaiirhMwm,ik, lliry do not live. 



Pirli nli . 



Singular. 
Malta n'pnmmaurlniwip, I hive not Bved 
Matta k'ponunauehaiwip, Ibon baal nol lived 
M 'it i pomn mcbfiwip, in li ,. nol Bved 



Plural. 

Miii i a'pommanehaiwenkap, we have nol Bved 
M in t k'|ioiinn.iurii..iwi-kii|», ye have nol Bred 
Matta i>ommauchimi|' iiiiiin the] have DO) 



VOL. III. 2 K 



130 



GRAMMAR OP THE LANGUAGE 

[first conjugation.] 



The Future 
Is like the present with tsch suffixed. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

(J\"ot given.) 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



Singular. 
Matta n'pommauchsiwonne, if I do not live 
Matta k'pommauchsiwonne, if thou dost not live 
Matta ponimauchsique, if he does not live 



Plural. 
Matta pommauchsiwenke, if we do not live 
Matta pommauchsiweque, if ye do not live 
Matta pomniauchsichtique, if they do not live 



Preterite. 

Singular. Plural. 

Matta n'pommauchsiwonnup, if or when I did Matta pommauchsiwenkup, if or when we did 

not live not live 

Matta k'poinmauchsiwonnup, if or when thou Matta pommauchsiwekup, if or when ye did not 

didst not live live 

Matta pommauchsitup, if or when he did not Matta ponimauchsichtitup, if or when they did 

live not live. 



Pluperfect 

Singular. 

Matta n'pommauchsiwipanne, if or when I had 

not lived 
Matta k'pommauchsiwonpanne, if or when thou 

hadst not lived 
Matta pommauchsiwipanne, if or when he had 

not lived 



Plural. 

Matta pommauchsiwenkpanne, if or when we 

had not lived 
Matta poramauchsiwekpanne, if or when ye had 

not lived 
Matta pommauehsuwiwakpanne, if or when they 

had not lived. 



The Future 
Is formed from the present, as is said above, by adding tsch. 



CAUS.iTlVE FORM. 



INFINITIVE MOOD 

Pommauchsoheen, to make to live. 



PARTICIPLES. 

Present. 



Singular. 
Pemauchsohaluwed, he who makes to live 
Pemauchsohalid, he who makes me live 
i' ichsohalquon, be who makes thee live 

Peniauchsobalat, he who makes him live 



Plural. 



Pemauchsohalquenk. he who makes us live 
Pemauchsohfllqtieek', he who makes you live 
Pemauchsohalquichtit, he who makes them live 



OP THE LENNI LENAPE INDIANS. 
[first conjugation.] 



131 



Preterite. 
Pemauchsnhalilup, he who made me live 



[NDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



Singular. 
N'pomniauchsohalguu or n'pommauchsohaluk. 

he make* me live 
K'poinniallchsohalijun, he make* thee live 
Porumauchsohalal or pommauchsohalgol, he 

makes him live 



Plural. 
Ponimaurlisohalgiiiia or pommaurhsohalqucnk. 

he make ufl live 
K'poiiin w.t. he makee you live 

P luchsohal awak, be makee them live 



Preterite. 



Singular. 

N'pommauchsohalpunecp, he made me live 

K'pommaachsohalpiiieep. In- made thee live 
Pommauchsohalap, he made him live 



Plural 

Poimnauchsohalqiienkup, he made in live 
Poiinn.iui li~i.h.il.|w.kiip. lie made you live 
Pommauchsohalapanuit, he made them live 



Future. 



Singular. 

Vpommauchsohalaktsch, he shall or will make 

me live 
K'pommauchsohalaktsch, he shall or will make 

thee live 
Pommauchsohaluchtsch, he shall or will make 

him live 



Plural. 

N'pommaurhsohalgunatsch, he shall or will 

make us live 
K'pommauchsohalguwaktsch, he shall or will 

make \nii li\»- 
Pommauchsohalawaktsch, he shall or will make 

them live. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



Singular. 
Pommauchsohalil, make me live 



Plural. 
I Pommauchsohalineen, make us live. 



NEGATIVE FORM 



Singular. 

Matta n'pommauchsohalgowi, he docs not make 

rnc live 
M itl i k'ponmuuieoaohalgowi, he does nm m .k. 

thee live 
Mill. i ponimauchsohalawi, he does nut make him 

live 



Present. 

Plural. 
\liii. i pommauchaohalgummoeD, he docs uoi 
in. ike ii- live 

M ' k'|ilH liirllsuli.il^iiweek, he -lues nOl 

HI, ike \<iil ll\ e 

"II hs.ilijl.iM IW.lk. hC 'l"i- II. il Tll.lki 
ihelll lue. 



Singular. 
baohalgowip, he did not make 
me live 
Mi'ii k'|>cimmauchsohaleowip, he did DOl 

thee live 
MiH i pomm iui baohalcwip, be did Dot make him 

live 



Preterite. 

Plural. 

' pommauchuhalguweDlrup, be did 
make ui Uv< 
M .il 1 1 iwokup, he did not i 

you live 

M ■■ i .liiliuip mini. In I did not make 

them live 



132 



GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

[first conjugation.] 



The Future. 
May be formed from the present tense, as lias been already shewn. 

Note. — From the verb pommauchsin is also formed petauchsin, to live so 
long, till now, to this time, and is conjugated through all the moods and 
tenses of the radical verb. When we say petauchsohalgun, it is as much as 
to say " he" (the Saviour) " has preserved our lives or kept (keeps) us living 
until this time." In this sense, it can only be said of the Deity and of 
no one else. It is, as one might say, a religious verb. 



No. IX. 

Lauchsin, to live, to walk. 

This verb is derived from pommauchsin above conjugated*. 
INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Lauchsin, to live, walk. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



Singular. 
N'dcllauchsin, F live or walk 
K'dellauchsiu, thou livest or walkest 
W'dellauchsin or lauchsu, he lives or walks 



Plural. 
N'dellauchsineen or n'dellauchsihununena, we 

live or walk 
K'dellauchsihhimo, ye live or walk 
W'dellauchsinewo or lauchsowak, they live or 

walk. 



Preterite. 



Singular. 
N'dellauehsineep or n'dellauchsihump, I lived 

or walked 
K'dellauchsineep or k'dellauchsihump, thou 

livedst or walkcdst 
W'dellauchsineep or lauchsop, he lived or walked 



Plural. 
N'dellauchsihummenakup, we lived or walked 
K'dellauchsihimoakup, ye lived or walked 
W'dellauchsinewo or lauchsopannik, they lived 
or walked. 



* A'otc by the Translator. — The author does not explain himself further, but I have been in- 
formed by Mr Hockcwelder that the Delawares have various verbs in which they combine the 
idea of life with actions of Living men. Thus a person who has been sick, being asked how be is, 
will answer, I live, 1 walk, 1 am on my feet, I am lively, able to walk about. In other circumstances, 
ibi' answer to such a question will be given by a different verb. The author, in bis copious Dela- 
ware Vocabulary, in the form of a spelling book, has neither lauchsin nor pommauchsin, be has 
pontmutin, to walk, pommixin, to creep. These shades of language can only be acquired by 
practice. 



OF THE EENNt LENAPE INDIAN*. 

[kIHST CONJ1 I. kTION.l 



133 



Future. 



Singular. 

\ li -II.iiic h-mt-rh. 1 shall live or walk 
E'dellaucturintsch, Ihoa shall lire or walk 
Lau< h-ut-i h. lie shall live or walk 



Plural. 

NMeUauchsQHimmenatsch, we shall live or walk 
k " tuciurihiiDmotacli, you shall live or walk 
Vv "dellauehsowakt-<h. ili>-\ -hill live 01 walk. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



Singular. 

Lauch*il. live thou or walk 



Plural 

l.,uich-ik, live \ • 
l..iuch-it.ini. lei US live 



More of this mood is not given. 



SI I'.ll M'TIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



Singular. 

I.aurhsiya, if I live or walk 

rij urn'-, if thou livest or walkest 
Lauchsite, if he lives or walks 



Singular. 
I.auchsiyakup, if 1 lived 
KMeDauchriyannup, if thou Uveas! 

Lauclisitup, it he lived 



Singular. 
LauchnyanpanDe, if 1 had lived 
K'dellauchnyanpanQe, II thou hadst lived 
Lauchaitpanne, n he had lived 



Singular. 
Lauchsiyannetsch, it I -hall live 
B llauchsiyannetsch, ii thou -hall live 
Lauchaitetsch, it he -lull live 



Plural. 
I. iiieh-iyenke. if we live or walk 
Lauehsiyeque, if ye live nr walk 
Lam h-ichtite, if they live or walk. 



Preterite. 



Plural. 
I.aiiclisiyenkup, if we lived 
L,iueh-iyekil|i. il \ e lived 
Lauchsichtitup, if they lived. 



Pluperfect. 

Plural. 
l.uirhsiyenkpanne, il we hid lived 
I, ,ui« turij i -k | ..i 1 1 1 ii- . ii ye had lit ed 

I. am h.-KhUtj'.uilie, il the\ h.id lived 



Future. 



Plural. 
Laucturiyenketsch, n we shall live 
l luriyequetsch, d \« shall live 

I ..mi h-H hllli l-i h. li they -hall live. 



CAUSATIVE /'"A- '/ 



Lauchsohcen, to came or make one in live, walk, he lively, h ippj 



INFINITE i: MOOD. 

Lauchsohccn, to make one live (in the sense above mem 
VOL. III. 2 h 



134 



GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

[first conjugation.] 



PARTICIPLES. 



Singular. 
Lauchsohalid, be who makes me live 
Lauchsohalitup, he who made me live 



Plural 
Lauchsohalquenk. he who makes us live. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



Singular. 
N'dellauchsohalgun, he who makes me live 
Lauchsohalquon, he who makes thee live 
Lauchsohalgol,he who makes him live 



Plural. 
N'dellunchsohalguneen, he who makes us live 
K'dellauchsohalguwa, he who makes you live 
Lauchsohalawak, he who makes them live. 



Preterite. 



Singular. 
N'dellauchsohalguneep, he made me live 
KMeilauchsohalguneep, he made thee live 
Lauchsohalgop, he made him live 



Plural. 
Lauchsohalquenkup, he made us live 
Lauchsohalquekup, he made you live 
Lauchsohalapannit, he made them live. 



Future. 



Singular. 
Nekamatsch n'dellauchsohalgun, he will make 

me live 
Nekamatsch k'dollauchsohaJgun, he will make 

thee live 
Nekamatsch lauchsohalgol, he will make him 

live 



Plural. 
N'dellauchsohalgunatsch, he will make us live 
K'dellauchsohalguwatsch, he will make you live 
Lauchsohalawatsch, he will make them live. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



Singular. 
Lauchsohalil, make me live 



Plural 
Lauchsohalineen, make us live. 



No more of this verb is given. 



No. X. 

Wulamallsin, to be well, happy. 



POSITIVE FORM. 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Wulamallsin, to be well, happy. 



OP THE LENNl T.EN.VPE INDIANS. 
[FIRST CONJ1 i. ITION.] 



135 



Singular 
\ inuUM, I am well 
KulamahVi. thouarl well 
Wii1am«nri,h« is well 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present. 

Plural. 
Nulamallsihhuj ir thorter, 

1 well 

Pi hi unalkowak, the; jre well. 



aulan - 



Preterite. 



singula) . 
Nulamallsihump, 1 was well 
Kulamallsihuinp, thou went well 
Wulamalessop, lie w,i> well 



Singular. 

Nulalmalsit-rli, I shall or will be well 
KulamiHsitsch, thou shall or will he well 
WultJuftllesstttSChj be shall or wilt be well 



P I ttr.it. 



NllLinull-llllillliiln' ri.ikup, we were well 

Ki]l.iin.ilNililiimo.ikii|'. ye we e well 
Pi ill , dlgopannik, Inej were well. 



future. 

Plural. 
NolamalleihheDatsch, we ihall or will be well 
Kulamansihhhnotscht ye shall oi will be well 

VI ulinuillsowaktsch, they shall or will be will 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 
(JVYrf given.) 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



9 ^itlar. 
Viihniillsn inne, [for when I am well 
Kulamalunyanne, if or when thou art we] 
Wulamallaite, U <n when In 1 i* wt n 



Present. 

Plural. 
rVulamallmyenke, if oi when we ire well 
Wulamallsiyeque, il or w hen ye are well 

\\ ill mi ilUii-htitc, if or when "they are well 



I'reterite. 



Singular. 
NulamaDaiyannup, if or when I was well 
Kulamallaiannrjp, it" -.r when thou wert well 
WulamaDsitup, il or when he wai well 



Plural. 



Nulamalbyenkup, If oi when we wen weU 
i. lallaiyekup, if oi when ye were weU 
Vf ulamallsfchlirup, if o* when the] "■ 



I 'l)i/u rf i <t 

J "!nr. 

Nulamauaryinpanne, 11 oi when I had been weU 
Kulamallsiyanpanne, II oi when thou hadat bi en 

■ 
K'llainallessitpannc, ifoi when be h Ml bet 



/•d<r<i/. 

bi II i when we hi 
well 

\\ ni mi iii-i\i k|i urn. . ii ■>> when ye had bees 

w. n 

Wulamauaichtitpanne, if or when the] bad 

well 



136 



GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

[first conjugation.] 



Future. 



Singular. 
Nulamallsiyannetsch, if or when I shall or will 

be well 
Kulamallsiyannetsch, if or when thou shalt or 

wilt be well 
Wulainallsitetsch, if or when he shall or will be 

well 



Plural. 
Wulamallsiyenketsch, when or if we shall or 

will be well 
Wulamallsiyequetsch, when or if ye shall or will 

be well 
Wulamallsichtitetsch, when or if they shall or 

will be well. 



NEGATIVE FORM. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



Singular. 
Matta nulamallsiwi, I am not well 
Matta kulamallsiwi, thou art not well 
Matta wulatnallsiwi, he is not well 



Plural. 
Matta nulamallsiwuneen, we are not well 
Matta kulamalliwihhimo, ye are not well 
Matta wulamallsiwiwak, they are not well. 



Preterite. 



Singular. 
Matta nulamallsiwip, I have not been well 
Matta kulamallsiwip, thou hast not been well 
Matta wulamallsiwi, he has not been well 



Plural. 
Matta nulamallsiwenk-up, we have not been well 
Matta kulamallsiwekup, ye have not been well 
Matta wulamallsiwipannik, they have not been 
well. 



The remainder may be easily conjugated by following the negative 
form of pommauchsin, to live, above given. 



CONTINUOUS FORM. 



To be conjugated as the preceding with wa prefixed. 

EXAMPLE. 



N'wawulamallsi, I am always well 
K'wawulamallsi, thou art always well 
Wawulamallsu, he is always well 



Wamilamallsin, to be always well or happy. 
Singular. Plural. 

Wawulamallsihhummena, we are always well 
K'wawulamallsihhimo, ye are always well 
W'awulamallsowak, they are always well, &c. 



CAUSATIVE FORM. 



Wulamallesscheen, to make or cause a person to be well or happy. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Wulamallesscheen, to make one happy. 



OF THE EENNI T.ENAPE INDIANS. 

[fIKSX I I1N.II (. \ I kin.] 



ir, 



PARTH IP] 



Wolamallessohaluwed, he who makes one happy 
WulamallessohaUd, he who makes meha| 
Wulamallessobalian {ooea hou who ma- 

kes! me happy ! 
Wolamallessohalqui n,he »!>o makes thee happy 



Wulani he uln> tn;ik.'< him b ippj 

u iil.in. 
■ 

W ulam . Ii>- who makes 

haj 



[NDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



Singular. 



\ aallsohalgun, he makes me happy 
i lallsohaleun, he 
Wulamallsobalgol, be makes him happy 



Pluml. 

- us luppy 
\ ...i happj 
ih. in happ) 



l'r< h rite. 



Singular. 
Jlsobalgum i , e me happy 

Kulamallsohalguneep, he made Ihee happy 
Wulamallsohalap, he made him happy 



Plural. 
P/ulamaJIs ih made us happy 

u ulamallsohalguwoap, he i happj 

\\ ulamallsohalapannik, In- made them happj 



Future. 

- . ular. I Plural. 

Nulamaflsohaluktsch', In- shall make me happy Wulamallsohalgunatsch, he shall make us happy 
Kulamallsohalaklsch, lit- shall make ihee happy Wulamallsohalguwatsch, he shall make youhappj 
Wulamallsohalauchlscb, he shall make him happy Wulamallsohalawaktsch, he -li.ili maki 

bappj . 



[MPERATIVE MOOD. 



s 

Wulamallsohalil, make me happy 



Plural. 

w ui.iiM.iii-i.h iiinet'ii. make us happy. 



SUBJ1 ACTIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



ulon . 

Will. mi ..il-iiliilii. . ii ..; when lie makc> me 

happy 
Wni. mi. iiN<iii.iii|iniiiiii', n "i when he maki 

(Vulamallsobalate, ii or when he makes him 
happy 



Plural. 

JlsohoJqui ' make* us 

happy 
Wulamallessohalquequc, it or when be makes 

\..u h 

.II-..I. ii.|.ii- when he i 

tli. in happy. 



I'n h iih 

'ilar. 

Wulamallsohalitup, ii ..< when he made tit 

happy 
\\ ulamallsohalquonnup, it si when b 

happy 

w.ii. mi. .ii. oil. ii.itn|i, if or when i»' made him 
ii ippj 

V Ml.. HI, g M 



PlUA 

(fulamallsohalquenkup, M or ul.ru be ma 
kup, it "i " hen hi 

\\ ill. mi ill-i.li il.|.ilililil|i. ll •■> uli. Ii Ii. 

them happ] 



138 



GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

[first conjugation.] 



Future. 

(Not given.) 

Note. — The proper orthography of this verb is wulamallessin. wulam- 
allesscheen, wulamallessi, ifcc. ; but the e is frequently left out for brevity's 
sake, both in speaking and writing, therefore in this conjugation the two 
modes of spelling are indifferently used. 



No. XI. 

Nihillapewin, lo be one's own master, to be free. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Niliillapewin, to be free. 

PARTICIPLES. 
Present. 



Singular. 
Nihillapewid, lie who is free 



Singular. 
Nibillapewi, I am free 
K'nihiUapewi, thou art free 
Nihillapeu, he is free 



Singular. 
Nihillapewihump. 1 was free 
K'nihillapewihump, thou wast free 
NihUlapewip, he was free 



Plural. 
| Nihillapewitschik, they who are free. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 



Present. 

Plural. 
Nihillapewineen, nihillapewiyenk, nihillapewi- 

hummena, we are free 
Nihillapewihhimo, nihillapewiyek, ye are free 
Xihillapewak, they are free. 

Preterite. 

Plural. 
Nihillapewihummenakup, we were free 
's-'nibillapewihunimoaktip. ye were free 
Nihillapewapannik, they were free. 



The Future 
Is as usual formed from the present by means of the suffix tsch. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

(Not given.) 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



Singular. 
Nihillapewiynke, when m it I am free 
K'nihillapi w iyane, when m tf thou art free 
Nihillapewite, when <» if he is free 



Plural. 
Nihillapewiyenke, when • </ if we are free 
Nfhillapewiyeque, when <>r it ye are free 
Nilullapewiehlitc, when or if they are free. 



OF THE I.ENN1 I.ENVPE INDIANS. 
[first ' onji c; vtikx.] 



189 



/ '/i terite. 



S igular. 
Nihillapewiyannup, when or if 1 w.i* her 
K'nihil] i i wiyannup, when o% 11 Ihou werl free 
Nihillapewitup, when or if he was free 



Plural 
Nihillape wiyenkup, when 01 if we we 
Nihillapewiyekup, when 01 11 ye wen ' 
Nihillapewichtilup, when or il Ihej were free. 



Plupt 1 In I 
Singular. 
Nihillapewiyanpanne, when orif I had been free 
K'nihillapewiyanpanne, when or 11 thou hadsl 

1 free 
Nibillapewipanne, whin or ii be had been free 



Plural. 
Nihillapewiyenkpanne, when 01 we had been 

1 ee 
Nihillapewiyekpanne,whenoi n ye had been free 
Nihillapewichtitpanne, when or if the} bad been 

free 



I 'u In n . 
(Nol givi n.) 

.\\>ti — As this verb has the syllable wi, which in general indicates a 
negative form, its negative has wiivi. 



CAUSATIVE FORM 



Singular. 
ipenhoalid, be who makes mel 
lt\ 1 
Nihillapeubahraon he who n free, Ihj 

NihUlapenhoaJat, he who makes him free, his de- 
liverer 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Nihillapucheen, to liberate or make free. 

PARTICIPLES. 

Present. 

Plural. 

Nihillapi ohoalqui nk, hi who 1 

deliverei 
\ lapi ah 1 ilqui • k, he « b ■ 

Nihill 1 htil I" "I 1 ilci 

their delivi 



l'i< h rite. 
\ 1 ipeuhoalitup, he who made me 1 ee, be 

[NDICATN i: Mool). 

I'll M III. 



. ilar. 
NihHlapeuhalgun, bi 01 one" makes me free 

iuapeuhoalgun, !)•• "» <>ii»- make? Ihee 1 1 •■ 
Nihill 



Plural. 

Nihill i • "i nihlllapcuhalqucnk, 

1 . free 
Nihillapeuboal| un 1 1 nihill ipi uho ilq 11 

"i makes \ ou free 

Nihillapcuhoalgook 01 nihillapeohoalawali 

one makes them 



by thi Tramlator.—0 1 ich particle on : on me dilitrt 



140 



GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

[first conjugation.] 



Preterite. 



Singular. 
Nihiilapeuhoalgoap, he made me free 
K'nihUlapeuboalgop, he made thee free 
AV'nihillapeuhoalap, lie made him free 



Plum!. 



Nihillapeuhoalgunakup, he made us free 
Nihillapeuhoalguwoakup, he made you free 
W'nipiiiillapeuhoalapannik, he made them free 



The Future. 
Is formed from the present, by means of the suffix tsch. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



Singular. 

Nihillapeuhoalil, make me free 



Plural. 
Nihillapeuhoaliueen, make us free. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



Singular. 
Nihillapeuhoalite, if or when lie makes me free 
Nihillapeuhoalquonne, if or when he makes thee 

free 
Wnihillapeuhoalate, if or when he makes him 

free 



Plural. 
Nihillapeuhoalquenke, if or when he makes us 
free 

Nihillapeuhoalqueque, if or when he makes you 

free 
Nihillapeuhoalquichtite, if or when he makes 

them free. 



Preterite. 

Singular. Plural. 

Nihillapeuhoalitup. if or when he made me free Nihillapeuhoalquenkup, if or when he made us 
Nihillapeuhoalquonnup, if or when he made thee free 

free NihiUapeuhoalquekup, if or when he made you 

Nihillapeuhoalatup, if or when he made him free free 

I Nihillapeuhoalquichtitup, if or wheu he made 
I them free. 



Pluperfect 

Singular. 
Nihillapeuhoalitpanne, if or when lie had made 

mi- free 
Nihillapeuhoalatquonpanne, if or when he had 

made thee free 
Nihillapeuhoalatpanne, if or when he had made 

liiin free 



Plural. 
Nihill.tpeuhoalquenkpanne, if or when he had 

made us free 
Nihiliapeuhoalqueekpanne, if or when he h id 

made you free 
Nihillapeuhoalipmhlitpanne, if or when he had 

made them free. 



future. 
(Not given.) 



OF THE LENNI LENAPE INDIANS. 

[first conjugation - .] 



14 1 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
Present. 

Singular. Plural. 

Nihillapeuho.il:;!!--! i. if or when I am made free Nihillapeuhoal<;us<iyeiique, if or when we ate 
K'nihillapeuhoalgussiyane, if or when thou art made fiee 

made free Nihiliapcuhu .ii^u-^iyripii- it oi when ye are made 

NihiUapcuhoalgussite, if or when he is made free . bee 

NihQIapeuhoalgusaichtite, il or when they arc 
made free. 



Preterite 

Singular. 

Nihillapeuhoalgussiyakup, if or when I was made 

free 
K'nihillapcuhoalgussiyanup.il or when ihou wirl 

made free 
Nihillapeuhoalgussitup, if or when he was made 

free 



Plural. 
.Niliillapeuhoalgu9siyenkup, if or when we were 

made Erei 
K'nihillapeulnidliriissiyekup, il "i when ye were 

mad. 1 i | 
NHuTlapenhnalgiarichUtupi if or when they were 

made free. 



I 'hi perfect 
Singular. 
.Nilnllapeuhoalgussiyakpanne, if or when I had 

been made free 
K'nihillapeuhoalgussiyanpannc, if or when thou 

bads) It. -ii made free 
Xihillapeuhoalftussitpanne, if or when he hail 
been made free 



Plural. 
Yiliill.ipeuhoalguseiyenkpanne, il or when we 

had been made free 
rl'mhjjlapeuhoalgussiyekpanne, if or when ye 

had been made free 
Niliill.i|iiiilio.il^iissj,-hiitpanne, if or when they 

had been made free. 



Future. 



Singular. 
Nihillapcuhoalgussitsch, if or when I shall be 

made free 
K'nihill '|>i iihu dimssitsch, if or when thou shall 

be made free 
NihillapeuahoalgussuUch, if or when he shall 

be made free 



Plural 
NihfllapeuhoalgDflewammenittthj if or when we 

••hall lie made free 
K'niliill api ilihoalgusalhimatsch, if or win in VS 

shall be made free 
Niinii ipi nil o dg ■ --ii« iktsch*, ii n when thev 

shall be made free. 



' ,V»tr by thr Translator. — This verb in its various forms i- derived from, or ai least ron- 

iMth nitulltitamrn. I own, I am master of, and to thai cla-s bed which may be 

Used as sulist.inlives, signifying lord or ma-ter, Of as participles, in iheil personal forms, is lii- wlui 

owns me, thee, bun, ffcc Sec the Ith conjugation, No. ill. to which thai verb belong!. 

w ith ibis family ot rerbi mi -nli-t.niii\ ,-- i- connected the verb, ntUOa, 1 kill, oi -inkr ilf.nl, 
and ii- in rms, km hi l toll. I kill ilu-i-, strike Aiee dead . and nilchguttiani, i u ad ordj in tin- sabjurjc* 

!) il nr when I am killed nr slnirk dead. It is \i \ CUriOQI '•■ UbOUIVa 'be rli.nn. nf 

ent national pursue in the formation of their tangu 1 1- ■ -•■ ■ find right, poweri 

and force confounded together, at II there was no difference between thi I owner, mas- 
ter, lord; I strike, kill, oi - I from 'i n prodoced under different 

forma, and iln- will, no doubt, be ascribed to the barbarity «-i kmerii an Indians. Ibit may not 
simil.ir connectiona and derivations be found hi fbe lai civilized nations^ Forfa 

the Italian catftvo, wicked, from captunu, s prisoner, whence the English v\ a d caitiff is derived , 
the I enchffueux, ' which signifies also a beggar ; ih'! j itfgmatiziog misfortune with 

the imputation oi baseness and crime; and in aimost all European I wrttch, 

malheurriLr, tmterable, fvi- used to express the highest di efiunation and contempt 

1 ski physic, pomp!" — Let us leam first to know ourselves. In Inn «,■ pass too •• 
ment on othei nations. 

VOL. III. 2 N 



142 



GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

[of verbs.] 



Srrontt (JJoHjujjatton. 

No. I. 

Aan, to go (thither, to a place.) 



POSITIVE FORM. 



Eyat, going 
Miek, gone 



Singular. 



Singular 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Aan, to go. 

PARTICIPLES. 



Eyatschik 
Ahektschik. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



N'da, I go 
K'da, thou goest 
Eu or waeu, he goes 



Singular. 
N'dahump, n'danep, I went 
K'dahump, k'danep, thou didst go 
Eep, w'danep, he went 



Singular. 
N'dantsch, I shall or will go 
KMantsch, thou shalt or wilt go 
Euchtsch, he shall or will go 



Plural 



Plural. 
N'daneen or n'dahhena, we go 
K'dahhirno, ye go 
Ewak, waewak, or w'danewo, they go. 



Preterite. 



Plural. 
N'dahhenap or n'dahhenakup, we went 
K'dahhimoakup, ye went 
Epannik, they went. 



Future. 



Plural. 



N'dahhenatsch, we shall or will go 
K'dahhimotsch, ye shall or will go 
Ewaktsch, they shall or will go. 



\<d, go them 



Singular. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



Atam let us go 
Aak, go ye. 



Plural. 



OF THE LF.NNI EENAPE INDIAN9. 

[second conjugation.] 



143 



Atetsch, he shall go 



Singula) 



future. 

I Plural. 

I Achtitetsch, they shall go. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



Singular. 
Aane, when or if I go 
Ayane, when or if thou goest 
Ate, when or if he goes 



Singular. 

Aamip. when or if I went 

A> mop, when or iflhou didst go 

Atup, when or if he went 



Singular. 
AaDpanne, when or if I had gone 
Ayanp tune, when or it thou hadst gone 
Atpanne, when or if he had gone 



Singular. 
Aanetsch, when orif I shall go 
A\ uietsch, when or if thou -halt go 
Aitlscb, when or if he shall go 



Plural. 

\yenke, when 01 il we go 

\\ equO) n ben 01 il i • go 

Aachtite, when or if they go. 



Preterite. 



Plural. 
U. nkup, when or if wc went 
Ayekup, when or if ye went 
Aachtitup, when or if they went. 



Pluperfect. 

Plural. 
Ayenkpanne, when or if we had gone 
Ayekpanne, when orif ye had gone 
Achtitpaune, when or if they had gone. 



Future. 



Plural. 
Ayenketsch, when or if we -hall go 
Ayequetsch, when or if ye sh Jl go 

Aaehtitetsch, when or if they shall sro. 



LOCAL RELATIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



Singular. 

Eyaya. where or whither I go 
Eyayan, where or whither thou goest 
Eyat, where or whither he goes 



Plural. 
I iik, where or whither we go 

i • k, w here tn whithei ye 
Eyachtit. where or whither tli 



Preterite. 



Singular. 

f.vivikup, where or whither I went 

Ej tyanupi where of whithei tbou didft go 

Eyatup, where or whither he weol 



Plural. 

up, where 01 whithei we went 
is tyekup, where or whithei ye weol 
Eyachtitup, where"; whithei the] wi nl 



I'lilun 
Singular. 
Eyayatech, where or whithei I dull or will u<i 
EyayaonetacD when 01 whithei 'i""i ihail 01 

wilt go 
Eyatsch, where or whithei lie -hall 01 will go 



Plural. 

EyayenkLich, where or w hither we shall or will 

I i -,\ here 01 whi i 1" n" 

Eyaktitoch, whereof whithei ihej iheD.01 >- 



144 



GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

[second conjugation.] 



NEGATIVE FORM. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



Singular. 
II itt.i n'dawi, I do not go 
Matta k'dawi, thou dost not go 
Matta ewi, he does not go 



Singular. 
Matta n'dawip, I did not go 
Matta k'dawip, thou didst not go 
Matta ewip, he did not go 



Singular. 
Mattatsch n'dawi, I shall not go 
Mattatsch k'dawi, thou shall not go 
Mattatsch w'dawi or ewi, he shall not go 



Plural. 
Matta n'dawuneen, we do not go 
Matta k'dawunewo, ye do not go 
Matta ewiwak, they do not go. 



Preterite. 

Plural. 
Matta n'dawunenap, we did not go 
Matta k'dawihhiuioap or k'dawunewoap, ye did 

not go 
Matta w'dawunewoap or ewipannik, they did 
not go. 

Future. 

Plural. 
Mattatsch n'dawuneen, we shah not go 
Mattatsch k'dawunewo, ye shall not go 
Mattatsch ewiwak, they shall not go. 



Singular. 
Katschi ta ahaii, do not go 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



Plural. 
Katschi ta ahek, go ye not. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



Singular. 
Matta n'dawonne, when or if I do not go 
Matta awonne, when or if thou dost not go 
Matta aque, when or if he does not go 



Plural. 
Matta awenke, when or if we do not go 
Matta aweque, when or if ye do not go 
Matta achtite, when or if they do not go. 



The other tenses of this verb in the subjunctive mood are not given. 



SOCIAL FORM. 



Witeen*, to go with 



To go with some body. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

I Witencep, to have gone with. 



* JVote by the Translator. — The derivation of this word triteen from n'da, I go, does not 
immediately appear. In the first place it must be observed, that the author frequently con- 



OF THE LENNI LENAPE INDIANS. 

[ SE( USD CONJ1 '• MliiN.j 



145 



PARTICIPLE. 

Witetschik, he who goes wit)i bis companion. 



N'wite, I go with 
K'wite, thou goest with 
WIteu, he goes with 



Singular. 
N'w iteneep, I went with 
IPwiteneep, thou dtdat go with 
Witeep, he went with 



Singular. 
M'witetsrh, I shall go with 
K'witi't-i'h. thou -halt go with 
Witeuchtsch, he shall go with 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present. 



Plural. 
N*witeneen, we go with 

K'w itt-cirwu, ye go Willi 

Witewak, they go with. 



Preterite. 



Plural. 
N'witenenakup, we went with 
K'w itenewoakup, ye went with 
Witt'iunnik, they went with. 



Future. 



Plural. 
N'witcncentsch, we shall go with 

K'wiii'in wut-i li, yr -hall go with 
Witewaktsch, lliey shall go with. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



Singular. 
Widl, go thou with 
Witscheewil, go thou with me 



Plural. 
Witek.go ye with 
H itacheewik, go ye with me 



T1U.VSITW.Y8.— FIRST TRJLYSITIO.V. 



I.NDU VH\ I'. Mool). 



Singular. 
K'witsehewiilannc or k'witschewulen, I go with 

thee 
\ wn-ihewari, I go with him 



Present. 

Plural. 

k'wii-. -In wnllohhimio, I en with you 
Vwit-tliiwawak, I go with them. 



Preterite. 



nUir. 
K'wit*rhewrul1enecp, I went with thee 
N wit-< In -wiiap, I went with luni 



Plural. 

K'w>Nrh.'Wiill"tilnin,...i|i gf k'wit-rlirwillli urn 
w Mp, I wrlil w Mli JTOU 

Vwn-i In wu.ipannik. I waul wnli thein. 



loiiinl- the iiinnili d and i. which i" .1 German untutored mi ippmi to in- mc nine : therefore il 
we write triilttn. flu- eta mi if i 'In- Inaepanble pronoun of the 

thlnl (ii'mdii l,t <i -li.. In . ,],|..ili\ - - iki. ni'l i/' - ' " ■>' trrr) I 

oi 'in- miIi i;</», ii. go, i. n'l in in h'm m iiintlii i Wt I Id never] careful how in 

i analogy to Indian derivations; althou bitmaj not be dwaj ■ leal in -t ■gbt l i( 
win be discovered by thorn who tnvi t with the ne< . uil.ni 

VOL,. III. — 2 O 



146 



GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

[second conjugation.] 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
Present. 

Witschewane, when I go with him 

No more of this tense is given, nor of the subjunctive mood through- 
out these transitions, except two persons in the second, and two in the 
third. 



SECOND TRANSITION. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present. 



. Singular. 
K'witschewi, thou goest with me 
K'witschewan, thou goest with him 



Singular. 
K'witschewip, thou didst go with me 
K'witschewoap, thou didst go with him 



Plural. 
K'witschewineen or k'witschewihhena, thou go 

est with us 
K'witschewawak, thou goest with them. 



Preterite. 

Plural. 

K'witschewihummeneep, (or abridged, k'wits- 

chewimeneep,) thou didst go with us 
K'witschewoapannik, thou didst go with them. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present. 

K'wit9chewianne, when thou goest with me | K'witschewanne, when thou goest with him. 



THIRD TRANSITION. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present. 



Singular. 
N'witscheyuk, he goes with me 
K'witscheyuk, he goes with thee 
Witschewawall, he goes with him 



Singular. 
N'witscheuchkup, he went with me 
K'witscheuclikup, lie went with thee 
Witschewoap, he went with him 



Plural. 
Witscheuchguna, lie goes with us 
Witscheuchguwa, he goes with you 
Witschewawak, he goes with them. 



Preterite. 



Plural. 



Wilscheuchgunap, he went with us 
Witscheuchguwoap, he went with you 
Witschewoapauuik, he went with them. 



OF THE LENNI EENAPE INDIAN'S. 147 

[second CONJUGATION.] 



SI BJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present. 
N'witschewite,>hen or if he goes nidi me | K'witsche, when or if he goes with thee 



FOl'RTH TR.1.YSITIO.V. 



L\I)K'.\T1\ I! MOOD 

Present. 



Singular. 
K witschcwulcneen, we go with thee 
Vwit-c In waueen.we go with him 



Plural. 
K'n it«c hewullohhena, we go willi \ .m 
N'witschewiwuua, we go with them. 



Preterite. 

singular. | Plural. 

K'witschewullohhenap, we went with tliec N'witsrhewullohhenakup, we went with yuu 

N'witschewawunap or n'witschewaneenakup.l N'witschewawunap, we went with them, 
we went with him 



FIFTH TR.1.YSITIOJV. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



Singular. 
K'witschewihhimo, yon go with me 
K'witschewanewo, you go with him 



nlar. 
K'witsrhewihhimoakup, yon went with me 
K witschewanewoakup, you went with him 



Plural. 
k'witiehewineenoi k'wit-i li<wihhiimmena,you 
go with us 

,' n .nv nidi, yuu go wnh them. 

Preterite. 

Plural. 
K'wiUchewfhummeiiakup, yon went with di 

k'wiNrhi-w.iw.ip.innik. you miit »n)i them 



SIS Til 77.'. I Y8IT10 \ 



INDICATH i: mood. 



Prenvnt. 
Singular. 
\ wi<rheuchgook, they go with me 
KVilscheuchgook, they go with thee 
wltscbeuchgol] they go with htm 



Plural. 

H |(f( hriirlignn .in ik. they g" with us 

M. hgira kwai , Ihej g.. n 

. ii hguok. they go wuli tin in 



148 



GRAMMAR OP THE LANGUAGE 

[second conjugation.] 



Preterite. 



Singular. 
N'witscheuchgokpannik, they went with me 
KVi'scheuchgopannik, they went with thee 
Witscheuchgopannik, they went with him 



Plural. 
Witscheuchgunapannik, they went with us 
Witscheuchguwapannik, they went with you 
Witscheuchgokpannik, they went with them 



No. II. 

Paan, to come. 



POSITIVE FORM. 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Paan, to come. 

PARTICIPLES. 



Singular. 
Payat, he who comes or is coming 



Plural. 
Payatchik, they who come or are coming 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



Singular. 
N'pa> I come 
K'pa, thou comest 
Peu or peyeya, he comes 



Singular. 
N'pahump or n'paneep, 1 came 
K'pahump or k'paneep, thon earnest 
Peep, panep, or peuchsa, he came 



Singular. 
N'patsch, I shall or will come 
K'patsch, thou slialt or wilt come 
Peuchtsch, he shall or will come 



Plural. 
N'paneen or n'pahhena, we come 
K'pahhimo or k'panewo, ye come 
Pewak, penewo, they come. 



Preterite. 



Plural 
N'pahhenap or n'pakup, we came 
K'pahhimoap or k'pahhimoakup, ye came 
Pepannik or pannewoakup, they came. 



Future. 

Plural. 
N'pahhenatsch, we shall or will come 
li'pahheuatsch, ye shall or will come 
t'ewaktsch, they shall or will come. 



Pal, come thou 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Present. 

Singular. I Plural 

' Paak, come ye. 



OF THE EF-NNI T.F.NAPE INDIANS. 
[ -I i iimi CONJI G VTliis. J 



148 



Singular. 

Patetsch, he shall come 



Future. 

Plural. 
Pachtitetsch, thej shall come. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



Present. 



Singular. 
Paane.pava. if or when I come 
Payane, if or when thou comest 
Paie. ii 01 when he comes 



Singular. 
Payakup, if or when I came 
Payanup] if Of when thou earnest 
Paiup, peyatup, it or when he came 



- C ular. 
Payakpannc, if a/when 1 hail come 

Payanpai it 01 when thou badst come 

Paipanue, if or when he had come 



Plural. 
Payenh, payenke, Ifoi when wo come 
i . ii 01 when ye come 

I'.icliut. puchuie. it "i when they come. 

Preterite. 

Plural. 
Paycnkup. if or when m ■ in n- 

Payekup! it or when ye came 
Pachtitup, if or when Ihey came. 

Pluperfect. 

Plural. 
Payenkpanne, if or when we had come 
Payekpanne, it "/ when ye had ionic 
i'aihtitpjune, if «/ wheu they had come. 



The Put ure 
Is formed from the present as above mentioned. 



.VEVATIl'E Foil M 



IMHCATIYi: MOOD. 



Singular. 

\\ in'pawi,l lo nol come 
m 'pawi, Ihou dosl not come 

pewi, he doei not conic 



_ o/iir. 
Matta n'pawip, I did nol ■ ome 
\l k'pawip, thou didsl nut come 
Malta pewipi be did nol i ome 



I'll si lit. 

Plural. 
Vpawillii-i'li. vn- il.i n. ■' 

K ; im unewo, >•■ ■! «t come 

Pewiwak, pewichtlk, ffrpachtique, they do not 

I' id 1 1 ih . 

Plural. 
Malta n'pawihhenap, wo did nol i a\ 
Vfatta k'pawihhimoap, \. did nol come 
pswipanik, they did nol i 



Future. 

Multatsrli ii'/miri. Sfc. Like the present tense. 



VOL. III. & P 



150 



GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

[second conjugation.] 



Singular. 

Katschi pahan, come thou not 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 
Present. 

I Plural. 

I Katschi pahik, come ye not. 



Singular. 
Katschi pahitsch, he shall or must not come 



Future. 

Plural. 
Katschi pachtitetsch, they shall or must not come 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



Singular. 
Matta pawiyak, if or when I do not come 
Matta k'pawonne, if or when thou dost not come 
Matta paque or pewite, if or when he does not 



Plural. 
Matta pawenke, if or when we do not come 
Matta paweque, if or when ye do not come 
Matta pachtite, if or when they do not come. 



Singular. 
Matta pawiyakup, if or when I did not come 
Matta k'pawonnup, if or when thou didst not 

come 
Matta pakup or pewitup, if or when he did not 

come 



Preterite. 

Plural. 

Matta pawenkup, if or when we did not come 
Matta pawekup, if or when ye did not come 
Matta pachtitup, if or when they did not come 



Pluperfect. 



Singular. 
Matta payakpanne, if or when I had not come 
Matta pawonpanne, if or when thou hadst not 

come 
Matta pakpanne, if or when he had not come 



Plural. 
Matta pawenkpanne, if or when we had not 

come 
Matta pawekpanne, if or when ye had not come 
Matta pachtitpanne, if or when they had nol 

come. 



Future. 

The future is like the present. Mattatsch paiviyak, k'pawonne, paque. 

Another form of the Future. 

Singular. Plural. 

Alia n'pawiyatsch, if or when I shall not come Atta pawenketsch, if or when we shall not come 

Atta k'pawonnetsch, if or when thou shalt not Atta pawequetsch, if or when ye shall not come 

Atta pewichtitetsch or pauchtitetsch, if or when 
they shall not come. 



Atta pewitetsch, it or when he shall not come 



OF THE LENNI LENAPE INDIANS. 

[ill VERBS.J 



151 



riifrti (Eonfugatfon. 

The third conjugation ends in elendam, and nil the verbs with (ins ter- 
mination express a disposition, situation, or operation of the mind 

No. I. 

Schiwelendaji, to be iiiflii u)i..l v or sail. 



POSITIVE FORM. 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Present. 
Schiwelendam, to be Bad 

Preterite. 
Schiwelendamenep, to have been sad. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 



Present. 



Singular. 
\ n tiiwi li ii ■! u i. I .in. sad 
K'acbiwelend im thou irt sad 

Srbmrb-iiiiarn, he is sad 



S . ular. 

\ ichiwelendamenep, I waa sad 
K'achiwelendameDep, thou wast sad 
Schiwelendamenep, he was Bad 



Plural. 
BcbiwelendamenoeD] we ara *.ni 
Schlwelandamohhumo, ye are sad 
Schiwelendamoak, they arc sad. 



Preterite. 

Plural. 

Schiwelendi nenap, we were 

Schlwelendamohhiunoap, ye w 
Schiwelendamopaniilk, thoj wi 



The I'n 1 mi 
Is conjugated like the present, with tsch suffixed. 



81 BJ1 \( Tl\ i: MOOD. 

I'll M III . 



tilar. 

SrliiwclenHama, if <>i when I an) sad 
R'schiweleodamane, li m when thou irt tad 
lend inke, ii t» when be 



Plurnl. 

B< hta eland tmenke , U i n hen n e are tad 
3chiwelendajnequei it ..I when \-- i e "l 

Behlwelciiilaiiiiclititi', il "> " b. .. I 



152 



GRAMMAR OP THE LANGUAGE 

[third conjugation.] 



Preterite. 



Singular. 
Schiwelendamakup, if or when I was sad 
Schiwelendankup, il'o?" when thou wertsad 
Schiwelendankup, if'or when he was sad 



Plural. 



Shiwelendamenkup, if or when we were sad 
Shiwelendamekup, if or when ye were sad 
Shiwelendamichtitup, if or when they were sad 



Pluperfect 

Singular. 
Schiwelendamakpanne, if or when I had been 



sad 
Schiwelendamanpanne, if or when thou hadst 

been sad 
Schiwelendankpanne, if or when he had been 

sad 



Plural. 
Sehiwelendamenkpanne, if or when we had been 

sad 
Schiwelendamekpanne, if or when ye had been 

sad 
Schiwelendamichtitpanne, if or when they had 

been sad. 



Future. 

Singular. 
Schiwelendamaktsch, if or when I shall or will 

be sad 
Schiwelendamantsch, if or when thou shalt or 

wilt be sad 
Schiwelendanktsch, if or when he shalJ or will 

be sad 



Plural. 
Schiwelendamenketsch, if or when we shall or 

will be sad 
Schiwelendamequetsch, if or when ye shall or 

will he sad 
Schiwelendamichtitetsch, if or when they shall 

or will be sad. 



NEGATIVE FORM. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



Singular. 
Atta n'schiwelendamowi, I am not sad 
Atta k'schiwelendamowi, thou art not sad 
Atta schiwelendamowi, he is not sad 



Plural. 
Atta schiwelendamowuneen, we are not sad 
Atta k'schiwelendamohhumo, ye are not sad 
Atta schiweleudamowunewo, they are not sad. 



Preterite. 



Singular. 

Atta n'schiwelendamowip, 1 was not sad 
Atta k'schiwelendamowip, thou wast not sad 
Atta schiweleudamowip, he was not sad 



Plural. 
Atta schiwelendamowuneen, we were not sad 
Atta schiwelendaniowihliimoap, ye were not sad 
Attaschiwelendamowipannik, they were not sad. 



Singular. 

Mattatseh n'schiwelendamowi, 
not be sad, &c. 



Future. 

Plural. 
shall or will Mattatseh schiwelendamowuneen, we shall 01 
will not be sad, &c. 



OF THE LENNI LENAPE INDIANS. 
[third conjugations] 



153 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



Singular. 
M i" i Bchiwelendamowak, if or when I am not 

sad 
Mm i k'scbiwelendamowanne, if or when thou 

art nut Bed 
Matta schiweleudamoque, if or when he is not 

sad 



Plural. 
\tt.i Khiwelendamowenk, if or when we are not 

- n! 
\tu gchiwt lend imowek, if or when ye are not 

Bad 
Atta schiwelendamichtik, if or when they are not 

-.id. 



Preterite. 

Singular. Plural. 

Atta schiwelendamowaltup, if or when I w.i- nut \tl.i irhiwelenil.iniowenkiip, if or when we were 

-.nl lint -.lil 

Atta schiwelendamnwaiiup. n M when Ihou wert \it.i -■ hmeledaniowektip, if or when ye were not 

not sad sad 

\tta Bchiwelendamokup, if or when he was not Atta schiwelendamlebtitup, il 'or when Ihej wen 

-aJ not Bad. 



No. II. 

WULELENDAM, tO rCJOICC. 



POSITIVE FORM. 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 
Present. 

Wuleleiiil.uii, to rejoice. 

Preterite. 
Wolelend imem p, to have njoiccd. 



INDICATIVE Mool). 
Present. 



Singular. 
Nolelendam or nulelendam, i rejoice 
Kulelendain or kuleleDdaroenj thou rejoiceel 

Wuleleinl.ini or wuleleiidamohuiniDcna, be r* 
jotces 



Plural. 
Nuli'iiil.iiu.'ti, m rt 
Kuleleodamobhumo, \ • ■ 

"'il'liliil.ii ik 01 wul> 1' ■ml muni ■«". II.. 

June. 



Preterite. 



SingtiUii 
N'lli-h'ii'! iiiiiiiii |i, I i . 

Kulek ii' 1 1 neneep, tbou rejoiced 

WulelendaiDenep or w uli leiiilainoap, he rejoiced 



vol. III. — 2 q 



Plural. 



Nolelcndamcncnap or DololeDdamennaknp, we 
i. [olced 

Nolell in I.i nuil ih. n.ip or niileleml.ihiiiniiioakup. 

\ .- rejoiced 
vTaJeleodamopaniiik, they tejok 



154- 



GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

[third conjugation.] 



The Future 
Is formed like the present, with tsch suffixed. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



Singular. 
Wulelenda, rejoice thou 



Plural. 
Wulelendamook, do ye rejoice 
Wulelendamotam.let us rejoice. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



Singular. 
Nulelendama, if or when 1 rejoice 
Kulelendainane, if or when thou rejoicest 
Wulelendanke, if or when he rejoices 



Present. 

Plural. 
Wulelendamenke, if or when we rejoice 
Kulelendameque, if or when ye rejoice 
Wulelendaniichtite, if or when they rejoice. 



Preterite. 



Singular. 
Wulelendamakup, if or when I rejoiced 
Kulelendamanup, if or when thou rejoicedst 
Wulelendankup, if or when he rejoiced 



Plural. 
Nolelendamenkup, if or when we rejoiced 
Wulelendamekup, if or when ye rejoiced 
Wulelendamichtitup, if or when they rejoiced. 



Singular. 
Nolelendamakpanne, if or when I had rejoiced 
Kulelendamanpanne, if or when thou hadst re 

joiced 
Wulelendankpanne, if or when he had rejoiced 



Pluperfect. 

Plural. 
Wulelendamenkpanne, if or when we had re- 
joiced 
Kulelendamekpanne, if or when ye had rejoiced 
Wulelendamichtitpanne, if or when they had 
rejoiced. 



Singular. 
Nolelendamaktsch, if or when I shall rejoice 
Kulelendamaktsch, if or when thou shalt re- 
joice 
Wulelendamaktsch, if or when he shall rejoice 



Future. 

Plural. 
Wulelendamenketsch, if or when we shall re- 
joice 



Kulelendarnequetsch, if or when ye shall rejoice 
Wulelendamichtitetsch, if or when they shall re- 
joice. 



NEGATIVE FORM. 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Atta wulclendamowi, not to rejoice. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



Singular. 
Atta nulelendamowi, I do not rejoice 
Atta kulclendamowi, thou dost not rejoice 
Mta wulelendamowi, he does not rejoice 



Plural. 
Atta wulelendamownnr, n. we do not rejoice 
Atta kulelendamohhumo, ye .lonoi rejoice 
Atta wulelcnilamowuiifwo, they do not rejoice 



OF THE EENNI LENAl'E INDIANS. 
[tiiiiui CONJUG \tion.] 



1 .■) .") 



Preterite. 



Singular. 
Atta nulelendamowip, I did not rejoice 
Atta kulelendamowip, thou didst not rejoice 
Atta wulelendamowip, lie did not rejoice 



Plural. 
Alta wulelendamowunenap, we did not rejoice 

An. i kuleli adamohhumoapi ye <!i<1 not rejo 
Atta wulelendamowunewoapi tiny did not rejoice. 



Future. 

Singular. 
Atta nulelendamowitsch, I shall or will not re- 



joice 

Atta kulelendaiuowitsch, thou shall or wilt not 
rejoice 

Atta wulelendaiuowitsch, he shall or will not re- 
joice 



I'htral. 
Att.i wiileli'iiilainowunei ntscli, we shall Of will 

Atta kuleiendamohhumotsch, ye shall "i will not 

rejoice 
Atta wulelendamowonewotsch, they shall »i 

will not rejoice. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



Singular. 

Atta nulelendamowak, if or when 1 do not re- 
joice 

Atta wulelendamowane, if or when thou dost 
not rejoice 

\tta wnhltndanioque, if or when he does not 
rejoice 



Plural. 
\ti,i wulelendamowenke, if <>i when we do not 
rejoice 

Atta w ulilendainoweque, if or whin ye do not 

rejoice 
Atta w ulelendamichtite, if or when they do not 

rejoice. 



Preterite. 



Singular. 

Atta nulclendamowakup, if or when I did not re- 
joice 

Atta kulelendamowannup, if or when thou didst 
not rejoice 

\tt.i wulelendamokup, if or when lie did not re- 
joice 



Plural. 
Atta wulelcndamowenkiip.il or when »>■• 

n joice 
Att.i wiili-l.-ii.I.iino\\ rkuji, il or when \, did D il 

rejoice 
Atta wulelendawichtikup, if or when tin 

not rejoice. 



Pluperfect 

\ti .1 imlelendamowakp nun', if or when I had not 

rejoiced 
\tt.i kolelendainowanpanne, il 01 when thou 

1 i.i-i- 1 not rejoiced 
\tta wult-li'iidainuwakpaiiiH-, it or when he bad 

not rejoiced 



Plural. 
Itta wuli I'n lamowi nkpanne II 

nol ■ joicc l 
\ti.i wulelendamowekpanne, if at when ye had 
joiced 

Alta wuli'li'iiilaiiiirhtltp i when the] 

bad not rejo 



The I 'at arc 
[a tunned like the prcsi'iit. with ach Buffixed. 



The To! lowing verbs ma) easily be conjugated according to the fort 



i ', .-. ugh, in I itiatcd I Schlnoslendam, to be tired of, to dialiki 

lend. mi. to be considering, to be in doubt ! 



156 



GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

[fourth conjugation.] 



Schachachgelendam, to have one's mind made 
up, to be determined 

Wingelendam, to be pleased with something 

Aptelendam, to grieve to death 

Gischelendam, to hatch or meditate something 
good or bad, to lie 

Klakelendam (jocularly) to be rakish, extrava- 
gant, dissolute, a good for nothing fellow 

Lachauwelendam, to be troubled in mind 

Machelendam, to honour a person 

Mattelendam, to despise 

Miechanclendam, to be ashamed 

Miwelendam, to forgive 

Wahhellemelendam, to think one's self far off 

Gunelendam, to think it along time 

Pechuwelendani, to think one's self near 

Sacquelendam, to be melancholy, sad 

\puelendam, to think something or labour easy 



Achoweleudam, to think something difficult 
Kitelendam, to be in earnest 
Komelendam, to be free from trouble or care 
Tschipelendani, to think a person disagreeable 
Ayanhelendam, to be indifferent 
Niskelendam, to loathe something 
Kschiechelendam, kschiechelensin, to think 

one's self free from sin or stain, to think 

one's self holy, pious, clean 
Uschuwelendam, to be overwhelmed with care 

or trouble 
Allacquelendam, to be repentant even to despair 
Quesquelendam, to be out of humour 
Yechauwelendam, to love better, to prefer 
Allowelendam, to prize something above all 

other things 
Ksinelendam, to be easy, without care. 



.fFourth Conjugation. 

No. I. 

Gattamen, to desire, long for. 



POSITIVE FORM. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



Singular. 

N'gattameu, I desire 
Gattatamen, thoudesirest 
Gottatamen, he desires 



Singular. 
Vgattatamenep, I desired 
Gattatamenep, thou desiredst 
'rottatameneep, he desired 



Singular. 
N'gattatamtsch, I shall or will desire 
Gattalamtsch, thou Bhalt »r will deaire 
Gottatamtsch, he shall or will desire 



Plural. 
Gattatameneen or n'gattatamohhena, we desire 
Gatlatamohhunio, ye desire 
Gattatamenewo, they desire. 



Preterite. 



Plural. 



Gattatamenap or gattamohhenap, we desired 
Gattatamohhumoap, ye desired 
Gattatamenowoap, they desired. 



Future. 

Plural. 
N'gattatamohhenatsch, we shall or will desire 
Gattatamohhumotsch, ye shall of will lesire 
Gattatameuewotsch, they shall or will desire 



OF THE LENNl I/ENAPE INDIANS. 

[KOI RTH CONJIGATION.] 



187 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



Singular. 



Plural. 
Gattati, ' Jattatook or gatlatainook. 

The Imperative Mood is used in these verbs by way of exhortation, as 
come now, be diligent, industrious, &.c. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



S .ular. 
\ i f 01 when I desire 

Gattati me, it or when thou desires! 

Getatanke, If or « hen he desires 



Singular. 

Gattatamakup, if or when I desired 
Gattatamanup, if or when thon desiredst 
Getatankup, if or when he desired 



Plural. 
Gattalamcnk or g.ili.ii uii<nk<\ if or when ne 

ilrMii' 

i .iii.it. uneque. If or when ye desire 
. in .it.iiiiieiiiue, it or when they desire. 



Preterite. 



Plural. 
I.att.it.unenkiip, if or when we desired 

Gattatamekup] it "' when ye desired 

< ..itt.iMinichtilup, if or when they desired. 



Pluperfect. 
Singular. i Plural. 

Gattatamakpanne, if or when Iliad desired Gattatamenkpanne, ii ot when we had desired 

GaltatainiHip.tiKie. if or when thou hadst desired Qettatamekpejuie, ii '" vrh00 ye bed desired 
Geutankpanne, if or when lie had desired I Gattatamichritpanne, if or when they had de- 

sired. 



Future. 



Singular. 

Gattatamaktsch, if <» when I -li ill desire 
1 1 in •!. mil u it -i'h. if "i - win 'ii thou ihalt desire 
Gattatanklsch, if or when he ihail desire 



Plural. 
imenketsch, if "> when we shall desire 
Gattatameqoelsch, ii oi when ye shall de 

■ iitit-rii. if or when they shall 



NEGATIVE fuli.W 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 

I'll st III. 



Singular. 
Atta n'eattatamowi. I do 

ion i. thou dosl ool desire 
\tla KOtUUmowi, he does not di 



Plural. 
ittatamowrmeen, ire do nni desire 

ttatamohbumovi i. \- .1 i desire 

\tt.i gaturamowtmewo, th< \ da d il 



VOL. 111. 



-2 R 



158 



GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

[fourth conjugation.] 



Preterite. 



Singular. 
Atta n'gattatamowip, I did not desire 
Atta gattatamowip, thou didst not desire 
Atta gottatamowip, he did not desire 



Singular. 
Atta n'gattatamowitsch, I shall not desire 
Atta gattatamowitsch, thou shalt not desire 
Atta gottatamowitsch, he shall not desire 



Plural. 
Atta gattatamowunenap, we did not desire 
Atta gattatamohhumoap, ye did not desire 
Atta gattatamowunewoap or gattatamowipan 
nik, they did not desire. 



Future. 



Plural. 
Atta gattatamowuneentsch, we shall not desire 
Atta gattataraohhuinotsch, ye shall not desire 
Atta gattatamowunewotsch, they shall not de 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



Singular. 
Atta gattatamowak, if or when I do not desire 
Atta gattatauiowane, if or when thou dost not 

desire 
Atta gattatamoque, if or when he does not de- 
sire 



Plural. 
Atta gattatamowenke, if or when we do not de 

sire 
Atta gattatamoweque, if or when ye do not desire 
Atta gattatamichtite, if or when they do not de- 
sire. 



Preterite. 

Singular. 
Atta gattatamowakup, if or when I did not de 



Atta gattatamowannup, if or when thou didst not 

desire 
Atta gattatamokup, if or when he did not desire 



Plural. 

Atta gattatamowenkup, if or when we did not 
desire 

Atta gattatamowekup, if or when ye did not de- 
sire 

Atta gattatamichtitup, if or when they did not 
desire. 



Pluperfect 

Singtdar. 
Atta gattatamowakpanne, if or when I had not 

desired 
Atta gattatamowanpanne, if or when thou hadst 

not desired 
Atta gattatamowakpanne, if or when he had not 

desired 



Plural. 
Atta gattatamowenkpanne, if or when we had 

not desired 
Atta gattatamowekpanne, if or when ye had not 

desired 
Atta gattatamichtitpanne, if or when ye had not 

desired. 



Future. 



Singular. 
Atta gattatamowaktsch, if nr when I shall not 

desire 
Atta gattatamowannetsch, if or when thou shalt 

not desire 
Atta gattatamoquetsch, if or when he shall not 

desire 



Plural. 

Atta gattatamowenketsch, if or when we shall 

not desire 
Atta gattatamowequetsch, if or when ye shall 

not desire 
Atta gattatamichtitetsch, if or when they shall 

not desire. 



OF THE EENNI LENAI'E INDIAN*. 

[fourth i 'ivn i. v nON.] 



151) 



No. II. 



I'knp \m> \. t.i hear. 



.Vote by the Translator. — This verb i* given here in a variety of forms, 
active, passive, reciprocal, transitive, reflected, and adverbial; all, ex- 
cept the two last, in the positive and the negative. It will be Basil] 
perceived that if all the verbs were presented in the different forms of 
which the\ are capable, with all their moods, tenses, and other combina- 
tions, a grammar of this language might be swelled to an enormous 
size, to avoid which the Author, as may be observed, has frequentl) 
abridged his paradigms, and it must not be supposed that it always 
follows, because a particular form of a verb is not givon in its conjugation, 
that it is not susceptible of it. 



POSITIVE FOR.V 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Pcndaineu, to hear*. 

PARTICIPLES. 

(J\'ot given.) 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



ular. 
N'pendamen pi a'peodam, 1 hearf 
K iidamen, thou nearest 
Pendainen, he hears 



Singular. 

N ] "'iirlamcnep, I did hear 

damenep, thou didst hear 
Pendamencp, he did hear 



Plural 

ViiendaiiM'ti. ■(■'!. we hear 

K'pendamohhn \* he u 

Pendamenewo, thej hi u 



Preterite. 



Plural. 

V[>r [ni.iirn>hh.-n.ij\ ire did 

K'penda hhomo \p, yi did heai 

Peodameoewoap, uifrj did hear. 



\ v i,u ihr Translator. — The lau Peafi — V • to whom I communicated a manuKripl 
■ \i /. i-u igi'r. roniaining the conjugation ol thai rerb and afen othen, duelled then 
.Inalrkirn dcr BprachenlamuU , Zdbalfol the 2d part; but aacribed them bj mistake t.< the Chip- 
pewoy languac*-. whrn.m l.trt.ih<\ helong to Ihc Dt-I tw.iti-. 

v ..'/ m tiu Txtitti'it.ii —I [>.[i, iiu- verb and wulit t good, mQ,ia formed nuHpendam t I 
hoar or understand well. A part oftbfl V/Ofd WuMt il InterpOMd between '!" DTODOun acid tl 



160 



GRAMMAR OP THE LANGUAGE 

•[fourth conjugation.] 



Future. 



Singular. 
N'pendamentsch, I shall hear 
K'pendamentsch, thou shalt hear 
Pendamentsch, he shall hear 



Plural. 



N'peudameneentsch, we shall hear 
K'pendamohumotsch, ye shall hear 
Pendamenewotsch, they shall hear. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



Singular. 



Penda, hear thou 



Plural. 



Pendaniook, hear ye. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



Singular. 
Pendama or pendamaya, if or when I hear 
Pendainane, if or when thou hearest 
Pendanke, if or when he hears 



Plural. 

Pendamenk or pendamenke, if or when we 

hear 
Pendamenque, if or when ye hear 
Peudamichtite, if or when they hear. 



Preterite. 



Singular. 
Pendamaknp, if or when I did hear 
K'pendamanup, if or when thou didst hear 
Pendankup, if or when he did hear 



Plural. 
Pendamenkup, if or when we did hear 
Pendamekup, if or when ye did hear 
Pendauiichtitup, if or when they did hear. 



Pluperfect. 



Singular. 
Pendamakpanne, if or when I had heard 
Pendamanpanue, if or when thou hadst heard 
Pendankpanne, if or when he had heard 



Plural. 
Pendamenkpanne, if or when we had heard 
Pendamekpanne, if or when ye had heard 
Pendamichtitpanne, if or when they had heard 



Singular. 
Pendarnaktsch, if or when I shall hear 
K'pendamantseh, if or when thou shalt hear 
Pendanktsch, if or when he shall hear 



Future. 

Plural. 
Pendamenketseh, if or when we shall hear 
Pendamequetseh, if or when ye shall hear 
Pendamichtitetsch, if or when they shall hear 



NEGATIVE FORM. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



Singular. 
Uta n'pendamowi, I do not hear 
Atta k'pendainowi, thou dost not hear 
Vtta peudamowi, he does not hear 



Plural. 
Atta n'pendamowuneen, we do not hear 
Atta k'pendamohumowi, ye do not hear 
Atta pendamowunewo, they do not hear. 



OF THE LENNI EENAPE INDIANS. 

[FOURTH i "vii <. vrio.v.] 



161 



Preterite. 



Singular. 
Atta n'pendamowip, I did n<it hear 

An. i k'penda wip, thou didst nut hear 

\tt.i pendamowip, he did not heat 



Singular. 
Miti ti-rh n'pendamowi, I shall nr will not hear 
m itscfa k'pendamowi, thou shall "> «ili not 

hear 
Mattatsch peudaniowi, he shall or will not hear 



Plural. 
\ t r.t n'pendanienenap, we > 1 i • 1 not hi 
Atta k'pendamowunewoap, j e did not heat 
Atta pendamowunewoap, thej ■lid not heat 



Future. 

Plural. 
M 'ii ktsch pendamowuneen, we -hall "i will noi 

hear 
bfattatsch k'pendamohumowi, ye shall »> will 

not heat 
Mattatsch pendamowunewo, they shall or will 

not hear. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



Singular. 

Atta n'pendamowak, if or when I do not hear 
An V|>endainowane,if or when thou dost not heai 
Atta pendamoque, if Of when he does not heai 



Plural. 
Atta pendamowenke, if or when we do not heat 

\tta pelidaumweipie, il "< when ye do not heai 

Vita pendamichtite, if or when they ilouol hear 



Preterite 
Singular. 

Atta pendamowakup, if or when I have not 

heard 
Atta pendainowannup, if or when thou hast not 

heard 
Atta pendaiuokup, if or when he has not heard 



Plural. 

Atta pendamowenkup, if or when we have not 

heard 
Atta k'pendamowekup, if or when ye have not 

heard 
Atta peiiilaiuiehtitiip, if or when the] have ii"' 

beard. 



I 'I ii/u rf'ret 
ular. 
Atta pendaninwakpaiine. if or when I hail not 

beard 
Atta k'l'.nd unowanpanne, if of when thou bads! 

noi heard 
Vila |>>'inlamowakpanne, if or when he had not 
heard 



Plural. 
Ana pendamowenkpanne', ii oi when we bad not 

beard 
■\tt.i lr/pendamowekpanne, 11 o> when ye had 

not !»■ 'il 
Atta pendamlehtitpaime, ii oi when they had 

n"i heard 



Future. 

Singular. Pliunl. 

tucfa ii m when I -lull ot itta nendamowenketsch, if or when we shall in 

will Ii"' be ir "ill H"l hear 

Atta k'i" match, II m when than shall Utapendamowequetseh. ii <» when y shall ■" 

... will not hear h di noi hi 

itta pendamoquetach, if oi when he shall oi will Uta pendamichtitetach, if ot when the] shall oi 

not bear will P»l hi 



VOL. III. — 2 s 



162 



GRAMMAR (IF THE LANGUAGE 

[fourth conjugation.] 



PASSIVE FORM.— POSITIVE. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



Singular. 
N'pendaxi, I am heard 
K'pendaxi, thou art heard 
Pendaxu or pendaquol, he is heard 



Plural. 
N'pendaxihheDa, we are heard 
K'pendaxihhimo, ye are heard 
Pendaxowak, they are heard. 



Preterite. 



Singular. 
N'pendaxihump, I was heard 
K'pendaxihump, thou wast heard 
Pendaxop or pendaquachtop, he was heard 



Plural. 
N'pendaxihhenakup, we were heard 
K'pendaxihhimoakup, ye were heard 
Pendaxopannik, they were heard. 



Future 

Singular. 
N'perjdaxitsch, [ shall or will be heard 
K'pendaxitsch, thou shalt or wilt be heard 
Pendaxutsch or peudaquotsch, he shall or will be 
heard 



Plural. 
N'pendaxihhenatsch, we shall or will be heard 
K'pendaxihhimotsch, ye shall or will be heard 
Pendaxiwiwaktsch, they shall or will be heard 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



Singular. 
Pendaxia, if or when I am heard 
Pendaxiane, if or when thou art heard 
Pendaxite, if or when he is heard 



Plural. 
Pendaxiyenke, if or when we are heard 
Pendaxiyeque. if or when ye are heard 
Pendaxichtite, if or when they are heard. 



Preterite. 



Singular. 
Pendaxiakup, if or when I was heard 
Pendaxiannup, if or when thou wert heard 
Pendaxitup, if or when he was heard 



Plural. 
Pendaxiyenkup, if or when we were heard 
Pendaxiyekup, if or when ye were heard 
Pendaxichtitup, if or when they were heard 



Pluperfect. 



Singular. 
Pendaxiakpanne, if or when I had been heard 
Pendaxianpanne, if or when thou hadst been 

heard 
Pendaxitpanne, if or when he had been heard 



Plural. 
Pendaxiyenkpanne, if or when we had been 

heard 
Pendaxiyekpanne, if or when ye had been heard 
Pendaxichtitpaune, if or when they had been 

heard. 



Future. 



Singular 
N'pendaxiatsch, if or when I shall he heard 



Plural. 
Pcndaxiyenketsch, if or when we shall be heard 



K'pendaxianel ich, if or when thou shall be beard Pendaxlyequetsch, if or when ye shall be heard 
Pendaxitetsch, if or when he shall be heard | Pendaxichtitetsch, if or when they shall be 

heard. 



OF THE LENNI LENAPE INDIANS. 
[fourth conjuclation.] 



163 



JVEGATIVE. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



Singular. 
Malta n'pendaxiwi, I am not heard 
Matta k'pendaxiwi, thou art not heard 
Malta peudaxuwi, he is not heard 



Plural. 
Matta pendaxiwuneen, wo are not heard 
M in i k'pen ' inhbumo, ye ire n<>t beard 
Malta pendaxiwiwak, they arc not heard 



Preterite. 



Singular. 
Matta n'pendaxiwip, I \\j- not heard 
Matta k*pendaxiwip, then waal not lieard 
Matt.i pendaxuwip or pendaquachlowip, lie w.i- 
not heard 



Plural. 



I uta o'nendaxiwiwunap, we were not heard 
■ l.itt.i k'pfii.l axiwunen ii. ye were not heard 
Malta peiidaxiwipaiiink, they were not heard. 



Future. 

Singular. Plural. 

Mattatsch n'pendaxiwi, I shall or will nol be Mattatsch n'pendaxiw uneen, we shall or will 
heard not be heard 



Mattatsch k'pendaxiwi, thou -halt or will not 

he heard 
Mattatsch pendaxuwi, he shall or will not be 

heard 



Mattatsch k'pendaxjhhumo, ye shall or will not 

be heard 
Mattatsch pendaxiwiwak, they shall or will nol 

be heard. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
Present. 

Singular. Plural. 

\tta n'pendaxiwi, it ' ur when I am not heard | Atta pendaxiweilke, If or when we are not 
Atta pendaxiwanne, it or when thou art not heard 

lir.tnl Uta pendaxtweque, it or when %<■ are do) heard 

Atta pendaxite,if or when he is not heard Atu peadaxichute, il " whin the] an- nol 

heard. 



Preterite. 



Singular. 
\tta n'pendaxiwakup. it or when I was not 

beard 
Atta k'pendaxtwanmip, it or when thou wcrt not 

heard 

Atta pcndaxilup, If or when be w.i-nut heard 



Plural. 

Mt.i pendaxiwenxnp, ii 01 whan «••• w.rc not 

in r.i 
\tt.i pendaxlwekup, it ot when \«- were Dot 

heard 
ut.i peDdaxichtitup, it 01 when the) were nol 

beard. 



Pluperfect 

Singular 
> it hi when I had not 

1 lendaxlwanpanne, if or when thou hadal 
ool : ' en heard 

\" . ■ iHip.iliiii'. Il 11T when he had nut 

been heard 



Pluml. 
\tt.i peiiil.ixiwenkp.it , it m when we Ii id 

nol been heara 
\tt.i p.-n ' iMwekpanni-. ii m when yehi 

been heard 
Atta pen axi hdtpanne, If 01 when the) bad not 

been I 



164 



GRAMMAR OF THE LAXGrAGE 

[FOrBTH CONJIGATI""..] 



Future. 

Singular. Plural. 

Atta pendasiwaktscn, if or when I shall not be ; Atta pendaxiwenketsch, if or when we shall not 

heard be heard 

Atta pendaxiwannetsch, if or when thou shah not \ Atta pendaxiwenquetsch, if or when ye shall not 

be heard be heard 

Atta pendatiquetsch, if or when he shall not Atta peodasichtitetsch, if or when they shall not 

be heard be beard. 



RECIPROCAL FOR.V.—POSITIl~E 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 



Present. 

Pendawachtin. to hear each other 



Preterite. 

| Pendawachtinep, to have heard each other 



Future. 

Pendawaktitsch, to be to hear each other. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 



Present. 



Pendawachtineen or pendawachtihhena, we hear 

each other 
Pendawachuhhimo, ye hear each other 
Pendawachtowak, they hear each other. 



Preterite. 



Pendawachtihhenakup or pendawachtihhtzinirie- 

naktrp, we heard each other 
Pendawachlohhimoaknp, ye heard each other 
Pendawachtopannik, they heard each other. 



Future. 

Pendawachtihhenatsch, we shall or will hear each other 
Pendawachrjhhimotsch. ye shall or will hear each other 
Pendawachtowaktsch, they shall or will hear each other. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



Present. 

Pendawachtik, hear ye there (what the other is 

■ tl ?) 
Pendawachtitam, let us hear each other. 



Future. 



Pendawachtichtitetsch, they shall or must or let 
them hear each other. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



Present 



Pendawachtiyenk or peniawachtiyenque, if or 

when we hear each other 
Pendawachtiyek or pendawachtiyeque, if or 

when ye hear each other 
Pendawachtichtit, if or when they hear each 

other. 



Preterite. 

Pendawachtryenkup. if or when we beard each 

other 
Pendawachtiyekup, if or when ye beard each 

other 
Pendawachtichtitup, if or when they beard each 

other. 



OP THE LENNl LENAPE INDIANS. 

[kcuRTH conjugation.] 



If).-, 



Pluperfect. 

Pendawachtiyenkpanne, if or when we had 

heard each othei 
Pendawachdyekparjne, il 01 when ye had heard 

each other 
Pendawachdchdt| ume, if or when they had 

heard each other. 



Future. 

I'endawachtiyenketsch, if or when we shall or 

will hear each oilier 
l'elidawaehtiyeqilet-rh. if or when \. shall in 

n ill heat each other 
Pendawaktichtitetach, if or when they shall or 
wdl hear each oilier. 



JVEG.1T/rh: 



[NDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present. Preterite. 



Atta pendawachtiwnneeD, ire do not hear each 

"'ll.T 

Atta pendawachtiwek, ye do not hear each other 
Atta pvndawachtiwiw IK, they do not hear each 
other. 



Atta peodawachtiwuneaap, we did not heai 

each other 
Atta pendawachdwihbiinoap, ye did nol heal 

each other 
Atta pendawachdwipannik, they did not hear 

each other. 



Future. 

Atta pendawachtiwuncentsch, we shall or will not hear each other 
Atta pendawacbtiwihbimotsch, ye shall or will not heat each othi 
Atta pendawachtiwiwaktseh. they shall or will not hear each other. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Katschi* pendawaehtihek, do not hear each other. 



sriiJT.VCTIYK MOOD. 



Present. 



Mta pendawachtiwenke. if »r when we do not 

he i h other 

\tia pendawachtiweque, if or when ye do do 

hear each other 
Atta pendawachtichtite, if or when they do not 

hear each other. 

Pluperfect. 

ad .» ichtiweoki re b ■■' 

Alia o in Ian icbdwekp ■ ■. 
not I"' ird each othe 
Atta pern i» ,i n irheii they 

had not heard each other. 



Preterite. 

\mi penaawachdwenkup, 11 » irheo ire did 

in. i I,. ,i . || (, ..llier 

Mia pendawachdwekup, it or when ye did no) 

each niher 
\tt.i peodawachdcbdttip, il <ii when they did 
not beat each other. 

Future. 

Mi.i pendawai bdwon tel k i. il ■■> when we 

inaD "i will not be u each ..ilier 
\tta peti.i !».,. diiim .|ii.i.. h, il "i irhaa \e ihaO 

..i will mil haai each othei 
\tt.i pendawachdchdtetacb, it or irberj the) 

■ lull "i rtill not h.ar en I, ..ther. 



v ••'../ ttu TrarulaUn RirtreAi bra word of prohlbltioD, a» in English don't indippean 
«° , "' "■ from atta. The Author daaiea it with advertx - 

. romlrih ■>, 

VOL. III. 2 I 



166 



GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

[fourth conjugation.] 



REFLECTED FORM. 



There is also a reflected form of the verb : 
As Likewise 



N'penda n'hakey*, I hear myself 
K\»endawa hakey, ihou hearest thyself 
Pendawawall hokeyall, he hears himself. 



N'dahowala n'hakey, I love myself 
K'dahowala hakey, thou lovest thyself 
Wdahoalawall or w'dahowalawall hokeyall, he 
loves himself. 



PERSONAL FORMS OR TRANSITIONS. 



In order to enable the reader to compare these forms in the positive 
and negative voices, they are placed here in opposition to each other. 



FIRST TRANSITION. 



First Person Singular, I. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



POSITIVE. 

K'pendolen, I hear thee 
N'pendawa, I hear him 
K'pendolohhumo, 1 hear you 
N'peudawawak, 1 hear them. 



K'pendolenep, I did hear thee 
N'pendawap, I did hear him 
K'pendolohnumoap, I did hear you 
N'pendawoapannik, I did hear them. 



NEGATIVE- 

Atta k'pendolowi, 1 hear not thee 
Atta n'pendawawi, I hear not him 
Atta k'pendolhummowi, I hear not you 
Atta n'pendawawiwak, I hear not them. 



Preterite. 



Atta k'pendolowip, I heard not thee 
Atla n'pendawawip, I heard not him 
Atta k'pendolohiiinmowip, I heard not you. 
Atta n'pendawawipannik, 1 heard net them. 



Future. 



K'pendolentsch, I shall or will hear thee 
N'pendawatsch, I shall or will hear him 
K'pendolobhumotsch, I shall or will hear you 
N'pendawawaktsch.I shall or will hear them. 



Atta k'pendolowitsch, I shall or will not hear 

thee 
Atla n'pendawawitsch, I shall or will not hear 

him 
Atta k'pendollnmmiowitsch, I shall or will not 

hear you 
Atta n'pendawawiwaktsch, 1 shall or will not 

hear them. 



* Note by Ike Translator. — Nhakey signifies lite-ally " my body," whirh i« synonymous to 
" my person," oi "my If" In English we say "somebody, nobody," for oiijuw, nemo. There 
is nothing barbarous in those words. 



OP THE T/BNNI LEN APE INDIANS. 
[fouhth conjugation.] 



167 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



POSITIVE. 

K'pendolanc. if or when I hear thee 
i si ike, it "i when 1 hear him 

i ileque, it <<r w hen I hem you 
I'etulawawake, if or when I hear them 



NEGATIVE. 

Atta pendolowonne. it <•/ w Inn I do not hear thee 
Att.i n'pendamawonne, If Of when 1 do nut heal 
him 

\tt.i n'pendoleque. il or when I ilo not hear you 

Atta o'pendawawiwonne, if or when I do not heai 
them. 



I'nti i Hi . 



K'pendolannup, if Of when I did hear thee 
N w akup, ii >i n hen I did heai him 

N lolekup, if or when 1 did hear you 
K'pendawawakup, if or when 1 did hear diem. 



Atta pendolowonnup, if or when I did not hen 

thee 
Atta a'pendamawonnup, if or when I did not 

heai him 
Atta n'pendolekup, if or when I did nut beat 

you 
Atta n'pend awawiwonnup, if or when I did not 

hear them. 



Pluperfect 

K'pendolanpanne, if or when I had heard thee 
\ ndaw ikpanne, if or when I had heard him 

Pendolekpat il or when I had heard yon 

N'pendawawakpanne, ii or when 1 had heard 
them. 



Atta pendolowonpanne, if or when I had not 

heard thee 
\tta n'pen.lamawonpanne, if or when I had not 

heard him 
Atta pendolowckpanne, if or when I had not 

heard you 
Atta peudaw awipaune, if or when I had not 

heard them. 



Future. 

K'pendolanetsch, if or when I shall or will hear Mia n'pendolowonnetsch, if or when I shall or 

thee will not heai thei 

N'peti'lawam t-ch, if or when I *hall <n will hear \tta n'pendaniawonnetsch, it <u when I -hall >>r 

him will Dot heai him 

tCpendolequetsch, If or when. I ahaD or will hear Itta n'pendolowequetach, if "> when I -hall oi 



you 
N 'pi n I aw awaketsch, if or when I shall <>i will 
hear them. 



will i. 

\im D'pendawawiwonnetach, ii m when I shall 
»i will mil hear them 



SECOJW r/i.i vsrriD.Y 



Second Prison Singular, THOU. 
INDICATIVE MooD. 

/'/' n III. 



K'pendawl, thoil hearcst me 
K'pendawa, I on hearesl him 
f\ ndawihhen >■ ihou he ire*1 o- 
K'pendawawak, thou hearcst them. 



\ rr.i k'pendawiwi, thou beantal not mr 
vita k'pendaw iwl, ihou hi i d him 
\'t« k'pend iw In unc i 

\ll l k 'pi ti.lawawiwak, Il luaie.t n.il th.-rr 



168 



GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

[fourth conjugation.] 



Preterite. 



POSITIVE. 

K'pendawinep, thou didst hear me 
K'pendawap, thou didst hear him 
K'pendawihhenap, thou didst hear us 
K'pendawoapanuik, thou didst hear them. 



NEGATIVE. 



Atta k'pendawiwip, thou didst not hear me 
Atta k'pendawawip, thou didst not hear him 
Atta k'pendawiwunap, thou didst not hear us 
Atta k'pendawawapanuik, thou didst not heat 
them. 



Future. 



K'pendawitsch, thou shalt or wilt hear me 
K'pcndawatHch, thou shalt or wilt hear him 
K'pendawihhenatsch, thou shalt or wilt hear us 
K'pendawawaktsch, thou shalt or wilt hear them. 



Atta k'pendawiwitsch, thou shalt or wilt not 

hear rae 
Atta k'pendawawitsch, thou shalt or wilt not 

hear him 
Atta k'pendawiwuneentsch, thou shalt or wilt 

not hear us 
Atta k'pendawawiwaktsch, thou shalt or wilt 

not hear them. 



SUBJUNCTIVE- MOOD. 



Present. 



K'pendawiyane, if or when thou hearest me 
K'pendawane, if or when thou hearest him 
K'pendawiyenk, If or when thou hearest us 
K'pendawawoune,if or when thou hearest them. 



Atta k'pendawiwonne, if or when thou dost not 

hear me 
Atta k'pendawawonne, if or when thou dost not 

hear him 
Atta k'pendakuwenque, if or when thou dost not 

hear us 
Atta k'pendawawiwonne, if or when thou dost 

not hear them. 



Preterite 

K'pendawiyanup, if or when thou didst hear 

me 
K'pendawanup, if or when thou didst hear him 
K'pendawiyenkup, if or when thou didst hear 



K'pendawawawonnup, if or when thou didst 
hear them. 



Atta k'pendawiwonnup, if or when thou didst 

not hear me 
Atta k'pendawawonnup, if or when thou didst 

not hear biro 
Atta k'pendaweukup, if or when thou didst not 

hear us 
Atta k'pendawawiwonnup, if or when thou didst 

not hear them. 



Pluperfect. 



K'pendawiyanpanne, if or when thou hadst 

heard me 
K'pendawanpanne-, if or when thou hadst heard 

him 
K'pendawiyenkpanne, if or when thou hadst 

heard us 



Atta k'pendawiwonpanne, if or when thou hadst 

not heard me 
Atta k'pendawonpanne, if or when thou hadst 

not heard him 
Atta k'pendawenkpanne, if or when thou hadst 

not heard us 



K'pendawavvawonpaune, if or when thou hadst ■ Atta k'pendaivawiwonpanne, if or when thou 
heard them. hadst not heard them. 



OF THE LF.NNI LFNAPF INDIANS. 

[POI KTH l/ONJI BATION.] 



iiiy 



Future. 



POSITIVE. 



Fpendawiyanetsch, if or whenlhou shall or wilt 

lit .1' lllf 

K'l" inlaw anetsch, if or when thou shall or wilt 

bear him 
hVpeDdawiyeaqiietscbi it* ' J r when thou shalt or 

will beat us 
K*pi adaw twawoQDetsch] ii tn when thou shall 

or wilt heai them. 



\ ii.iTll'h: 



Att.i fpendawiwonnetsch, ii <>r when iIk.vi ~fi.it 

or will doI beat me 
At la Ic'pendawawonnetach, if 01 when tlnei shall 

01 wih noi beat him 
Atta ■^penfawenqoetech, if or when thou shall 

or will ool In i 1 os 
Att. i k'|i''iiii.iw.i\\ iwonnetsch, if ot when thou 

-halt "i will not heat Ihem. 



THIItlt Tlt.l.YSITIii.Y 



Third Person Singular, HE. 
INDICATIVE MOOD. 



Present. 



Wpendagun. he hears me 
K he hears ihee 

P _nl. be hears him 
i Runa, he hears us 
K*pi odaguwa, he heats you 
Pendaw.iwak, he heats tliein. 



Atta n'pendagowi, he does not hear mc 
Atta k'pendagowi, bedoes doi hear thee 
\" < pendamawi, he does ool heai him 
Atta pendaeuwuneen, he does ool hear us 
Alia k'|)endat;uwaivi, he does nol bear you 
Atta pendawawiwak, In- does ool heai them 



Preterite. 



N'pendaeop, he heard or did hear me 

K d lagop, In' heard -" did bear thee 

i lap, he beard >>r did heat him 

N agon tp, he heard <<i did beat lis 

I'. ;>. he heard "i 'lid hear yOQ 

Pendawapannik, he heard or did heat them. 



Atta D'pendagowip, he did ool heai dm 

\ii.i pendagowip, In' diil mi' heai ihee 

\n t peodawawip, be did ool hear hnn 
\m,i n pendaguwuneeDap, be did ool hear us 
\n t pendaguwawip, he did nut bear you 
\ti.i o'peadan iwipannik, be 'li'l ool heai them. 



N'pendaguktscb, be -lull or will hear me 
K*pendaguktsch, hi Bhall >>r will heai thee 
Peodagoltsch, be -hill • bim 

n ' itscb, be -lull ■" will hi 

K'pendaguwatach, he -hill or will hi 
Pendawawaktscb, he shall or will heat them 



Future, 

\ii.i a'pendagowltscb, he shall or will not heai 



An., k'pendagowiUch, he -hill ", will ool in i 
thee 

Alia |t.-iiil.iw.iwil-. h. be ihall n' will ool 

bim 

Ddaguwuneentschi he -li.ll oi will nol 
bear us 

'!. he -lull "' will ool 
heai 
Atta pendawawiwaktscbj he -lull or will ool 
heat tin in 



VOL. III. — 2 u 



170 



GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

[fourth conjugation.] 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



POSITIVE. 

Pendawite, if or when he heareth me 
Pendagake, if or when he heareth thee 
Pendawate, if or when he heareth him 
Pendaquenke, if or when he heareth us 
Pendaqueque, if or when he heareth you 
Pendawachtite, if or when he heareth them. 



Pendawitup, if or when he did hear me 
Pendagukup, if or when he did hear thee 
Pendawatup, if or when he did hear him 
Pendaquenkup, if or when he did hear us 
Pendaquekup, if or when he did hear you 
Pendawachtitup, if or when he did hear them. 



NEGATIVE. 

Atta pendawique, if or when he does not heai 

me 
Atta pendaquonne, if or when he does riot hear 

thee 
Atta pendawaque, if or when he does not hear 

him 
Atta pendaguwonque, if or when he does not 

hear us 
Atta pendaguweque, if or whenhe does not hear 

you 
Atta pendawachtique, if or when he does not 

hear them. 



Preterite. 

Atta pendawikup, if or when he did not hear me 
Atta pebdaquonnup, if or when he did uot hear 

thee 
Atta pcndawakup, if or when he didnothear him 
Atta pendawenkup, if or when he did not hear 

us 
Atta pendawekup, if or when he did not hear you 
Atta pendawachtitup, if or when he did not hear 

them. 



Pluperfect. 



Pendawitpanne if or when he had heard me 
Pendagukpanne, if or when he had heard thee 
Pendawatpanue, if or when lie had heard him 
Peudayquenkpanne, if or when he had heard us 
Pendaquekpanne, if or when he had heard you 
Pendawachtitpanne, if or when he had heard 
them. 



Atta pendawikpanne, if or when he had not 

heard me 
Atta pendaquonpanne, if or when he had not 

heard thee 
Atta pendawatpanne, if or when he had not 

heard him 
Atta pendaquenkpanne, if or when he had not 

heard us 
Atta pendaquekpanne, if or when he had not 

heard you 
Atta pendawachtitpanne, if or when he had not 

heard them. 



Future. 



Pendawitetsch, if or when he shall or will hear 

me 
Pendaguketsch, if or when he shall or will hear 

thee 
Pendawatetsch or pendagoltsch, if or when he 

shall or will hear him 
Pendaquenquetsch, if or when he shall or will 

hear us 
Pendaqueketsch, if or when he shall or will hear 

you 
Pendawachtitsch, if or when he shall or will 

hear them. 



Attatsch* pendawite, if or when he shall or will 

not hear me 
Attatsch pendaquonne, if or when he shall or 

will not hear thee 
Attatsch pendawaque, if or when he shall or will 

not hear him 
Attatsch pendaqiicnque, if or when he shall or 

will not hear us 
Attatsch pendaqueque, if or when he shall or 

will not hear you 
Attatsch pendawachtite, if or when he shall or 

will not hear them. 



* Note by the Translator. — Here the sign of the future tense, tsch, is suffixed to the adverb 
not, and not to the verb. 



OF THE LENNI EENAl'E INDIANS. 

[f<J1 RTH CONJI i. ITION.] 



171 



FOURTB Tn.LYsirm.\- 



First Person Plural, WE. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



POSITIVE. 

K'pendoioneeo, we near thee 
N'pendawaneen, v\ t - hear him 
1 lolohhena, we bear you 

\ udawawunanak, we hear them. 



j\'E(!.IT1\'E. 

Atta k'|it'nilolowuin-iMi. we do not hear thee 

\;ti n'pendawawui n, we >l" nol hear bini 

Atta k'pendalhummowuneen, we do uot heai 

you 
Atta n'pendawawunanak, we do not hear them. 



Preterite. 



K'pendolonenap or k'pendolohhenap, we did 

heat thee 
N'pendawawunap, we did hear him 
K'pendolohhenap, we did hear you 
N'pendainawunapannik, we did hear them, 



Alta k'pendolowunecnap. we did not hear thee 
Atta n'pendamawujiap, we « I i c 1 not hear him, 
Atta k'pendolhummowuneenap, we did not hear 
you 

Atta n'pcndawawunceuak, we did not hear them. 



Future. 



K'pendoloneentsch or k'pcndolohhenatjch, we 

shall or will hear thee 
\ •■ i.i-i -ti.we shall or wffl heat him 

K'pendolohhumen.it>i'li, we Bhall or will hear 

N ndawawunanaktsch, we shall or will beat 
them. 



Atta k'pendolowunccntsrli, we shall or will not 

beat thee 
Atta a'pendawawuneentsch, we ihall nr will not 

i . linn 

Atta k'pendolhumowu ntsch, we shall m wfll 

hi a vou 
Atta n'pendawawunaktsch, we "hall oi will not 

be i ihrin. 



SUBJUNCTIVE M<in|>. 
Present. 



Pendolenque, m m when we hear thee 

P anqne, if or wheo we hear him 

Pendotohhumanquo, it or wheo we hear you 
Pendawamampi'-, n m when we bear mom. 



ndolowonqne, if or when wc do not hear 
thee 

ndawanquo, if or when we do not 
inn. 
An. i k : inque, ii "i when we do nol 

he * you 

twonque, or U when we do not heai 
them. 



I'ntt rite. 



IVndnlenknp. if nr when thee 

Pendamankup, il oi when «•■ did hear him 
i lolhumaokup, >i oi when 
Pcndawawankup, il or when wi did heal tfiem. 



\it i pendolowonkup, ii m when we <ii I nol 

ii 

v i pi ndawankup, ii • <• when »■■ did a il 

l 

ttli k'pend imolekup, ii of when w< d 

you 
\n i |,. ndawawankupj il or when wc did not hoar 

them. 



172 



GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

[fourth conjugation.] 



Pluperfect. 



POSITIVE. 



Pendolenkpannc, if or when we had heard thee 
Pendamenkpanne, if or when we had heard him 
Pendolhumopanne, if or when we had heard you 
Pendamawawonkpanne, if or when we had 
heard them. 



NEGATIVE. 



Atta pendolowankpanne, if or when we had not 

heard thee 
Atta pendavvankpanne, if or when we had not 

heard him 
Atta pendamowekpanne, if or when we had not 

heard you 
Atta pendawawonkpanne, ii" or when we had not 

heard them. 



Future. 

if or when we shall or will 



Atta pendolowunatsch, if or when we shall or 

will not hear thee 
Atta pendawanquetsch, if or when we shall or 

will not hear him 
Atta pendaniolhummotsch, if or when we shall 

or will not hear you 
if or when we shall or [ Atta pendawawonquetsch, if or when we shall 

or will not hear thein. 



Pendolenquetsch 

hear thee 
Pendamanquetsch, if or when we shall or will 

hear him 
Pendolohummanquetsch, if or when we shall or 

will hear you 
Pendawawanquetsch 

will hear them. 



FIFTH TRANSITION. 



Second Person Plural, YE. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



K'pendawihhimo, ye hear me 
K'pendawawa, ye hear him 
K'pendawihhenook, ye hear us 
K'pendawawak, ye hear them. 



I Atta k'pendawihhimo, ye do not hear me 
Atta k'pendawawunewo, ye do not hear him 
Atta k'pendawiwuna, ye do not hear us 

[ Atta k'pendawawunewo, ye do not hear them. 



Preterite. 



K'pendawihhimoakup, ye heard or did hear me 
K'pendawawap, ye heard or did heai him 
K'pendawihummenakup, ye heard or did hear 

us 
K'pondawawapannik, ye heard or did hear them. 



Atta k'pendawihhimoap, ye heard not or did not 

hear me 
Atta k'pendawawihhimoap, ye heard not or did 

not hear him 
Atta k'pendawiwunap, ye heard not or did not 

hear us 
Atta k'pendawawunewo, ye heard not or did 

not hear them. 



Future. 

K'pendawihhimotsrh, ye shall or will hear me J Atta k'pendawihhimotsch, ye shall or will not 

K'pendawawatsch, ye shall or will hear him hear me 

K'pendawihuinmeuatscli, ye shall or will hear Atta k'pendawawunewotsch, ye shall or will not 

us hear him 

K'pendawanewotsch, ye shall o> will hear them. Atta k'pendawihummenatsch, ye shall or will 

not hear us 
Atta k'pendawawunewotsch, ye shall or will nol 
hear tin-in 



OF THE LENNT LEN\PE INDIANS. 
[fourth conjt gation.] 



173 



SI BJ1 VTIVi: MOOD. 
Present. 



POSITIVE. 

K'p^ndotane, if or when ye hear me 
Pendawftkej il Ot when ye hear him 

Pendoleque, if or when ye heai ua • 
Pendawawake, if or when ye hear then. 



JYEG.IIII'E. 
Atta pendawiweke. if or when ye do not hear 

IIM' 

Mi, i pendamaweque, If or when ye do do! heai 

him 
\ii.i penda'wonquek, il m when ye do not hear 

us 
Mi. i pendawiweque, il or when ye da not hear 

tlirm 



K'pendolannup, if or when ye did hear me 
\ ,\s akupi il or whfii ye did hear him 

N'pendoiekup, ii or when ye did heai us 
N'pendawawakup, if or when ye did hear them 



Preterite. 

I Atta pendawiwekup, ii or when ye did not hear 



Atta pendamawekup, it or when ye did not heai 

him 
Atta pendawonquekup, if or whin ye did not 

hear us 
Atta pendawawiwekup, if or when ye did not 

hear them. 



Pluperfect. 



K'pendolanpanne, if or when ye had heard me 
N'pendawakpanne. ii or when ye had heard him 
Pendolekpanne, ii ot when ye had heard us 

\ (I -ii'law awakpanne, if or when ye had heard 
them. 



Atta pendawiwekpanne, if or when ye had not 

heard me 
Atta pendamawekpanne, if or when ye hail not 

heard him 
Atta pendawonqnekpanne, if or when he had not 

heard US 

Atta pendawawiwekpaone, ii or when j 
not heard them. 



Future 

K'pendolanetsch.if or when ye -hill m will Ihmi 

me 
S . idawanetsch, if or when ye ihaD or will 

hear him 
N*pendoleqnetach, il or when ye shall or will 

III. If us 

V|i. ii d iwawaketscb, if or when ye -hall or will 
heai them. 



\u, i peud.iwiwi k i -ili. 1 1 hi when y i ihaO or will 

iin' In 

\n i pendamaweqaetsch, ii ■•> wheo ye ihall <>j 

will mil heai him 
Mi i pendan |uektacb, if or when ye ahall or 

W ill II, il III', II II- 

•Vita pendawawiwektacb, if or whin ye -lull 
will not beat them, 



VOL. III. 2 X 



174 



GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

[fourth conjugation.] 



SIXTH TRANSITION. 



Third Person Plural, THEY. 

INDICATIVE MqOD. 
Present. 



POSITIVE. 

N'pendagenewo, they hear me 
K'pendaguwak, they hear thee 
Pendawawall, they heard him 
Pendageneen, they heard us 
Pendaguwawak, they heard you 
Pendawawawall, they heard them. 



N'pendagopannik, they heard me 
K'pendagopannik, they heard thee 
Pendawawoapannik, they heard him 
Pendagunapannik, they heard us 
Pendaguwapannik, they heard you 
Pendawawapannik, they heard them. 



NEGATIVE. 

Atta n'pendaguwiwak, they do not hear me 
Atta k'pendaguwiwak, they do not hear thee 
Atta pendawawiwak, they do not hear him 
Atta pendaguwuneen, they do not hear us 
Atta pendaguwawiwak, they do not hear you 
Atta pendawawiwak, they do not hear them 



Preterite. 



Atta n'pendagewip, they did not hear me 
Atta k'pendagewip, they did not hear thee 
Atta pendawawip, they did not hear him 
Atta pendaguwunenap, they did not hear us 
Atta pendaguwawip, they did no* hear you 
Atta pendawawipannik, they did not hear them. 



Future. 



N'pendagunewotsch, they shall or will hear me 
Pendagooktsch, they shall or will hear thee 
Pendawawaktsch, they shall or will hear him 
Pendaguueentsch, they shall or will hear us 
Pendaguhhimotsch, they shall or will hear you 
Pendawawaktsch, they shall or will hear them. 



Atta n'pendaguwiwaktsch, they shall or will not 

hear me 
Atta k'pendaguwiwaktsch, they shall or will not 

hear thee 
Atta pendawawiwaktsch, they shall or will not 

hear him 
Atta pendaguwuneentsch, they shall or will not 

hear us 
Atta pendaguwawitsch, they shall or will not 

hear you 
Atta pendawawiwaktsch, they shall or will not 

hear them. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



Sing. Pendawil, do thou hear me 

Sing, with J'lur. Pendawik, do ye hear me 

Plur. PeDdawineen, hear us. 



(Not given.) 



OF THE EENM EENAPE INDIANS. 

[FOl'IlTll CONJ1 I. \ I IliN.] 



175 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

f'resnit. 



POSITIVE. 

Pendamieluite, if or when they hear me 
Pendai;eyane, if or when the] bear thee 
Pendaw.irhtit. if or when they hear him 
Pendaeeyenke, if or when they hear us 
Pendasreyeque, if or when (hey hear you 
Pendawawachlite, if or when they hear them. 



JfEQJlTlVB 

Atta pendamichtike, ii pi when they do not 

hear me 
Atta pniil.iaewiehlike. it or when they do DOl 

beai thee 
Atta pendawachtike, if or when they do not hear 

hill. 

Atta peodagewenke, ii or when they do not 

hear ii* 
Atta pendageweque, if or when they do not 

hear you 
Atta pendawawaclitite, II or when they do not 

hear them. 



Preterite. 



Pendamiehtittip, if or when they heard me 
Pendageyannup, if or when they hoard thee 
Pendawachtitup, it or when they heard liim 

I'iii.'.i-. \ ciikiip, ii ot u h'-ii Mi. \ heal il UH 
Pendageyekup, if or when liny heard you 
Pendawawachutup, if or when Uiey heard them. 



Atta pendagewichtikap, if or when Ihej do not 

hr, ii me 
Atta k'penilagewiehlikup, if or when they do not 

hear thee 
Atta pendawachbknp, if or when they do not 

hear him 
Atta pendakcwenkup, if or when they do not 

hear us 
Atta peodagewekup, if or when they do not heal 

you 
Atta pendawawichtitup, if or when they do not 

hear them. 



I'll/perfect. 



Pendamichtitpanne, if or when they had heard 

me 
Pcndakhittitpanne, if or when they had heard 

thee 
Pendawachtitpannc, if or when they had heard 

him 
Pendageyenkpannc, if or when they had heard 

u» 
Pendagcyekpanne, if or when they had heard 

y hi 
Pend'awawarlititpanne, if or when the} 1ml 

heard them 



Atta pi n. Uuiirhtikpannc, if or w lien they had not 

heard me 
Att.i peodagewichtikpanne, ii 01 when they had 

not beard thee 
Mti pendawachtikpanne, ii ■■> when they had 

doI he u d him 
Atta pendagewenkpanne, ii "oi when the] bad 

not heard n-* 
Atta k i rpanne, it •< when the] bad 

not be ini I 
Atta pendawawlchtikpanne, il orwhen th. 

doI beard Ihem. 



i'u/uif 



Pendamichtilech, il 91 when they shall or will 

bear me 
PendakMttitach, H m when Ihej ihall ..ru.ll 

hear (bet 

iwachtJtsch, if 01 when they shall or will 

bear him 
Pendageyenktscb, ii 01 when the] shall <>r will 

hear oh 
Pendageyektscb, ii or when Ihey shall or will 

hear yon 



Uta pen tiukctsi h, II "> when they 

will doI hi u me 
mi. i |h-ii i . wirhiikNrh. if 01 when [hi 

or uill doi beat il 

ttta pendawawicbtiktsch, ii oi when the] ibail 

or will not beat him 
\t'.i pendageweoktsch, it oi n ball • > 

will In-. ii <i* 
\tt.i pendagewektseh, if or when they shall oi 

will 



PendawawachtiUch, il or when Uiey (ball oi Atta peodawawichtikeuch, If or when thi 
will bear them eh will beat th. di 



ire 



GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

[fourth conjugation.] 



No. III. 



Nihillatamen, I own or am master of. 



ACTIVE FORM. 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 

[Not given.) 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



Singular. 
Nihillatamen, I own 
K'nihillatamen, thou ownest 
W'nihillatamen, he owns 



Singular. 
Nihillatameneep, I did own 
K'':iln'!lalameueep, thou didst own 
W 'nihillatameneep, he did own 



Plural. 

Nihillatameneen, we own 
K'nihillatohhimo, ye own 
Niliillatamenewo, they own. 



Preterite. 

Plural. 
Nihillatamohhummoakup, we did own 
K'nihillatamohhummoakup, ye did own 
Nihillatauienewoakup, they did own. 



Future. 



Singular. 
Nihillatamentsch, I shall or will own 
K'nihillaiamentsch, thou shalt or wilt own 
Wunihillatamentsch, he shall or will own 



Plural. 
Nihillatameneentsch, we shall or will own 
K'nihillatamohhuinotsch, ye shall or will own 
Nihillatameuewotsch, they shall or will own. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



Singular. 
Vihillalil, own me, let me belong to thee 



Plural. 
Nihillalineen, own us. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



Singular. 
Nihillatamane, if or when it belongs to me 
K'nihiilatainune, if or when it belongs to thee 
Niliillatauke, if or when it belongs to him 



Plural. 
Nihillatamenke, if or when it belongs to us 
Nlhillatameque, if or when it belongs to you 
Niliillatamiehtite, if or when it belongs to them. 



Preterite. 



Singular. 

Nihillatamanup, if or when it belonged to me 
K'nihillatamanup, if or when it belonged to thee 
Nihillatankup, if or when it belonged to him 



Plural. 
Nibillatami'iikup, if or when it belonged to us 
Nihillatamek ip, if or when ii belonged to you 
Nihillata nichtitup, if or when it belonged to 
them. 



OF THE LENNI LENAPE INDIANS. 

[FOURTH i on.ii i. ITION. | 



ir: 



Pluperfect 

Singular. 
Nihillatamanpaiine, if or when it had belonged 

to me 
K nilnll.iT.imanpanne, if or when it hail belonged 

to thee 
Nihillatankpanne, if or when it had belonged to 



him 



Plural. 
Nilullatamenkpanne, tl tn when II bad bel 

to us 
NOrflntamekpanne, U or when ii bad belonged 
in you 

- tmichtitpanne, if or when it had Moog- 
ed to them. 



The I'uiiiri 
Is like the present, with the addition oftach. 

Imperative) Caret. 



I'.issirK Fuii.u. 



[NFINITIVE MOOD. 
(The proper Infinitive Form is not given.) 

PARTICIPLES. 



S - ular. 
Nihillalgussid, he who is owned or under power 



Plural. 

Nihillalgnssitscbik, they who are owned or un- 
der power. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 



/'resent. 



Singular. 
Nihill i "" owned 

K'nihillalgussi, thou art owned 
Nihil] dgussu, he is '»\\ i 



ular. 

Nihillalgusmhuinp, I was owned 
K'nihillahrussihump, thou v% i-t owned 
Nihillalguaaop, be wu owned 



ular. 
Nihlllalgussilsch, I shaJI wned 

k ' _ ■ i ■ i tn w iii !..■ owned 

NihillalgusfuUch, be shall or will i" owned 



Plural. 



Nihillalgnnihnmniena, we are i 
K'nihillalgiiMihhimo, ye "•■ owned 
Nihillalgussowak, thej are owned. 



I'ntt nl, . 



Plural. 

NihillalgusaOihummenakup, we « en ™ ned 

K'nihillalguftsihhii ikii|». ye we i owmd 

NihillalguAsopannik, thaj were owned. 



I'ufure. 

Plural 
Nihillalgutiihummenoucb, we dull or wi 

DM li"''l 

K'nihIllalguasihhimoUcb, >•■ shall "i «iii be 

owned 
Mhillalgussowaktach, the) ibaTJ »> »ill I rm 



Tmperativo < «i,i 



vol. iii. — g v 



178 



GRAMMAR OF THIi LANGUAGE 

[fourth conjugation.] 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



Singular. 
Nihillalgussiane, if or when I am owned 
K'nihillalgussiane, if or when thou art owned 
NihillaJgussite, if or when he is owned 



Plural. 
\ihillaigussiyenke, if or when we are owned 
Nihillalgussiyeque, if or when ye are owned 
Nihillalgussichtite, if or when they are owned. 



Preterite. 



Singular. 
Nihillalgussiyannup, if or when I was owned 
K'nihill.dgussiyannup,iforwhenfhouwertowned 
iVihillalgussitup, if or when he was owned 



Plural. 
Nihillalgussiyenkup, if or when we were owned 
Nihillalgussiyekup, if or when ye were owned 
Nihillalgussichtitup,if or when they were owned. 



Pluperfect. 

Singular. 
Nihillalgussianpanne, if or when I had been 

owned 
K'nihillalgussianpanne, if or when thou hadst 

been owned 
Nihillalgussitpanne, if or when he had been 

owned 



Plural. 
Nihillalgussiyenkpanne, if or when we had been 

owned 
Nihillalgu«siyekpanne, if or when ye had been 

owned 
Nihillalgussichtitpanne, if or when they had 

been owned. 



The Future 
Is like the present, adding tsch. 

Imperative) Caret. 



PERSONAL FORMS. 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 
{Not given.) 

PARTICIPLES*. 



Singular. 
Nihi11a!id,hewho owns me, my Lord, my master 
Nihillalquonk, he who owns thee, thy Lord 
Nihillalat.he who owns him, his Lord 



Plural. 
Nihillalquenk, he who owns us, our Lord 
Nihillalqueek, he who owns you, your Lord 
Nihillalquichtit, he who owns them, their Lord 



Substantively in the T^ocative case. 

Singular. Plural. 

Nihillalian, O thou my Lord ! | Nihillaliyenk, thou our Lord ! 

Hence the following verbal form : 

Nihillalek, I am your Lord. 



* See above, p. 141 in note. 



OP THE EENNT T.ENAPE INDIAN9. 

[fourth conjugation.] 



179 



TR.1A-S1TIO.VH— FIRST TR.1.YSITIO.V 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 



Present. 



Singtilar. 
K'nihillalel, I own, am the master of thee 
Nihillala, 1 own him 



Pturnl. 

Nihillalek nr k'nihillah-llhiiinmo. I own you 
NihilhUawak, I own them. 



Singular. 

K'nihillali, thou ownest me 

K i.ili.i: .1. thou ownest him 



SECOJYD TR.1.YSITIOA-. 



Plural. 
K'uihillalineen, thou ownest u» 
K'nihillalawak, thou ownest them. 



Singular. 
Nihillaluk, he owns me 
K'nihillaluk, he owns thee 
WuilullalawaD, he owns liim 



THIRD TR.1.VSITIOjV. 



Plural. 

W'nihillalguneen or w'nihillalquenk, he ownn 

us 
Wnihillalqueek he owns you 
Wmhillalawak, he owus them. 



FOURTH TU.I.YSITIOJV. 



Singular. 

K'nihillalellohhena, we own Ihee 
Nihillalanecn, we own him 



Plural. 
K'nihillalhummo, we own yon 
Nihillalawuna, we own tliem. 



Singular. 

K'nihillalihhimo, ye own me 
K'nihillalanewo, ye own him 



FIFTH TR.1.YSITIO.V. 



Plural. 
K'nihill. ilineen nr k'nihill ilihhena, ye own u» 

K'nihillalawak, ye own them. 



SIXTH T/i.l YS1T10 V 



Bhngulat . Plural. 

fc'ekamawa nihill.ilu\i;u[i. wo or nihillal^newa. Mekamawl nihill.il^uu.i, they own in 

(hey own mi v unawi k'nihillahjruwa, ilu\ emu yon 

Nekamawa k'nihillalukgulMWO »r k'nihill il-u \. kjinawa nihillalawak, lliey own them 

oewOi 'l"\ own thee 
Nekamaw.i w'nihillalawak, they own bin 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



Singular. 

Nihillalil, own me, he thou my Lord 



Plural. 
Niliillaliueeu, own us, he thou our Lord 



180 GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

[of verbs.] 



iPtftft Croniugatton. 

Note by the Translator. — Of this conjugation, one verb alone is given : 
Ahoalan, to love. It is conjugated through the Active, Passive, Perso- 
nal, and Reciprocal forms, positive and negative. The negative transi- 
tions, however, have been omitted in the Subjunctive mood. They are 
left blank in the original, and were probably meant to have been filled 
up by the Author. They therefore do not appear in this grammar- 

Ahoalan, to love. 



ACTIVE FORM.— POSITIVE 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Ahoalan, to love. 

PARTICIPLES. 

(Not given.) 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



Singular. 
N'dahoala, I love 
K'dahoala, thou lovest 
Ahoaleu or w'dahoala, he loves 



Singular. 

N'dahoalep, I loved 
K'dahoalep, thou lovedst 
Ahoalep, he loved 



Singular. 

NMahoalatsch, I shall or will love 
K'dahoalatsch, thou shall or wilt love 
Ahoaleuchtsch, he shall or will love 



Plural. 
N'dahoalaneen. we love 
K'dahoalohhumo, ye love 
Ahoalewak, they love. 

Preterite. 

Plural. 
N'dahoalennenap, we loved 
KMahoalohhummoap, ye loved 
Ahoalepannik, they loved. 

Future. 

Plural. 
N'dahoaleneentsch, we shall or will love 
KMahoalohhimimotsch, ye shall or will love 
Ahoalewaktsch, they shall or will love. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Singular. | Plural. 

Ahoal, love thou I Ahoalek, love ye. 



OF THE I,BNNI 1-KN\PE INDIANS. 

[FIFTH ion.ii (; ITION. | 



ISI 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



Singular. 

Ahoatak, if or when I love 
Ahoalanne, if or when thou lovest 
Klioul.it, if in when lie loves 



Singular. 

Ahoalachkup, if or when 1 loved 

innup, if or when thou lovedst 
Ehoalacliiup, if or when be loved 



Plural. 

nke, n 01 when we love 
Mm deque, ii ■>< when >-■ 1m e 
Ahoalachtite, if or when the] love. 



Preterite. 

Plural. 

Mm ilenlcup, if rfr when we loved 

l 

Mm dachtitupi ii oi " inn the) loi ad 



J'lujicrfect. 



Singular. 
Ahoalakpanne, if »r when 1 had love. I 

mpanne, if or when thoa hadsl loved 
Ehoalalpaune, if or when he hail loved 



Plural. 
Ahoalenkpanne, il ." whi n we had loved 

Mi., tl. k|'.ililie. Il or when ve h.ul loveil 

Mi.i.il.ii'liiiiji.inne. if or when the] had loved. 



Future. 



Singular. 
Ahoalaktsrh, if or when I <hall or will love 
Ahoalantsch, il 'or when ihou shall or will love 
Ehoalalsch, if or when he shall or will love 



Plural. 
Ahoalenketsch, if or when we shall or will love 
Ihoalequetsch, il m when ye shall ■" will Ime 

Aho.iln hiitetsch, if or wlieu they jiliall ui will 
love. 



NEGATIVE. 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 

\'m ili. .ii, in. nut in love. 

PARTICIPLES. 

(\«t given.) 

INDICATE I. MOOD. 
Present. 



nlnr. 
Atta n'dahoalawl, I .!.» nol love 
An , m iho .! mi. Ihou .In -i nol love 

\ Jew I, he dOeS not loVC 



Singular. 
Atta nMahoal.iwm. I did nol love 

\ iwip, tl lidst not love 

Ml* ahoalewi . be did nol love 

> l)L. III. — 2 z 



111/. 

■ I'm tl ui .in. • I. w e do I 
1 ihoalaw unen ". \<- !•• nol lovt 
Mi.i ihoalewiwak, they do not love, 



I'lth i ih . 



rimoi 



\m i n'daho dowunenao, we did not low 
t'dahoalowunewo, yedidnol Ime 
Atta ahoalewipannik, the) did nol i 



182 



GRAMMAR OP THE LANGUAGE 

[fifth conjugation.] 



Future. 



Singular. 
Atta n'dahoalawitsch, I shall or will not love 
Atla k'dahoalawitsch, thou shalt or wilt not love 
Atta ahoalewitsch, he shall or will not love 



Plural. 
Atta n'dahoalawuneentsch, we shall or will not 

love 
Atta k'dahoalawunewotsch, ye shall or will not 

love 
Atta ahoalawiwaktsch, they shall or will not love. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

(Not given.) 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
Present. 

Singular. Plural. 

Atta nMahoalawanne, if or when I do not love Atta ahoalawonk, if or when we do not love 
Atta k'dahoalawonne, if or when thou dost not Atta ahoalawek, if or when ye do not love 

love I Atta ahoalachtik, if or when they do not love 

Atta ehoalaque, if or when he does not love 

Preterite. 

Singular. | Plural. 

Atta ahoalawonnup, if or when I did not love Atta ahoalawonkup, if or when we did not love 
Atta ahoalawonnup, if or when thou didst not Atta ahoalawekup, if or when ye did not love 

love Atta ahoalachtikup, if or when they did not love 

Atta ehoalakup, if pr when he did not love 



Singular. 

Atta ahoalawakpanne, if or when f had not loved 
Atta ahoalawonpanne, if or when thou hadst not 

loved 
Atta ahoalakpanne, if or when he had not loved 



Pluperfect. 

Plural. 
Atta ahoalawonkpanne, if or when we had not 

loved 
Atta ahoalawekpanne, if or when ye had not 

loved 
Atta ahoalachtikpanne, if or when they had not 

loved. 



Future. 



Singular. 
Atta n'dahoalawiwonne, if or when I shall or 

will not love 
Atta k'dahoalawonnetsch, if or when thou shalt 

or wilt not love 
\tta eliowalequetsch, if or when he shall or 

will not love 



Plural. 
Atta ahoalawonktsch, if or when we shall 01 

will not love 
Atla ahoalawektsch, if or when ye shall or will 

not love 
Atta ahoulachtiktsch, if or when they shall or 

will not love. 



OF THE LENNI LENAl'E INDIANS. 
[fifth conjugation.] 



IH'A 



P.1SSI l '/■; FOR. »/.—/> OS IT 1 1 'E 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 



I' resent. 



Singular. 
$ ' tboalgussi, I am loved 
K'dahoalgussi, thou an loved 
Uio dgusai, he u not loved 



S ^ular. 
Pfdahoalgussihump, I waa loved 
K ihoalgussinep, thou wasl loved 
Wdahotugussop, he was loved 



Plural. 



NMahoalgusainhena, wo are loved 
S ' ■ i :--i hli. mi >. ye are loved 

Ahoalguaaowak, Ihey are loved. 



Preterite. 



Plural. 
N'dahoalgusaihheDap, we were not loved 
K'dahoalgussihhimoakup, ye were nut loved 
w\i ihoalguaaopannik, they were not loved 



Future. 



Singular. 
N'daboalgussitsch, I shall or will tie loved 
K'dahoalgussitsch, thou shalt or wilt be loved 
Vhoalgussutsch, he shall or will be loved 



Plural. 
Vdahoale,tissihhenatsch, we shall or will be 

loved 
K'dahoalgusslhhimotscb, ye shall or will be loved 
Ahoalgussiwiwaktsch, thej shall or will he loved. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



Singular. 
Ahoalguaaiya, if or when 1 am loved 
Ahoalgusaiyen, U or when thou art loved 
Ahoalgussite, if or when he is loved 



Present. 

Plural 
Mm iliiissiyenk. if or when we are loved 
Ahoalgussiyelc, ifoi when ye are loved 
Ihoalguasichtit, if or when they are loved. 



Preterite. 



'dar. 
Ahoalgusriyalcup, if or when I was loved 
AhoalguasryaDDup, if or wheu thou wast loveil 
Ahoalgussitup, if or when be was loved 



Plural. 

Mioalguasiyenkup, ii or wheu we were loved 
Aboalgussiyekup. if of when ye were loved 

Minal^iis>ii'blitii]i, \( or when tin \ Wi 



Pluperfect. 



Singular. 
Ahoalgcuaiyalcpaiine, it or n ben I had been loved 

Ahoalfjussiyanpanne, if or wlren thou badsl been 

lined 
Ahoalgussitpanne, if or when he had been loved 



Plural 
Ahoalguaaiyenkpanne, ii ot when w« bad hem 

loved 
rMioalguasiyekpaimej h or when yt had 1 n 

loved 
Ahoalguasichtitpanne, it 01 when the] had 

loved 



Future. 



Plural. 



Singulat . 

Ahoalguniyabtn h U 01 whan I ihall or will be Ihoalguaatyanktaeh, ii ot when we dial] or will 

loved ' be I 

Aboalgusaiyantach, if or when thou ahalt or wDl Uioalguiaiyektsch, II or when yeihaD "/will 

be lot ed be loved 

Ahoalgitsch, if or wbeD he shall or will he Inn il Mm algusaichtitach, if or whan Ihej lhall 01 

will be I" ■ 



184 



GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

[fifth conjugation.] 



NEGATIVE. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 



Present. 



Singular. 
Atta n'dahoalgussiwi, I am not loved 
Atta k'dahoalgussiwi, thou art not loved 
Atta w'dahoalgussuwi, he is not loved 



Plural. 
Atta n'dahoalgussiwuneen, we are not loved 
Atta k'dahoalgussiwihhimo, ye are not loved 
Atta ahoalgussiwiwak, they are not loved. 



Preterite. 



Singular. 
Atta n'dahoalgussiwip, I was not loved 
Atta k'dahoalgussiwip, thou wa-it not loved 
Atta w'dahoalgussiwip, he was not loved 



Plural. 
Atta n'dahoalgussiwunenap, we were not loved 
Atta k'dahoalgussihhimoap, ye were not loved 
Alta wMahoalgussiwipannik,they were not loved. 



Future. 



Singular. 
Atta n'dahoalgussiwitsch, I shall or will not be 

loved 
Atta k'dahoalgussiwitsch, thou shalt or wilt not 

be loved 
Atta ahoalgussuwitsch, he shall or will not be 

loved 



Plural. 
Atta n'dahoalgussiwuneentsch, we shall or will 

not be loved 
Atta k'dahoalgussiwunewotsch, ye shall or will 

not be loved 
Atta ahoalgussiwiwaktsch, they shall or will not 

be loved. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



Singular. 
Uta ahoalgussiwak, if or when I am not loved 
Atta ahoalgussiwonne, if or when thou art not 

loved 
Vtta ahoalgussique, if or when he is not loved 



Plural. 

Atta ahoalgussiwenk, if or when we are not loved 

Atta ahoalgussiwek, if or when ye are not loved 

Atta ahoalgussichtik, if or when they are not 

loved. 



Preterite. 



Singular. 
\tta ahoalgussiwakup.ifor when I was not loved 
Atta ahoalgussiwonnup, if or when thou wast not 

loved 
\tta ahoalgussikup, if or when he was not loved 



Plural. 
\tta ahoalgussiwenkup, if or when we were not 

loved 
Atta ahoalgussiwekup, if or when ye wen- not 

loved 
Atta ahoalgussichtikup, if or when they were 

not loved. 



Singular. 

\tta ahoalgussiwakpanne, if or when I ha/1 not 

been loved 
Mta ahoalgussiwonpanne, if or when thou hadst 

not been loved 
\tta ah'i ill "i -ikpaime, if or when he had not 

been loved 



Pluperfect. 

Plural. 
Atta ahoalgussiwenkpanne, if or when we had 

not been loved 
Atta ahoalgussiwekpaime; if or when ye had not 

been loved 
Atta ahoalgu ichtitpanne, if or when they had 

not been loved. 



OF THE LENNI LENAPK INDIANS. 

[FIFTH I'ONJUGVTION.J 



185 



Future. 

Singular. Plural. 

Atta ahoalgussiwaktsch, if or when I •Oiall or I Atta ahoalguniwenktsch, if or when we shall o> 

will not be loved will nol be low d 

Vtu ahoahrusriwonktsch, if or when thou >halt Ati.i ahoalguasiwekbtch, if or when ye Bhall ui 



or wilt not be loved 
\tta thoalgussiktsch, if or when he shall or will 
not be loved 



will not be li pi ed 
Atta ahoalgusaichtitscb, 11 or when the) shall 01 
will nol be lot ed 



PERSONAL FoKMs.- POSITIVE 
FIRST Tli.l.VslfiiKY 



K'dahoatell. I love thee 
N'dahoala, 1 love him 



K h oalennep. I loved thee 
N'dahoalap, I loved him 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



K'dahoalohhummo, I love you 
N'dahualawak, I love them. 



Preterite. 



kMdioalohhmnmoap, I loved you 
Vd.diu.d.tpaunik, I loved them. 



Future. 

K'daho delltsch, I shall or will love thee I ITdahoalohhummotsch, I shall or will love you 

N'dahoalauchtsch, I shall or will love him | NMahoalawaktech, 1 shall ot will love them. 



SI 15.1 I'M Tl\ I! MO«)|). 



Present. 



Mwul.imie, if or when I love thee 
h or when I love him 



Uioalannup, if or when I loved thee 
Ahoalachtup, U 01 when I loved him 



Ihoaleque, it or when 1 love you 
Ahoalftchtite, 11 01 w hen I i<>\ 1 then 



Preterite. 



\i lekup, pi er wfaeo I loved yon 

Min.d.e hinji. If 01 when 1 loved them 



I'luper/ect. 

Ahoalanpannc, if or when I had loved the* I \h.edekp»tine, il m when I hid km 

lachtoppanne, if or when I had loved him | Ahoautpanne, U 01 when 1 bad loved them 



I 'ui in 1 . 



Mioalanhetach, if «r when I shall or will love 

thee 

ichtetach, if or when 1 shall m will love 
him 



thoalequetech, if or when I ■ball <>r will lovr 
you 

Mi.j.d.o liiiteL-i h. it «r when I 'li dl ui will lea- 
thern. 



vol,. III. — 3 s 



186 



GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

[fifth conjugation.] 



K'dahoali, thou lovest me 
K'dahoala, thou lovest him 



SECOND TRANSITION. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



K'dahoalineen, thou lovest us 
K'dahoalawak, thou lovest them 



Preterite. 



K'dahoalinep, thou didst love me 
K'dahoalap, thou didst love him 



K'dahoalihhenap, thou didst love us 
K'dahoalapannik, thou didst love them 



Future. 



K'dahoalitsch, thou shalt or wilt love me 
K'dahoalauchtsch, thou shalt or wilt love him 



K'dahoalihhenatseh, thou shalt or wilt love us 
K'dahoalawaktsch, thou shalt or wilt love them. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



Ahoalil, love thou me 



Ahoalineen, love thou us. 



Ahoaliyanne, if or when thou lovest me 
K'dahoalamie, if or when thou lovest him 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



Ahoaliyenke, if or when thou lovest us 
K'dahoalachte, if or when thou lovest them 



Ahoaliyannup, if or when thou didst love me 
Ahoalannup, if or when thou didst love him 



Preterite. 



Ahoaliyenkup, if or when thou didst love us 
K'dahoalachtup, if or when thou didst lovtj 
them. 



Ahoaliyanpanne, if or when thou hadst loved me 
Ahoalanpanne, if or when thou hadst loved him 



Pluperfect. 

Ahoaliyenkpanne, if or when thou hadst loved us 
K'dahoalachtuppanne, if or when thou hadst 
loved them. 



Ahoaliyannetsch, if or when thou shalt or wilt 

love me 
Mioalachtetsch, if or when thou shalt or wilt 

love him 



Future. 

Ahoaliyenketsch, if or when thou shalt or wilt 

love us 
Ahoalachtitetsch, if or when thou shalt or wilt 

love them. 



OF THE LENNI LKNAPE INDIAN-. 

[fib ni i civii a \ i'ion.] 



is; 



I HUH) /■ll.l.\SITI(>.V 



Ehoalid, ho who loves me 

Kliu.il.il. In; wlio lovea him 



iwutkiti.f.s. 



Kho.ih|iienk. lie vv i 

I iek, he who lovea yon 
I !ho ii.jiiiohiit, he who loves (hem 



iVdahoaluk, he love me 

thee 
tV'daboalawall, he loves him 



N'dahoalgunep, hi- loved me 
K'dal i 'i- mi he lo ed thee. 
WdahoaJap, he loved him 



[NDICA.TIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



N'dahoalauchlseh, he shall or will love me 
K'dahoaiaachtsch, he shall "i wilJ i>>vi- thee 

\\ M ihoalauchtsch, he shall or will love him 



i^una, he loves US 
w 'dahoalgun a, he loves you 
VT'dahoalawak, he loves them 



Preterite. 

IN lahoalgunap, he loved us 
K'dahoalguwap, In- loved you 
Wilahoalapaunik, he loved them 

Future. 

N'dahoalgunatseh, he shall or will love us 

or will love you 



« 'dahoalguwatsch, he sh i 

H 'dahoalawaktscn, l"- shall "i will love them 



si i;.n\< tivi: mood. 



Present. 



Ahoalitc, if or when he loves me 
Uioalqnonne, it m when he loves thee 

Mm. date, if or when he loves him 



Ihoalitap, it "' when !"■ loved me 

onup, il "i when be I" 
Uioal itupj ii "i when !"■ loi ed him 



Ihoalquenke, If or when he loves us 

Ahoalqueque, if or when in' loves JfOU 

Mi'i.ii ichlite, ii "> when he loves them 



Preteriti . 



v. ben ii'- !>' - 
• kup, ii ■" vv hen hi 
ii htitup, ii of when he loved them 



Ah" iinp mne, ii ■■/ when he hid love 
AhoaJanpanne, ii or when he hid loved thee 
Ahoalatuaime, il M when he had loved him 



Pluperfect. 



Iboalquenkpanne, ii or when he had loved us 

.Ii. n he had loved \"'l 

Iboalai hlilpanne, n ■'< when he had loved l 



Future. 



etscb, if or when be -lull or will love me 
Ahoalquonnetsch, d "< when In- -nail nr will love 
thi e 

echtetscbi '' " r "hen he -hill "i will love 
him 



i'h nket-ih, il "i when he -hill >r will 

IllVe i|- 

Uioftjquequetscb, n •>> when he -hall ..» will 

love you 

Mm d. . iiiit.i-.ii. il .o when he -lull Of will love 

them 



188 



GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

[fifth conjugation.] 



FOURTH TRANSITION. 



KMalioalenneeo, we love thee 
N'dahoalawuna, we love him 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present. 



K'dahoalohummena, we love you 
N'dahoalowawuna, we love them. 



K'dahoalennenap, we loved thee 
N'dahoalawunap, we loved him 



Preterite. 



K'daholohummenap, we loved you 
N'dahoalawawunap, we loved them. 



Future. 



K'dahoalohhenatsch, we shall or will love thee 
iV'dahoalawuiiatsch, we shall or will love him 



K'dahoalohummenatsch, we shall or will love 

you 
N'dahoalawawunatsch, we shall or will love them . 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



Present. 



K'dahoalenk, if or when we love thee 
Ahoalanque, if or when we love him 



Ahoalenkup, if or when we loved thee 
Aboalankup, if or when we loved him 



Ahoaleque, if or when we love you 
Ahoalawouque, if or when we love them. 



Preterite. 



Ahoalekiip, if or when we loved you 
Ahoalawawonkup, if or when we loved them. 



Pluperfect. 

K'dahoalenkpanne,if or when we had loved thee I Ahoalekpanne, if or when we had loved you 
Ahoalankpanne, if or when we had loved him | Ahoalawonkpanne, if or when we had loved them. 



Ahoalenquetsch, if or when we shall or will 

love thee 
Ahoalanquetsch, if or when we shall or will 

love him 



Future 

Ahoalequetsch, if or when we shall or will love 

you 
Ahoal.uvonquetsch, if or when we shall or will 



love them. 



FIFTH TRANSITION. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



k'dahonlihhimo, ye love me 
K'dahoalanewo, ye love him 



K'dahoalihhena, ye love us 
K'dahoalawawak, ye love them. 



OF THE LENNI LENAPE INDIANS. 

[fifth conjugation.] 



189 



Preterite. 



K'dahoalihhimoap, ye loved me 
K'dahoalanewoap, ye loved him 



K'dahoaShhempi ye loved us 

k'l.iliualawapannik, ye loved them. 



Future. 



KM.ihoalihhimotsch, ye shall or will love me 
K'dahoalanewotsch, ye shall or will love him 



KMahoalihhonatsch, he shall or will love us 
K'dalioalawawaktsch, ye shall or will love them 



Ahoalik, love you me 
Ahoalo, love you him 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



Ahoalineen, love you us 
Aho.il.it.im, love you them 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



Ahoaliyeque, if or when ye love me 
Ahu.ilaque, if or when ye love him 



Ahoaliyekup, if or when ye loved me 
Ahoalachtup, if or when ye loved him 



Alioaliyenke, if or when ye love us 
Ahoalachtike, if or when ye love them. 



Preterite. 



Ahoalivcnkup, if or when ye loved us 
Aho.ilachtiyekup, if or when ye loved them. 



Pluperfect. 

Ahoaliyekpanne, if or when ye had loved me I Alin.divenkpanne, if or when ye had loved U9 
Ahoalekpanne, if or when ye had loved him | Ahoalacliutpanne, if or when ye had loved them 



Future. 



Ahoaliyequetsch, if or when ye shall or will love 

me 
Ahoalaquetsch, if or when ye shall or will love 

him 



Alio iliyenquctsch, if or whin ye shall or will 

love ufl 
AhoalachliqueUch, if or when ye «hall ur will 

love tin-in. 



SIXTH TH.I.VSITIO.V 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



NMahoalennewo, they love mc 

K ewe "• | love 'I 

W'dahoalanewo. they love him 



NMahoalgenewoap, thrv did love me 

K'dahoal 

WdahoftlgieDewoap, they did lovi him 



N'dehoelgehbena, they Inve us 

K'll.ilin ihrahhlmo, th li fan 

W 'i! ilni.il.in.nl .ik they loi 



Preteritt 



V.l.iln. i .... ii. 

i Imoap, thi j did lo\ e you 

W'dahouawaptnDlk, thej 



VOL. MI. — ,i n 



190 



GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

[fifth conjugation.] 



Future. 

N'dahoalgenewotsch, they shall or will love me I N'dahoalgehhenatsoh, they shall or will love us 
K'dahoalgenewotsch or k'dahoalgetsch, they I K'dahoalgehhimotsch, they shall or wiUlove you 
shall or will love thee | W'dahoalawawaktsch, they shall or will love 

Wdahoalanewotsch, they shall or will love him | them. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



Ahoalinke, if or when they love me 
Ahoalquonne, if or when they love thee 
Ehoalinde, if or when they love him 



Ehoalquenke, if or when they love us 
Ehoalqueque, if or when they love you 
Ehoalachtite, if or when they love them. 



Preterite. 



Ehoalinkup, if or when they loved me 
Ehoalquonnup, if or when they loved thee 
Ehoalindup, if or when they love him 



Ehoalquenkup, if or when they loved us 
Ehoalquekup, if or when they loved you 
Ehoalachtitup, ff or when they loved them. 



Pluperfect. 



Ehoalinkpanne. if or when they had loved me 
Ehoalquonpanne, if or when they had loved thee 
Ehoalindpanne, if or when they had loved him 



Ehoalquenkpanne, if or when they had loved us 
Ehoalquekpanne, if or when they had loved you 
Ehoalachtitpanne, if or when they had loved 
them. 



Future. 



Ehoalinketsch, if or when they shall or will love 

me 
Ehoalquonnetsch, if or when they shall or will 

love thee 
Ehoalindetsch, if or when they shall or will love 

him 



Ehoalquenketsch, if or when they shall or will 

love us 
Ehoalquequetsch, if or when they shall or will 

love you 
Ehoalachtitetsch, if or when they shall or will 

love them. 



PERSONAL FORMS.— NEGATIVE. 
FIRST TRANSITION. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 



KMahoalowi*. I do not love thee 
N'dahoalawi, I do not love him 



Present. 

I K'dahoalohhumo, I do not love you 
N'dahoalavviwak, I do not love them. 



K'dahoalcllowip, I did not love thee 
N'dahoalawip, I did not love him 



Preterite. 

I K'dahoalohhumowip, I did not love you 
I N'dalioalawipannik, I did not love them. 



* Atta or Matta prefixed throughout. 



OP THE LENNI LENAPE INDIANS. 

[fifth conjugation. ] 



191 



Future. 



E'd ihoalellowitach, 1 shall or will not love thee 
N'dahoalawitsch, 1 shall <>;■ will not love him 



K dahoalohhumowitsch, 1 shall «• will not love 

you 
N'dahowalawiwaktgcb, I shall or will ootlovi 

tliern. 

The Pluperfect and the Subjunctive are not given in any of the Tran- 
sitions. 



SECOND THI.YslTlti.Y 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 



K'dahoaliwi, thou dost not love mc 
K'.l.ihual.iwi, thou dost not love him 



K'dahoaliwip, thou didst not love mc 
K'dahoalawip, thou didst not love him 



Present. 



E'dahoaliwuneen, thou dost not love us 
E'dahoaliwiwak, thou dost not love them 



Preterite. 



E'dahoaliwunenap, thou didst not love IU 
K'dahoaluwipannik, thou didst not love them 



Future. 



K'dahoaliwiisch, thou shall or wilt not love me 
E'dahoalawitsch, thou shalt or wilt not love bim 



KMahnuliwuneentsch, thou shalt or wilt not low 

Us 

K'dahoalawiwaktsch, thou shalt or wilt not love 

thern. 



THIRD TR.KYSITIO.Y 



IMHi ATIVK MOOD. 
Present. 



N'dahoal^uwi, he does not love me 
K ive thee 

W (lahoalawi, he does not love Mm 



PTdahoalguwip, he • 1 1 > 1 ool love me 
E'dahoahrawip, he did nol love thee 
(V'dahoauwip, he did not lov> him 



\ daho dguwimeeo, he •■ iu 

E'dahoalgunrawi, In- does nol love you 
W'dahoalwin ik I lov< them 



Pre tt rili 



• unen ip be did doI loi e us 
K il_-M\v iwipi I loi i \'"i 

w 'dahoalawii aiimk, he did ool love Ihem 



Future. 



rTdahoaJguiritacb, he shall or will d 
E'dahoalgunitsch, he shall »r will not love 

thee 
Wdahoalawitach, he shall or will nol lovi 



V.| ilioalauwuni enl-rh, he -hall or will not 
love III 

K'dahoalguwawiUch, he ihaD ortrU notlove 

\m| 

rlwaktach, he shaD of •riD not lovi 

Ihem. 



193 



GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

[fifth conjugation.] 



FOURTH TRANSITION. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



K'dahoalowuneen, we do not love thee 
N'dahoalawuueen, we do not love him 



K'dahoalohhummowuneen, we do not love you 
N'dahoalawunena, he does not love them. 



Preterite. 



K'dahoalowunenap, we did not love thee 
N'dahoalawunenap, we did not love him 



K'dahoalohhummowunenap, we did notloveyou 
N'dahoalawawunenap, we did not love them. 



Future. 



K'dahoalowuneentsch, we shall or will not love I K'dahoalohhummowuntsch, we shall or will not 

thee love you 

N'dahoalawuneentsch, we shall or will not love N'dahoalawunanetsch, we shall or will not love 

him them. 



FIFTH TRANSITION. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 



K'dahoalihhimowi, ye do not love me 
K'dahoalawiwa, ye do not love him 



K'dahoalihhimowip, ye did not love me 
K'dahoalawiwoap, ye did not love him 



Present. 

I K'dahoaliwunena, ye do not love us 
| K'dahoalawiwak, ye do not love them. 

Preterite. 

I KMahoalihhimowunap, ye did not love us 
| K'dahoalawipannik, ye did not love them. 



Future. 



K'dahoalihhinowitsch, yeshall or will not love me 
K'dahowalawiwatsch, ye shall or will not love him 



KMahoaliwuneentsch, ye shall or will not love us 
K'dahoalawiwaktsch, ye shall or will not love 
them. 



SIXTH TRANSITION. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



N'dahoahruwiwak, they do not love me 
K'dahoalguwiwak, they do not love thee 
Wdahoalawiwak, they do not love him 



N'dahoalguwuneen, they do not love u* 
K'dahoalgawunewo, they do not love you 
Wdahoalawiwak, they do not love them. 



Preterite. 



N'dahoalgewipannik, they did not love me 
K'dahoalgewipannik, they did nol low thee 
W'dahoalawipaunik, they did not love him 



N'dahoalguwuDenap, they did not love us 
K'dahoalguwuDeDapi they did not love you 
W'dahuaiawawipannik, they did not love them 



OF THE EENNI LENAPE INDIANS. 

[firm i ipn.ti i. \ rniN. | 



193 



Future. 



NMahoalguwiwaktsch, they shall ■ • will not 

lu\<- me 
K'dahoalguwiwaktsch, they 3hall or will nol love 

thee 
Wdaho tlawiwaktsch, the] BhaD or will not love 

him 



\ hoalgiiwuneentach, they shall or will nol 

love u* 
K'dahoalguwunewotsch, thej shall ui will not 

love yon 
W'dahoalawawiwaktsch, they shall or will do) 

love them. 



RECIPHOC.ll. FORM.— POSITIVE 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Ahoaltin, t.. love one another. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 



J 'resent. 



Present. 

N'dahoaltinecn, we love one another 
K >altihhimo, ye love one another 
Ahoaltowak, they love one anotlicr. 



I'literite. 



\ dahoaltihhenap, we loved one another 
K'dahoaltihhimmoap, ye loved "i" mother 
Mm .ilto|ianriik, tliey loved one another. 



Future. 



Ahoalrjneentsch, we shall or will love each other. 
K'dahoaltihhimotsch, ye shall or will love each other 
Ahoaltowaktsch, they shall or will love each other. 



IMI'I'.K \TI\ I'. M(it)l). 



^ular. 
Ahoaltik, love ye each other 



Plural. 
' Uin.iltitam, let us love each othi 



SI li.II \< I l\ i: MOOD 



I'll SI lit. 



Ahoalliyenk, that we maj love each othei 
Ahoaltiyek, thai ye maj love • 

Aluraltii litii. b other. 



Preterite. 

Ahoaltlyeokup, thai or ■ " 

Ahoaltiyekup c u li other 

Ahoaltlchtltup, that <« u they have loved •••irli 
other. 



riii/n r/i 1 1 . 

Itjyenkpanne, it or when we bad 
othei 
Ahoalbyekpanne, it or when 

Ahoaltn litii|..iiinf, it or when they had loved 
each other. 



I'lihin . 
thoaldyenketsch, u we ihaD or will lovi 

other 
thoaltiyekeUch, u ><• shall "r will 

othei 
Uioaltichtlti ! ■•> will i •••• ■ 

other. 



VOL. III. — 3 c 



194 



GRAMMAR OP THE LANGUAGE 

[fifth conjugation.] 



NEGATIVE. 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Matta ahoaltin, not to love each other. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 



Present. 

Matta n'dahoaltiwuneen, we do not love each 

other 
Matta k'dahoaltiwihhimo, ye do not love each 

other 
Matta ahoaltiwiwak, they do not love each other. 



Preterite. 



Matta n'dahoaltiwunenap, we did not love each 

other 
Matta k'dahoaltiwihhimmoap, ye did not love 

each other 
Matta ahoaltiwipannik, they did not love each 

other. 



Future. 

Mattatsch n'dahoaltiwuneen, we shall or will not love each other 
Mattatsch k'dahoaltiwihhimo, ye shall or will not love each other 
Mattatsch ahoaltiwiwak, they shall or will not love each other. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

(Not given.) 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



Present. 



Preterite. 



Matta ahoaltiwenk, when or as we may not Matta ahoaltiwenkup, when or as we have not 

love each other loved each other 

Matta ahoaltiwek, when or as ye may not love j Matta ahoaltiwekup, when or as ye have not 

each other loved each other 

Matta ahoaltichtik, when or as they may not love . Matta ahoaltichtikup, when or as they have not 

each other. loved each other. 



Pluperfect. 

Matta ahoaltiwenkpanne, if or when we had 

not loved each other 
Matta ahoaltiwekpanne, if or when ye had not 

loved each other 
Matta ahoallichtikpanne, if or when they had 

not loved each other. 



Future. 

Mattatsch ahoaltiwenk, when or as we shall or 

will not love each other 
Mattatseft ahoaltiwek, when or as ye shall or 

will not love each other 
Mattatsch ahoaltichtik, when oi'as they shall or 

will not love each other. 



The Reciprocal Forms of Verbs are distinguished by their Infinitive 
termination in tin, as in the following examples : 



Pendawachtin, to heat each other 
Pcnnawachtin, to look at each other 
Nostawachtin, to understand each other 
Neuchtin, to see each other 
Mochtenalittin, to fighf with each olhor 
Schinginawachtin, schingaltin, to hate each other 
Hakantin, to box (light with lists) witheachothei 



Nilchtin, to strike each other dead 
Kcnhawachlin, to pay, satisfy each other 
Witahentin, to help each other 
V. . > I t i r i , to quit each other 
I';iki!ataniawac!i1in, to forgive each other 
W ul iptonaltin, to he reconciled to each other 
Aplonaltin, to speak with each other 



OF THE LENNI LENAPE INDIANS. 

[m\th conjugation.] 



1U5 



I.ittin, to say to or among each otlier 
klattaptonaltin, to scold, abuse each other 
Nawalittin, io pursue each other 
Wipantin, to eat with each other 
MenachtJD, to drink, tipple with each other 
W i rwentin, to live ur dwell with each other 
Gettemagelentiu, to be kind, merciful to each 

other 
MQguntiO) to remind each other 



ManschalrJo, to keep each othet in remembrance 

sguntin, tn lead each other 
Wiprmiii. to lie 01 sleep with each other 
\ n.iwi.liiiii. in question each other 
GettschihhilalittiD, in betraj each olhei 
VVeDtschintin, to ■ .n • tch other 

lltaw.nlrtin. I (in ■>■ nl . .. Ii ulln'i 

\. li_ tchemawachdn, i" -ii ire with each other 
Walctittin, to inform, advise each other, K' 



ftfftfi (Toitiurj.ition. 

I.ns, to say or t' n 



ACTIVE FOliM -POSITIVE 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 



I.nen. to say 
Luehund, one says 



J lii.lnin.il. they say or it is said. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 

/'mm nt. 



Smgular. 

N'.lillowe, I say 

1% iwe, thou sayeal 

W'dellowe, hi 



s _n/<jr. 
N'dellowenep, I said 
K'deUowenep, thou saidsl 
Wdellowenep, he said 



_ ii lar. 
\ rentsch, I shall 01 will say 

K wentscb, thou shalt 01 wilt say 
u ,i\. or-, b, he shall 01 will say 



/'/inn/. 

N'delloweneen, we 
K'dellowehhimo, yi 

W'dellowi luw.i, thi 



I'n Ii i ill I. 



PhtraL 
N'dellowchhenap, we said 
K'dellowehhimoap, j 
\V 'dellowenewoap, they said. 



I'litim . 



Phi, nl. 
\ • . p i, we shall »i will say 

iwebnunoUch, ye ~li.ill m will 
u 'deUowenewotsch, they shall ." will say 



si BJ1 m tu i: MOOD. 

I'll SI III . 



. ular. 
i it ..r when I say 

Luej me, ii "* when Ibou sayeal 

in ii In- s.iy- 



Plural. 

i ik, it ..I when «i 

Lucyi Ic, it "i « hi 

i htit, ii "■ «i" i. Ih< 



196 



GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

[sixth conjugation.] 



Preterite. 



Singular. 
Lueyakup, if or when I said 
Lueyannup, if or when thou saidst 
Luetup, if or when he said 



Plural. 



Lueyenkup, if or when we said 
Lueyekup, if or when ye said 
LuechtiUip, if or when they said. 



Pluperfect. 



Singular. 
Lueyakpanne, if or when I had said 
Lueyankpanne, if or when thou hadst said 
Luetpanne, if or when lie had said 



Singular. 
Lueyaktsch, if or when I shall or will say 
Lueyanetseh, if or when thou shalt or wilt say 
Luetetsch, if or when he shall or will say 



Plural. 
Lueyenkpanne, if or when we had said 
Lueyekpanne, if or when ye had said 
Luechtitpanne, if or when they had said. 



Future. 

Plural. 
Lueyenktsch, if or when we shall or will say 



Lueyektsch, if or when ye shall or will say 
Luechtitsch, if or when they shall or will say. 



The negative voice of this verb is not given in this Grammar, nor is the 
Imperative Mood in the positive. 



PERSOJY.HL FORMS.— POSITIVE. 
FIRST TRANSITION. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



K'dellell, I say to thee 
N'dellan, I say to him 



K'dellenep, I said to thee 
N'dellap. I said to him 



K'delletsch, I shall or will say to thee 
N'dellantsch, 1 shall or will sav to him 



K'dellohumo, I say to you 

N'dellawak, 1 say to them. 



Preterite. 



K'dellohumoap, I said to you 
N'dellapannik, 1 said to them. 



Future. 



K'dellohummotsch, I shall or will say to you 
N'dellawaktsch, 1 shall or will say to them. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



Lellane, if or when I say to thee 
Lake, if or when 1 say io him 



Lellanup, if or when I said to thee 
Lakup, if or when 1 said to him 



Lelleque, if or when I say to you 
Lakpanne, if or when 1 say to them. 



Preterite. 



Lellekup, if or when 1 said to you 
Lekpanne, if or when I said to them. 



OF THE LENNI LENAPE INDIANS. 

[SIXTH CONJ1 l. \ Tins.] 



197 



Leuanpanne, if or when ! had ~;iiil to thee 
Lakuppanne, if or when I had said to him 



Pluperfect. 



Lellekpanne, it"; when I had said to you 
Lakpanne, ii oi when I had >.iiii to them. 



Future. 

Lettanetsch, it' or when I ibaB or will saj to j Lellequetsch, ii .>r when I -lull or will n] to 

thee you 

Lakeisch, if or when I shall or will say to him | Lakpannetsch, ii or when I shall m will say to 

them 



seco.yd rii.LYsrrin.y 



K'delli, tlioti sayesl to me 

K'llell.ni. thou sayest to him 



KMellineep, thou saidst to me 
K'dellanep, thuu saidsl to him 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present. 

I K'dellineen, tbousayeet to us 

I K'dellawak, thou sayest to them. 

Preterite. 

I K'dellinenap, thou s L ii.l«t to us 
| E'deUapannik, thou saidal to them. 



Future. 



K'delUtsch, thou shall or will say to me 
K'dellantsch, thou shall or will say to him 



K'di llihhcnatsch, thou shall or wilt say to us 
K'dellawawaktsch, thou shall or will saj to them 



LMPKILATIVK \KK)|>. 



111. - iy Ihou 

I ■ .ii. go on with your discourse 

I.il. tell uie 

Lime, tell me at some particular time 



I Lot say t<> him 

| \l.nm i lo, go and saj to him 

I. Illi. II. -,l\ In l|- 

1. it. mi, say to them. 



SI U.I I VTIVK MOOD. 



I'll si ill 



i I rani if or when thou jayesl I i 

Latpa ), it '■< when Ihou ayesl in him 



Liyenkpanne, ii or when Ihou sayesl to as 
one ii oi when til ■ them 



I'nfi i i/i . 



nap, if or whan 111 
i innup, it hi when thou saidal to him 



i | . whi n the 

ruiup, ii ■■! when tl thi m 



I'lllllll 



l.i\ umetacb, ii or when thou shall o» will ».,> 

t" mi- 
ll, it ..> when 
to him 



l iv oqui '•• b, ii "i when Ihou shall o\ « I 

ii. ii i'i when tli. mi shall ■■> w 
to them. 



\ oi,. HI. — .5 l» 



198 



GBAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

[sixth conjugation.] 



THIRD TRANSITION. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



N'delluk, n'dellgun, he says to me 
W'dellan, w'dellawall, he says to thee 
K'dellgun, k'dellak, he says to him 



N'dellgop, he said to me 
K'dellgop, he said to thee 
Wdellanep, he said to him 



N'dellguna, lukguna, he says to us 
K'dellguwa, k'dellgehhirao, he says to you 
W'dellawak, he says to them. 



Preterite. 



N'dellgunenap, n'dellgehhenap, he said to us 
K'dellguwap, k'dellgehhimoap, he said to you 
W'dellapanuik, he said to them. 



Future. 



N'dellgetseh, he shall or will say to me 
K'dcllgetsch, he shall or will say to thee 
Wdellantsch, he shall or will say to him 



N'dellgunatsch, lukgunatseh, he shall or will 

say to us 
K'dellguwatsch, k'tellgehhimotsch, he shall or 

will say to you 
W'dellawaktsch, he shall or will say to them. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



Lite, if or when he says to me 
Lukquonne, if or when he says to thee 
Late, it' or when he says to him 



Litup, if or when he said to me 
Lukquonnup, if or when he said to thee 
Latup, if or when he said to him 



Lukquenke, if or when he says to us 
Lukqueque, if or when he says to you 
Lakhittite, if or when he says to them. 



Preterite. 

Lukquenkup, if or when he said to us 
Lukquekup, if or when he said to you 
Laachtitup, if or when he said to them. 



Future. 



Litetsch, if or when he shall or will say to me 
Lukquonnetsch, if or when he shall or will say 

to thee 
Latctsch, if or when he shall or will say to him 



Lukquenketsch, if or when he shall or will say 

to us 
Lukqueketsch, if or when he shall or will say 

to you 
Laachtitetsch, if or when he shall or will say to 

them. 



FOURTH TRANSITION. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 



Present. 



K'delleneen, we say to thee 
N'dellaneen, we say to him 



K'dellohhena, we say to you 
N'dellawawuna, we say to them 



OP THE LENNI LENAPE INDIANS. 

[SIXTH CCIVII I. M KIN.] 



199 



CdeDenenap, we said to thee 
NMellawunakup, we said to him 



Preterite. 



KMeUohhumoaknp, wt Mid to you 

V.li ll.m.iw,i|>jiiuik, we said to llirni. 



Future. 



ii. rnt-.li. we shall or will say to thee 

N'deHeneentsch, we -hall or will say to him 



klellohhenatsch, we shall or will say to you 
N'dellawawaktsch "< n'driUwunaiiiscli, we shall 
or will say to them. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



Lellanque, if or when wc say to thee 
Lanke, i( or when we say to him 



LeUankup, if or when we said to thee 
I, uikiip, if or when we said to him 



l.elli'iiquc, if or when we -iv to you 

l.eiike, it or when we say In diem. 



Preterite. 



LeDenkup, if or when we said to you 

Leolnip, if Of when »r said to (hem. 



Future. 



Lellanquctsch, if or when we shall or will say to I l.ellenquetseh, if or when we shall or will say to 
thee you 

-. h, if or when we shall or will say to Lenketech, if or when we shall or will say to 

him th. in. 



FIFTH 77,'. L \ "fl / 77 OJV. 



K'di llihhimo, ye say to me 
K'dellanewo, yc say to him 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



KMellihbimoakup, ye said to rnc 
K'ilellanewna|i, ye said In him 



K'dellihhena, ye say to ui 

K .1. 11 m iwak, ye say to them. 



Vret< nl, 



I ihhenalmpi ye add la ui 

mi. It, yi - n. l to them. 



Future. 



K'deltihhimotsch, ye shall or wiO ray tome 
K'dellanewotscb, ye shall or will raj to him 



k'.l'llillln-ll it-rll. ye -lull 01 «'H -IV In us 

K . ',. ye -hall Of will -ay to Ihem 



SI BJUXCTIVK MOOD. 



I'll .SI III . 



Liyeque, it or when ye ray to mc 

il or when ye «av to bin 



II . it 01 v.ln n \ i 

I eki ii "> when yi 



300 



GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

[sixth conjugation.] 



Preterite. 



Liyekup, if or when ye said to me 
Lequekup, if or when ye said to him 



Liyenkup, if or when ye said to us 
Lekup, if or when ye said to them. 



Future. 

Liyequetsch, if or when ye shall or will say to I Liyenquetsch, if or when ye shall or will say to 

me us 

Lequetsch, if or when ye shall or will say to Leketsch, if or when ye shall or will say to 

him them. 



SIXTH TRANSITION. 



N'dellge, they say to me 
K'dellge, they say to thee 
Wdellanewo, they say to him 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present. 



NMellgenep, they said to me 
K'dellgenep, they said to thee 
Wdellanewoap, they said to him 



N'dellgeneen or n'dellgehhena, they say to us 
K'dellgehhimo, they say to you 
Wdellanawak, they say to them. 



Preterite. 



N'dellgetsch, they shall or will say to me 
K'dellgetseh, they shall or will say to thee 
W'dellanewotsch, they shall or will say to him 



N'dellgenenap, they said to us 
N'dellgehhimoap, they said to you 
Wdellawawapannik, they said to them. 



Future. 

N'dellgeneentseh or n'dellgehhenatsch, they 

shall or will say to us 
K'dellgehhimotach, they shall or will say to you 
I Wdellawawaktsch.theyshallor will say to them 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



Present. 



Lichtinke or linke, if or when they say to me 
Lukquonne, if or when they say to thee 
Lachtinke or linde, if or when they say to him 



Lukquenke, if or when they say to us 
Lukqueque, if or when they say to you 
Lachtitpanne, if or when they say to them. 



Preterite. 



Lichtinkup or linkup, if or when they said tome 
Lukquonkup, if or when they said to thee 
Luchtinkup or lindup, if or when they said to 
him 



I.iikquenkup, if or when they said to us 
Lukquekup, if or when they said to you 
Lachtitpaunup, if or when they saidto them. 



Future 

l.inketsch, if or when they shall or will say to 

me 
Lukquonnetsch, if Or when they shall or will 

sav to thee 
Lindetsch, if or when they shall or will say to 

him 



Lukqiienquetseh, if or when they shall or will 

say to us 
Lukquequetsch, if or when they shall or will 

say to you 
Lachtitetsch, if or when they shall or will say 

to them. 



OF THE LENNI EENAPE INDIANS. 

[ -IN 1 II I ON Jl ■. VTION. ) 



SOI 



PERS0A\1L FORMS— .YEG.lTir K 
FIRST TRJWSrnOJY 



[NDICATTV E MOOD. 
Present. 



K'dellon-i*, I do not say to thee 
N'dellawi, I do not say to him 



K'dellowip, I did not say to thee 
NMellawip, I did not say to him. 



iK'ilillolihutnowi, I do not say to you 
N liUawiwak, I do not say to them. 

Preterite. 

I KMellohhumowap, I did not say to you 
I N'deDawipaonik, 1 did not say to thum. 

Future. 



K M.llowitsch, I shall or will not say to thee I K'dellohhumowitsch, I shall «t will not say to 
NMellaHit.-ch. 1 -hall or nil] not say to him i you 

I NMellawiwakfcsch, I shall or will not say to them. 

The Subjunctive Mood is wanting throughout. 



SECOND TR.LYSITIO.Y. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 



Present. 



KMelliwi, thou sayest not to me 
K'dellawi, thou sayest not to him 



K'deDiwip, thou didst not say tome 
K'dcllawip, thou didst not say to him 



K Mi lliwuneen, thou sayest not to us 
KMcllawiwak, thou sayest not lu them. 



Preterite. 



K'delliwunentp, thou dldat no) M] to us 

KMellawijiamiik. thou didst not >.t> lu tliim 



Future. 



K'deUlwiUch, ihoushalt or wilt not - 1\ to mc 
KMellawitscb, thou shalt or will not -ay to hiiu 



KMrlliwiineentsch, thou "hilt »i will not - 
us 

wiwaklsch, tlniii shall «i "ill not 
III. in 



[MPEB \TI\ i: MOOD. 



K - l.i liyeketich, *.iy nol t" mi 
k in liyanoetsch, -ij nol to him 



h, say not In ui 

ii\ .hi,. I-. h, - .i_\ not in then 



VOL. III. 



m.ih , prefix) d throughoul 
•3 E 



302 



GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

[sixth conjugation.] 



THIRD TRANSITION. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



N'dellguwi, he says not to me 
K'dellguwi, he says not to thee 
W'deUawi, he says not to him 



N'dellguwuneen or lukguwuneen, he says not 

to us 
K'dellguwawi, he says not to you 
W'dellawiwak, he says not to them. 



Preterite. 



N'dellguwip or lukuwip, he did not say to me 
K'dellguwip, he did not say to thee 
Wdellawip, he did not say to him 



Lukguwuneenep, he did not say to us 
Lukguwawipi he did not say to you 
Wdellawipannik, he did not say to them. 



Future. 



N'dellguwitsch, he shall or will not say to me 
K'dellguwitsch, he shall or will not say to thee 
W'dellawitsch, he shall or will not say to him 



Lukguwuneentsch or n'dellgunwuneentsch, he 

shall or will not say to us 
Lukguwawit-ch, he shall or will not say to you 
W'dellawiwaktsch, he shall or will not say to 

them. 



FOURTH TRANSITION. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 



Present. 



K'dellowuneen, we do not say to thee 
N'dellawuneen, we do not say to him 



K'dellowuneenap, we did not say to thee 
N'dellawunap, we did not say to him 



K'dellohhummowuneen, we do not say to you 
N'dellawawuna, we do not say to them. 



Preterite. 



K'dellohhummowunap, we did not say to you 
N'dellawawunapannik, we did not say to them. 



Future. 



K'dellowuneentsch, we shall or will not say to 

thee 
N'dellawunatsch, we shall or will not say to him 



K'dellohhummowunatsch, we shall or will not 

say to you 
N'dellawunanatsch, we shall or will not say to 

them. 



FIFTH TRANSITION. 

(Not given.) 



OF THE LENNI I.ENAPE INDIANS. 

[ -I \ nt CONJI '. LIION.] 



i\).i 



SIXTH TR.l.YSITIOJV 



INDK'ATIVi: MOOD. 



Wdellgewi, they Ho not say to me 
K'dellgewi, they do oot say to thee 
Wdellawiwak, they do not say to him 



Present. 



tf'dellgeweneen, thej do not say to ua 
E'dellgewunewo, they do no) saj i<> you 
WdeOawiwawall, they do no! ^.i\ to them. 



Preterite. 



N'deUgewip, they did not say to me 
K'dellcewipi they did n<>' Bay to thee 
W'dellawipannik, thej did not saj io him 



N'dellgewunenap, they did do) say to us 
they did not say to you 
WdeUawiwapannili, they did not laj to them. 



Future. 



N'dellgewitsch, they shall or will not say to me 
K'dellgi n itseh, they shall or » ill not saj ti 
Wdellawiwaktscb, they shall or will not say to 
him 



Vdrlliirwutieentsrh, they shall or will say to us 
K'deHgewunewotsch, they shall <>r will say to 

you 
W'dellawinawaktsch, they shall or will say to 

them. 



RET-1TIVK FORM. 



INDICATIVK MOOD. 
Present. 



Singular. 
Eloweya, as or what l - <\ 
Elow ■ hat thou - 

Elowit, as or what he says 



Singular. 

Eloweyakup, as or what I said 

! ! : r wli.it tll"ll 

Elowetup, as or what lie said 



Singular. 
Eloweyakpanoe, as or what I had said 
i tone, as or what thou hadsl said 

1 . as or what be had taid 



Plural. 

Eloweyenk, as or what »•■ say 

', i- m \\ hat \ •■ - iv 
Elowcclitil. as or whit liny say 



Flltllitl . 



Plural. 



EloweyenVup, as or what we said 

I llowi yekup is o> »li ■' y 

I lowei htitup, i~ "i what they said. 



I'Iv/h ,/irt. 

Plural. 
Elowey enkpanne, u in what we had said 

i ;\ h ii \.' had said 

Elowechtitpa >, as ur what they had said 



The Futurt 

\s like the present, adding ttch 



204 GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

[sixth conjugation.] 



TRANSITIONS.— FIRST TRANSITION. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present. 

Elen, as or what I say to thee I Elek, as or what I say to you 

Elak, as or what I say to him | Elachkup, as or what I say to them. 



SECOND TRANSITION. 



Eliyan, as or what thou sayest to me | Eliyenk, as or what thou sayest to us 

Elan, as or what thou sayest to him | Elachtup, as or what thou sayest to them 



THIRD TRANSITION. 



Elit, as or what he says to me 
Elquon, as or what he says to thee 
Elat or elguk, as or what he says to him 



Elquenk, as or what he says to us 
Elquek, as or what he says to you 
Ellatup, as or what he says to them 



FOURTH TRANSITION. 



Elenk, as or what we say to thee I Elek, as or what we say to you 

Elank, as or what we say to him | Elauquik, as or what we say to them. 



FIFTH TRANSITION. 



Eliyek, as or what ye say to me I Eliyenkup, as or what ye say to us 

Elatup, as or what ye say to him | Elaachtup, as or what ye say to them. 



SIXTH TRANSITION. 



Elink,as or what they say to me 
Elquonnik, as or what they say to thee 
Elachtit, as or what they say to him 



Elgeyenk, as or what they say to us 
Elgeyek, as or what they say to you 
Elachtitup, as or what they say to them. 



RECIPROCAL FORM. 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Littin, to say to each other | Littinep, to have said to each othci 



OF THE LENNI LEW APE INDIANS. 806 

[ -l\ I II i 0NJ1 i; ITION.] 

[NDICATIVE Mooi). 
I'ri sent. I Preterite. 

Littioeen or littihhena, we ny to or among each I ittenenap or littihbenap, ire -.ml lo or among 

other each othei 

I.ittihhimo or kilclliihhnno. ye say lo 01 among Littihhimoap or k'dellihbii ip, \. said to or 

each othei among each olher 

Littowak, they say to or among each other. Littopannik. they said I each other. 

Future. 

Littihhenatsch, we shall or will saj lo 01 othei 

Littihhimotscb, ye -.lull or will saj • eai ti othei 

Litlowaktscb, they Bball or »ill say to or among each other. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOI). 
Present. \ Preterite. 

I.itiiyenk. if or when m- Fay lo or among each l.ittiycnkup. if or when we said to or among 

other each 

Littiyek, if or when ye say to or among each Littiyekup, if or when ye said to or among each 

othei other 

Littichtit, il or when they -,i> to or among cnh l.ittichtitup, if or when they said to or among 

other. each other. 

The, Future 
Is formed from the present, tsck suffixed. 



REFLECTED FORM 



This form is used in the Singular ;i^ follows; 



\ r, I say to mj self 

K'dell to thysell 

v. ■<• hlmsell 

N'dahowala n*hakc] . I la e tnj -. II 
K thon ala kliakej ► diou lovest tbj w li 
w ihow alawal I he lo\ • - himself. 

n no tuwelema n'hakej . I r in) sell 

Pennauwelem k'hakey, take care ol thyself. 



Pennanwelemawal hakeyaD 01 lacbauwelema- 
w.ill bakeyall, he la mzioiu about hlmsell 
I 01 i bled in mind > 

Pi nnauwelemo h about 

yourselves toi troubled in toil 



• \ '■■!■ 1,1/ tin Translator. I - which probabl) was Gnl introduced by the mis- 
has nothinj Ilia/ in it ; the Ideas of body and mind wOl 
i, ■, confounded, lint the most polished nations "I antiquit] bavi 

i imI in ihei that are no! pen eptibie i n -< nses I bt 

p besl metaphors drawn from sensible objects, and the sami 

will probably I" found in ill lani to the etymology ol the words whii h arc i ' 

to express soul, mind, kc. - • above, p 166 



vol. iii. — ; p 



30(t GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

[op verbs.] 



Sctorntft GTonjusatfon. 

Miltin, to give*. 

This verb has no simple active voice ; we cannot say, I give, thou giv- 
est, he gives, &c, but the personal forms must be used, I give to thee, 
him, <tc. It is the same in the passive voice. 

There is an active verb, however, which expresses the idea of giving 
away, or parting with something, without recurring to the personal forms; 
thus we say rCmeken, I give away, Wmeken, thou givest away, meken, he 
gives away, &c. Preterite, mekenep, I have given away. Imperative. 
meek, give awayf. 



ACTIVE VOICE. 
PERSONAL FORMS— POSITIVE. 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Miltin, to give to some body or make a present of. 

PARTICIPLES. 



Milit, he who gives to me 
Milat, he who gives to him 



Milquenk, he who gives to us 
Milqueek, he who gives to you 
Milquichtit, he who gives to them. 



FIRST TRANSITION. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present. 

K'milellJ, I give to thee I K'milellohhumo, I give to you 

N'milan, I give to him | N'milawak or n'milanewo, I give to them. 



* Note by the Translator. — The Author gives only this example of the Seventh Conjugation, 
and does not tell us whether all the verbs belonging to it want the abstract forms active and pas- 
sive, or whether this defect is peculiar to some of them. 1 have sought in vain for an explanation 
of this difficulty, which 1 am not qualified to solve. 

t Note by the Translator. — The verbs ending in en do not appear to be classed with any of the 
eight conjugations. From a comparison of the forms, it would appear that they belong to the 
first, ending in in. In an unwritten language the vowels are easily mistaken for one another, and 
it is difficult to preseive a consistent orthography. Thus the Author writes sometimes Getanni- 
towit, (God), and sometimes Kitannitowtt. Similar inconsistencies will appear in the course of 
this work, which the judicious reader will easily account for. 

% Note by the Translator. — The Author writes gemilell, ncnulan, &c. ; it is evident that he 
uses the g, instead of the k, to indicate the inseparable pronoun of the second person. Kor this 



OF THE LENNI L.ENAPE INDIANS. 

[seventh conjugation.] 



SO? 



K'milellanep, I gave to thee 
N'mflap, I gave to bin 



K'milletsch, I shall or will give to thro 
N'inilantsch, I shall or will give to him 



Preterite. 

Kmilellohhumoap, I gave to you 
N'milapaonik, I gave to them. 



Future. 



K'mileOohhumotsch, 1 -hill or will give to you 
N'milawaktsch, I shall or wiU give to them. 



SUBJTNCTI\ i; MOOD. 



K'milellane, if or when I give to the* 

VuuUchke, if or when I give to him 



K'tnilannup, if or when I gave to thee 
N'milachkup, if or when I gave to him 



Present. 

N'mileque, il <o when 1 give to you 

Mil atp .nine, il or when I give to them. 

Preterite. 

I N'mOekup, if or when I gave to you 

I N'milawdkup. if »r win i them. 



Pluperfect. 

K'milenpanne, if or when I had given to thee I N'milekpaune, if or when I had given to you 
N'milachkpaune, if or when 1 bad giv< a to him | Wmilakpanne, it or when I had given ti> them. 

Future. 

K'milellannetscb, if or when I shall or will give N'milequetsch, if or when I "lull or will 

to thee you 

N'milaketseb, if or when I shall or will give to N'milaclitiuuetsi h, il or when lliej -lull or will 

••im give to them. 



SECOJVI) TB.i.YslTlu.Y. 



K'mili, thou giveel to me 
K'linlin, thou givesl to him 



K i ■iililuimp, thou liant given to me 
K'milap, ihon had given la him 



I \ DM ATI \ I! MOOD. 

Pres, nt. 

| K'nnlii n or k'millhhen i, thou giveri |i 

I K'mili'w ik of k'milanewo, thou gl art to 

Preterite. 

I K'milihhenit'. ilem li.i.t given |.. ill 
I K'lnil .i|i.uiiiik, thou bail gl.eli In lliem 



reaaon, iii ..I,.- ..I the printed worka, that hit printei i mffideocy of **i 

he wai obliged to emploj the lettei g in iU itead I ike ti,,. , which fblibwa, I 
tent the -hem ,„ mate mmd between the two consonant*, which ebewhen ii oj the 

i not at all dl ,,,'i. |, 

•ntlv apparent. 



308 



GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

[seventh conjugation.] 



Future. 



K'miletsch, thou shalt or wilt give to me 
K'milantsch, tbou shalt or wilt give to him 



K'milihhenatsch, thou shalt or wilt give to us 
K'milawaktsch, thou shalt or wilt give to them 



Mil, give 
Milil, give me 
Milau, give him 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



MUineen, give us 
Milo, give them 
Milatom, let us give 
Miltin, it is given. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



Miliyanne, if or when thou givest to me 
Milanne, if or when thou givest to him 



Miliyenke, if or when thou givest to us 
Milawawanne, if or when thou givest to them. 



Preterite. 



Miliyannup, if or when thou hast given to me I Miliyenkup, if or when thou hast given to us 
Milanuup, if or when thon hast given to him | K'milannik, if or when thou hast given to them. 

Pluperfect. 



Miliyanpanne, if or when thou hadst given to me 
Milanpanne, if or when thou hadst given to him 



Miliyenkpanne, if or when thou hadst given to 



Milawatpanne, if or when thou hadst given to 
them. 



Future. 



Miliyannetsch, if or when thou shalt or wilt give 

to me 
Milannetsch, if or when thou shalt or wilt give 

to him 



Miliyenketsch, if or when thou shalt or wilt 

give to us 
K'milachtitetsch, if or when thou shalt or wilt 

give to them. 



THIRD TRANSITION. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



N'miluk, he gives to me 
K'miluk, he gives to thee 
Milan, inilgol, milawall, he gives to him 



N'milgap, he gave or has given to me 
K'milgap, he gave or has given to thee 
Milap, he gave or has given to him 



N'milguneen, n'milguna, he gives to us 
K'milguwa, he gives to you 
Milawak, he gives to them. 



Preterite. 



K'milgunenap, he gave or has given to us 
K'mclguwap, he gave or has givi-n to you 
Milapannik, he gave or ha9 given to them. 



Future. 



N'miluktsch.he shall or will give to me 
K'miluktsch, he shall or will give to thee 
Milgotsch or milauchtsch, he shall or will give 
to him 



N'milgUDatsch, he shall or will give to us 
K nilguwatsch, he shall or will give to you 
Milawaktech, he shall or will give to them. 



OF THE LENNI I.KN\PF, INT1TVXS. 

[seventh i "vii i. ition. ] 



809 



SI'IUIWITIVE MOOD. 

I' II SI lit. 



Ifilite, it' "i whi'ii he gives tome 

I tonne, il m n ben !■• gives In Ihee 

Milate, ii in when he p,nr- to him 



Milquenke, it m when he gives to us 
Milqueque, it "/ when he gives to you 
Milachtite, if or whoa be nm-- t" them, 



Preterite. 



.Militup. ii »>/- when he has given t >> me 
N ■ . »l en hi has given to thee 

MiUtu|i, ii vi when he has given to him 



Milquenkup, it or when he has given to us 
Milquekup, ii ox when be has given to you 

Mil.ulitihi|i. 11 ox when he has given to thi m 



Pluperfect 



Militpaone, it' or » lien be had given to mc 
Milquonpanne, it or when be had given to thee 
Milatpanne, if or when be had given to him 



Uilquenkpanni II or when he had giv< n to us 
Milquekpanne, it or when be bad given to you 
\tii ii :htitpanne, it 01 when he had given to them 



Future. 



M <■■ 11 1 wh he shall or wiB give to me 
M hall ox wiO give 

1 thee 
Mi id ■ Bch, it or when he shall or will give to 

him 



Milquenketscb, it or when in- shall or »i 

In us 
Milqueketscb, if or when he -hall or will give to 

you 
Milachtitetsch, if or when he shall or will give 

to them. 



VOfRTll rii.LYSlTlo.V 



INDICATIVE Mood. 



First nt. 



Kimlennoen or k'milohhena, "• give to (lice 
bhi ii '. we give to him 



K'milohhumo, »•■ give to you 

iwawuna ■>< D'milawawak, we give to 

tin in. 



K'milohhenap or k'rnilonncnap, we gave or have 

en to thee 
N'mUawunap, we gave ox have given to him 



Fiitniti. 

K'mflohhummenap, we gave si have given t" 

you 
N'mllawawunap, we gave or have given to (hem 



Future. 
K'mileneentsch, we ihall or «ill give to thee j K'milohhomolsch, we ihaDor will gin I 
Vim- .11 or will give to him N nuawawunatsdi.weshBHorwUlpvetothejn 



;i 1:11 \t ti\ r. MOOD. 



Fn tent. 



MUenqne, If or whi 

\ ■ to him 



Mii.rj'i. . it tn when we 

Milinde, it 01 when we give to them 



VOL. III. 3 G 



310 GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

[seventh conjugation.] 



Milenkup, if or when we gave or have given to 

thee 
Milankup, if or when we gave or have given to 

him 



Preterite. 

Milekup, if or when we gave or have given to 

you 
Milawankup, if or when we gave or have given 

to them. 



Pluperfect. 

Milenkpanne, if or when we had given to thee I Milekpanne, if or when we had given to you 
Milankpanne, if or when we had given to him j Milindpanne, if or when we had given to them. 



Milenquetsch, if or when we shall or will give 

to thee 
Milanquetsch, if or when we shall or will give 

to him 



Future. 

Milequetsch, if or when we shall or will give to 

you 
Milindpanne, if or when we shall or will give 

to them. 



FIFTH TRANSITION. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present. 

K'milihhimo, ye give to me I K'milihhena ye give to us 

K'milanewo, ye give to him | K'milawawak, ye give to them. 

Preterite. 

K'milihhimoap, ye gave or have given to me I K'milihhenap, ye gave or have given to us 
K'milanewoap, ye gave or have given to him | K'milawawak, ye gave or have given to them. 

Future. 

K'milihhimotsch, ye shall or will give to me I K'millihhenatsch, ye shall or will give to us 
K'milauewotsch,ye shall or will give to him | K'milawawaktsch, ye shall or will give to them. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
Present. 

Miliyeque, if or when ye give to me I Miliyenque, if or when ye give to us 

Milaque, if or when ye give to him | Milachtique, if or when ye give to them. 

Preterite. 

Miliyekup, if or when ye gave or have given to I Miliyenkup, if or when ye gave or have given 

>»e I to us 

Milakup, if or when ye gave or have given to I Milachtikup, if or when ye gave or have given 

him to them. 

Pluperfect. 
Miliyekpanne, if or when ye had given to me Miliyenkpanne, if or when he bad given to us 
Milakuppanue, if or when ye had given to Jiim Milachtiyekpanne, if or when ye had given to 

them. 



OF TFIE LENNI LENAPE INDIANS. 
[SJM BHTH riisji i. \ i mv.] 



2M 



Future. 
Ifflbyeqtietscb, if or when ye shall or will give , Mtllyenqnetaeb, ifot wben ye (ball or will give 
to me 

Milaqnetsch, if or when ye shall or will give t" ■ Milaehdyequetsch, h m nlim ye -hail m will 

him | giv to iIkiii. 



SIXTH TH.I.YS1TJ0A- 



N'milze. they give to me 

K'milge, the) l;i* e r " 'I 

Milan. -mo, the) give to him 



[NDICATTV i: MooD. 

I'll. SI III. 



k iii<i_i nr. [i thi j give to na 
Kmilgehhimo, the) give in you 
Mii.m.irtjii o; milawawak ihey give I 



Preterite. 



\ aep, the] g tve of have given to me 

K'mflgenep, they gave o> hue given to thee 
Milap ninik, they gave or have given to him 



N'milgenenap, they gave or hue given to ui 
K'milgehhimoap, they gave or have given to you 
Milawawapannik, they gave or have given to 
them. 



I nt ure. 



N'tnilgetsch, they shall ur will give to me 
K'milge'-. Ii. they -hall or will give i 
MilawaValtscb, they shall or will give to him 



N'mflgeneeDtsch, they shall or will give to us 
K'milgehbimotscb, they shall or ivillglve to you 

Milan, w.ii-rh, they shall or will give to them. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



Milinke, If or when tln-v give to me 
\l ej in--, it or when the] give t>. thee 

Mil i. Iii]'. . il '■! whin they give to him 



Present. 

Milgeyenke, if w wben ih.-v give ■ 
Mil-. \ eke, it or h hen the] gtvt to you 
Milaacl s, il or wben tl tbem. 

Preterite. 



Mihnkup, if or when Ihey gave 01 

to me 
Mi _ yannup, M or when they gave or have 

gi\ en to 'I 
Milachtitup or mflintop, il" hi when they gave 

or have given to him 



Milgeyenlnip, il or when thi havi 

. t.. ua 
Milgeyekup, it or when the] gaveoi 1. 1\ ■ given 

in you 
Mil ii htitup,li "i "hen the] . 

to tbem. 



Pluperfect. 



m ■ kpanne, it or when the] had given Ii 
Mi ■• inpanne, it or when the] bail u> 

Mil ' llillint|ialllie. Il 01 when th. \ 

bad given to him 



Milgeyi nkpatme, n si when thi \ i 

n« 
• kpanne, it or when lb*] bad mi. n to 

\..n 
Mil ... lini|i nun . it ..i when ih. \ In. I ci. 

il.. i.. 



312 



GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

[seventh conjugation.] 



Future. 

Milinketsch, if or when they shall or will give 

to me 
Milgeyannetsch, if or when they shall or will 

give to thee 
Milachtitetsch, if or when they shall ar will 

give to him 

The Negative Forms are not given. 



Milgeyenketsch, if or when they shall or will 

give to us 
Milgeyeketsch, if or when they shall or will 

give to you 
Milaachtitetsch, if or when they shall or will 

give to them. 



PASSIVE VOICE.— POSITIVE. 



Wilgussit, he to whom is given 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Milgussin, to have (something) given to one. 

PARTICIPLES. 

Singular. 1 Plural. 



| Milgussitschit, they to whom is given 

Future. 

Milgussitpannik, they to whom will be given. 



PERSONAL FORMS.— FIRST TRANSITION. 



Singular. 
N'milgussi (Lat. mihi datur), it is given to me 
K'milgussu, it is given to thee 
Milgussu, it is given to him 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present. 

Plural. 
Milgussineen, it is given to us 
Milgussihhimo*, it is given to you 
Milgussowak, it is given to them. 



Preterite. 



Singular. 
N'milgussihump, it was given to me 
K'milgussihump, it was given to thee 
Milgussop, it was given to him 



Plural. 



Milgussihhenap, it was given to us 
Milgtissihhimoap, it was given to you 
Milgussopannik, it was given to them. 



Future. 



Singular. 
N'milgussitsch, it shall or will be given to me 
K'milgussiisch, il shall or will be given to thee 
Milgussutsch, it shall or will be given to him 



Plural. 
Milgussihhenatsch, it shall or will be given to us 
K'milgussihhimotsch, it shall or will be given to 

you 
Milgussowaktsch, it shall or will be given to 

them. 



* JVote by the Translator. — The double hh. here anil in other places, does not indicate a par- 
ticular sound or stronger aspiration, but only that the preceding vowel i is to be pronounced short 
This mode of writing is borrowed from the orthography of the German language. 



OF THE LENNI LENAPE INDIANS. 
[SE\ K.N Til CONJUGATION.] 



H.i 



.Smgll/ili. 
N'milgussiya, if or when it is given to me 
Milgussiyanne, if or when it 1- given to thee 
UDgusote, if vr when it is given to him 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
Present. 

Plural. 
MUgusriyenk, ifoi when it i- given to us 

- ben it in £u .-h t 
Milgiiflaichtit, ii 01 when il i- given to mem 



Preterite 

Singular. 

Migmwiyakup, if or when it ivaa given to i 
Milgnwuyannup, if <n when it was given to thee 
Hilgtisgitup, ii or » hen it ».i- given to him 



Plural. 
Milgusaiyenktip, if or when it waa given to us 
Milguaadyekup, il 91 irht a II ma given to you 
Milgniwichtitup, if or when it was given to tbeni 



Pluperfect 

Singular. 
MOgnsaiyakpaniie, it ./< when it had been given 

tn me 
Milgussiy.iiikp.innc, if or when ithad been given 

to thee 
\Iili;ii--ii|..iiinc, if or when it had been given to 

him 



Plural. 

Milgussiyenkpanne, if or when it had been given 

to Us 
MUgussiyckpanne, if or when it bad hern given 

lo you 
Milgnmichdtpanne, if or when it had I n given 

to them. 



Future 

Singular. 

Milgussiyatsch, if or when it shall or will be 

given to me 
Milgussiyannetsch, if or when it shall or will he 

given to thee 
U lg -rh, if orwhenit shall orwill be given 

to him 



Plural. 
Milgussiyenkctsch, il 'or when it shall or will be 
gfr ni to us 

Muguaslyeketacb, M or when il ihaU m will be 
given to you 

Milgiissirhiitctsch, it shall or will be given to 
them. 



.Vote by the Translator. — The other Transitions nn- nol given, and 
the negative form of this Transition is given only in the Subjunctive 

Mood, as follow s : 



NEGATIVE FORM FIRST TH.I.Ysrri"\ 



si i-,ir\(Ti\ i: mood. 

I'll M III 



ular. 

\i ■■■ ■ ■ ,;--'.' is. it 01 when it is not gl 

\i , ■ Igoarfwonne, it or when II i- not given 

to thee 
Malta milgiualque, it in win d i 1 ia no) given to 

In in 



Plural. 

nilgnaatwi ok, >i <n whan II >- nol iri\ .n 

\l in i iiiii.Mi-.mii., ii ..I when n in nol ^i 

you 
M in i n.iii; ii --H hi ik, If or when II m nol given to 



VOL. III. 



-i ir 



314 



GRAMMAR OP THE LANGUAGE 

[eighth conjugation.] 



Preterite. 



Singular. 
Matta milgussiwakup, if or when it was not given 

to me 
Matta milgussiwonnup, if or when it was not 

given to thee 
Matta milgussikup, if or when it was not given 

to him 



Plural. 
Matta milgussiwenkup, if or when it was not 

given to us 
Matta milgussiwekup, if or when it was not 

given to you 
Matta milgussichtikup, if or when it was not 

given to them. 



Pluperfect. 



Singular. 
Matta milgussiwakpanne, if or when it had not 

been given to me 
Matta milgussiwonpanne, if or when it had not 

been given to thee 
Matta milgussikpanne, if or when it had not been 

given to him 



Plural. 
Matta milgussiwenkpanue, if or when it had not 

been given to us 
Matta miigussiwekpanne, if or when it had not 

been given to you 
Matta milgussichtikpanne, if or when it had not 

been given to them. 



Future. 



Singular. 
Matta milgussiwaktsch, if or when it shall 01 

will not be given to me 
Matta milgussiwonnetsch, if or when it shall or 

will not be given to thee 
Matta milgussiquetsch, if or when it shall or will 

not be given to him 



Plural. 
Matta milgussiwenketsch, if or when it shall or 

will not be given to us 
Matta milgussiweketsch, if or when it shall or 

will not be given to you 
Matta milgusslchtiketsch, if or when it shall or 

will not be given to them. 



Eighth (Conjugation. 

No. I. 



Peton, to brine 



Singular. 
N'peton, I bring 
K'pcton, thou biingest 
Peton, he brings 



Singular. 
N'pctonep, I have brought 
K'petonep, thou hast Inought 
Petonep, he has brought 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present. 

Plural. 
N'petoneen, we bring 
K'pettohhumo, ye bring 
Petonewo, they bring. 



Preterite. 



Plural. 



N'petonenap, we have brought 
K'petohhumoap, ye have (nought 
Petouewoap, they have brought. 



00 THE EENNI LENAPE INDIANS. 
[EIGHTS CONJi BATION.] 



215 



future. 



Singular. 
PPpetontsch, 1 shall or will bring 
Fpetontsch, thou shall "r will 
Petonlsch, he shall or will bring 



Plural 
N'petaneentsch, ».■ shall or will firing 
K'petohhumotscb, ye shall or «ill bring 
Petonewotsch, they ib. ill m will brings 



Singula! 



IMPERATIVE Mool). 



Petook, bring j ■ 



Plural. 



Petol, bring thou 

.Vote by the Translator. — The Subjunctive of this verb is not given, 
except in the Personal forms, which follow i 



FF.RS0.Y.1L FORMS.— FIRST TR.1AS1T10.Y. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



K'i'.'tnl.'n, I bring to thee 
N'petawan, I bring to him 



K'petolenep, I brought to thee 
N'petawap, I brought to him 



K'petolobhumo, I bring to you 

\|i. i iv\ awiikj I bring i>» them. 



Preterite. 



K-'petotohhinuoap*, I brought to you 

N'['< [.iw.tp.innik, I said to tin 



Future. 

1 I ntscb, I shall or will bring to thee I K'petolohhumotsch, I shall orwill bring to yon 

N'petawantsch, 1 -hall or will bring i" him N petawawaktich, I shall or will bring lo them 



SI IUI XCTIVE MOOD. 

I'll SI III . 

K'petolanne, if or when 1 bring to ihee | N'petolequei ii oi when I bring i" you 



[Vpetawake, il or whi d i bring n> bun 



N lol mup, ii oi when i have brought to that 
\ nup, n oi when I have broughl to bim 



iwawake, II m wbi i I them 



I'n h rite. 

\ pi tolel up, ' j ' when l h ive i ighl to \"n 

N'pctawawannup, ii o> when I in to 

lb. h 



\ ■ ilanoetsch, 11 or when I -bill or will bring 

to thee 
N'petan u taeh, ii or when I shall m will bring 

to him 



Future. 

\ [,. r.i. .).!.'.. h, ii or when I shall or will bring 



N'petawan il ■ when I shall ot mil 

bring i" thi 



JVbtt it/ lln Tranilitt'il- I C( limn I. petolohhummoak ii;>. » birb i< Ihr 

most correct form; but i- gi Di In ipeei b 



216 



GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

[eighth conjugation.] 



SECOND TRAJVSITIOA r . 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



K'petawi, thou bringest to me 
K'petawa, thou bringest to him 



K'petawinep, thou broughtest to me 
K'petawap, thou broughtest to him 



K'petawineen, thou bringest to us 
K'petawa wak, thou bringest to them. 



Preterite. 



I K'petawinenap, thou broughtest to us 

| K'petawapannik, thou broughtest to them. 



Future. 



K'petawitsch, thou shalt or wilt bring to me 
K'petawatsch, thou shalt or wilt bring to him 



K'petawihhenatsch, thou shalt or wilt bring to us 
K'petawawaktsch, thou shalt or wilt bring to 
them. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



Petawil, bring to me now 
Petawime, bring me at a future time 



Petawik, bring ye to me 
Petawineen, bring to us. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



Present. 



K'petawiyane, if or when thou bringest to me 
K'petawanne, if or when thou bringest to him 



K'petawiyenke, if or when thou bringest to us 
K'petawawanne, if or when thou bringest to them. 



Preterite. 



K'petawiyannup, if or when thou hast brought 

to me 
K'pelawannup, if or when thou hast brought to 

him 



K'petawiyenkup, if or when thou hast brought 

to us 
K'petawawakup, if or when thou hast brought 

to them. 



Future. 

{Not given.) 



THIRD TR.LYSITHhY 



N'petagun, he brings to me 
K'petaguk, he brings to thee 
Petagol, he brings to him 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



j N'petaguneen, he brings to us 

K'petaguwa, he brings to you 

I Petawawak, he brings to them 



OF THE LENNI I.F.NAPE INDIANS. 
[eighth CONJUG vTION.] 



217 



Preterite. 



N'petagop, he brought to me 
K'petagop, In- brought to tbee 
Petawap, he brought to him 



iinap, he brought to ut 
K'petaguwap, he brought to you 
Pet i" if lonlk, he brought to them. 



Future 

N'petaktsch, he -hall or will being to me 
K*pt ■ tgukUcb, he shall "* will bnng to thee 
Petagoltech c/ petawatach, he -bill or will 

biiug to him 



N'petageneentsch, in- shall ■>> wfll bring to us 
!. iwataeh, lir shall or will bring i" you 

Petawawaktsch, ha shall 01 will bring to them 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



I'n sent. 



Petawite, ii "t when be brings to me 
Pet iqoonni . it 01 when In- brings 10 thee 
Pelawate, ii >" when he brings to him 



Petawitup, if or when he brought to me 
Petaquonnup, if or when he brought to thee 
Petawatup, if or when he brought to him 



'.'■lit.', it m when he bring) to us 
Pelaqueke, it .., when be brings to you 

Pi i n\ ii •htiti-, ii 01 when he brings to them 



Preterite. 

Pel iquenkup, if or when he brought to us 
Petaquekup, if 01 when he brought t>> you 

PetawachdtQp, ii i" when he brought to liken. 



I 'ut ure. 



Pet iuii-1 h, when nr il he shall bring to me 
Petaqaounetach] n hen v* it in- -h.ill bring to thee 
Petawatsch, when or ii he shall bring to him 



Pi 1 tqueoktach, when or If he shall bring to u> 
Petaquektst b. when or it he ' to you 

Petawachtitsch, whenoril heahall bring to them 



FOfRTli T/i.l.VSITIii.Y 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Presi ut. 



K>i toleneen, we bring to 

N waneen, we bung to him 



k 'petolohht oa, we b Ii ■■ 

N 'pelawawuna, we b ing i" them. 



t'n/i rili . 



K , p c,0 ^ enrn;, l > . we have brough I it ■ 

N'pef '■ a hai e brought to him 



K'petolenneentach, we sh ill bring to thee 
iw.uieeuUch, we shall bring to bun 



k petoli bhenap, we have broughl to yoa 
| N*petawawunap, wi bavt brought to them 

Future. 

ilohhenatsch, we shall bring t'» you 
N*pel ■" iv. unatach, we shall i>mhl; i 



SI ll.ll \< Tl\ I! Mool). 



/■ 1 n ut . 



Petolenque, when or if we bung t.i tl 

Petawonque. when 01 it we bnng In bun 

VOL. III. < I 



1 nqui k, when 01 'i "• ' 

iwonque, when 01 If we tiring to thesa 



218 



GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

[eighth conjugation.] 



Preterite. 



Petolenkup, when or if we brought to thee 
Petawonkup, when or if we brought to him 



Petaquekup, when or if we brought to you 
Petawawonkup, when or if we brought to them. 



Future. 

Petolenketsch, when or if we shall bring to thee I Petaquenketsch, when or if we shall bring to you 
Petawonketsch, when or if we shall bring to him | Petawawanketsch, when or if we shall bring to 

them. 



FIFTH TRANSITION. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 



K'petawihhimo, you bring to me 
K'petawanewo, you bring to him 



R'petawihhimoap, you brought to me 
K'petawanewap or k'petawanewakup. 
brought to him 



Present. 

I K'petawihhena, you bring to us 

| K'petawawawak, you bring to them. 

Preterite. 

K'petawihhenap or k'petawihummenakup, you 

brought to us 
K'petawapannik or k'petawanewakup, you 

brought to them. 



you 



Future. 



K'petawihhimotsch, you shall bring to me 
K'petawanewotseh, you shall bring to him 



[ K'petawihhenatsch, you shall bring to us 
I K'petawawawaktsch, you shall bring to them 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



Petawiyek, when or if you bring to me 
Petaquek, when or if you bring to him 



Petaquiyek, when or if you brought to us 
Petawaqne or petawachtique, when or if you 
brought to Mi. in 



Preterite. 

Petawiyekup, when or if you brought to me I Petaquiyekup, when or if you brought to us 
Petaquekup, when or if you brought to him | Petawaquekup, when or if you brought to them. 



Petawiyektsch, when or if you shall bring to me 
Pctaquektsch, when or if you shall bring to him 



Future. 



Petaquiyektsch, w r hen or if you shall bring to us 
Pelaw aquektsch, when or if you shall bring to 
them. 



OF THE LBNN1 LF.NAPE INDIANS. 
[eighth conjugation.] 



219 



SIXTH TU.I.VSITlii.\ 



[NDICATH E MOOD. 

I 'it. SI III. 



N'petake, they bring or one linn-- to me 
K'petake, Ihey brine or one brings to thee 
Petawanewo, tiny bring or one brings to him 



Pel ikeneen, they bring or one brings to us 
K'pjetaken* rro, thi . one brings to you 

Petewawanewo,thej bring 01 one brings to them 



I'n h 1 ili . 



N'petakep, the] brought ; 
K'petakep, they l.H.'i^ht t" thi 
Petawanewap, the) brought tu him 



PTpel dcenenap, they brought to us 
K'petakeiiew&p, thej brought t'> you 
Petawifrepannik, they brought to them. 



Future. 



N'petaketsch, thej shall bring to me 
K'petaketsch, they shaD bring to thee 
Petawanewotseh, tiny shall bring to him 



N pel ikeneentach, they -lull bring to us 
K'petakenewotech, the) shall bring to you 
Pi 1 iwawanewotsch, they shall bring to them. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



Present 



Petamichtitr, whin or if they bring to me 
i 1 inne, « hen or it thej bring >.. thee 

Petawachtite, when •" U thej bring to him 



.nkc, when Of if they bring to raj 
!'• taqueque, when *>r il they bring t<> \-"i 
Pi tawawai hut. when or U thej bring i" them 



I'nti 1 Ue. 



Petamichtitnp, when or if they brought to me 
1 . jrannupi whenor 11 the) brought i" thee 
Pelawachtitop, srhen «r U thej brought to bun 



nlcup, m hen or it Ihej * to us 

lekup, w bill <>} 11 r -. .hi 

I'ri i» iwachtitup, srhen or 11 thej brought to 
them. 



I'htjn 1 h 1 1. 



Petamichtitpanne, when or if tiny bad brought 

P panne, when •■< it thej bad brought 

to thi 

IVuu.H'hiiipanin-, srhen "' ii the) b.i.l brought 
to him 



renkp inne, srhen 01 it Ihej b id 1 

Petakeyekpanne, when "< 11 Ihej b 
to j 

iwbi btltp mne, srhen ••> 11 Ihej h id 
brought to them. 



1'iiliirr. 



Pel ■ .'. 01 it they shall btfa 

me 
i yannebjch, when or ii they -bill brim; in 

thee 

PetdH.1cht1l.srl1, when or it tin) -lull brum In 

him 



Petaquenketfeh, when or ii Ihey -bill bring t<. 
us. 

equetscb, when ..r II thej ita ill b 
you 

u ichtltach, h|h 11 . / ii thi \ in ill bring to 

lb. 111 



220 GRAMMAR OP THE LANGUAGE 

[eighth conjugation.] 



Note by the Translator. — In another part of this Grammar, the follow- 
ing partial forms of this verb are given : 



INDEFINITE TRANSITION. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present. 

N'peschogun, one brings to me I N'peschoguneen, one brings to us 

K'peschogun, one brings to thee i K'peschguwa, one brings to you 

Peschogol, one brings to him | Peschguwawak, one brings to them. 



ANIMATE FORM.— FIRST TRANSITION. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present. 



N'pesehuwa, I bring to him 
K'peschuwa, thou bringest to him 
Peschuwa, he brings to him 



N'peschuwaneen, we bring to him 
K'peschuwanewo, you bring to him 
Peschuwawak, they bring to him. 



This last form is only used when speaking of animals, as for instance, 
nenayunges n'pesehuwa, I bring the horse to him*. 

No. II. 
Olhatton or Wulatton, to have or possess something or have it in one's custody. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 
Present. 

Olhatton or wulatton, to have or possess. 

Preterite. 

Olhattonep or wulattonep, to have had or possessed. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Present. 

Nolhattonecn or nulattoneen, we have or possess 
Kolhattonewo or kulattohhumo, you have or 



Nolhatton or nulatton, I have or possess 
KolhattOD "i kulatton, thou bast or dost possess 
Olhatton or wulatton, he has or possesses 



possess 
Olhattonewo or wulattonewo, they have or pos- 
sess. 



* Note by the Translator. — This is all that is said in this grammar respecting the animate and 
inanimate forms of the verbs, which distinction is very general in the language. The following 
veili, olhatton, i^ in the inanimate form. In the animate ii is olhalla. Nenayunges nolhallau, l 
have a horse (a horse 1 have him). See lleckew. Corresp. p. 4o*. 



OF THE I.ENNf JXNVPE INDIANS. 

ill i .i\. n G \TlnN. ] 



s a i 



JJolh ittoDet'p or nuhttonep, I bad 

B Btl mi culattou i, thou hadsl 

OIll.lll'H; ji.17 Vtlll.itlullep, he had 



s mtsi in. I shall li IVB 

B ' " ''< have 

< nhattontschi, be iball have 



Preterite. 



NoJhattonenakup or nulatfonenap, ivi-li.nl 

ibhumoap you bad 
Olhattonewoakup m wulattonewoap, the) bad 



Future. 



NolhattoDeeAUchi we iball bare 
Kolhattonewotsch, \..<< ihatl have 
c Uhattonewot* h, Ihi > lhall bava. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



Present. 

s Wulhaitol, lvil.iitol. have, keep, preserve 

Plur. Wulhattook, wulattook, do you have, 
keep, 



Future. 

^^ >ii ittakctBch, he i. ahall have, keep. 

ei ve 
Plur. Wulattschitetsch, they must, ahall have 

keep, pre* 



SI BJU-NCTIVE MOOD. 



I 'result. 



Sul. in iwak, when or if I have 
Kulattawonne, when or u Ihou l> ist 
Wulaltaque, when or if he have 



Nul ittawakup, when er if 1 hail 
Kui itt.iuoiiiuip, when or if limn hadsl 
ikup, when or ii he bad 



Nulattayenke, when or if we have 
w ulattayeque, *\ ben 01 11 . du have 
N\ iii.iuuclitiir, when 01 it tnaj have. 



Preterite. 



kpanne, when or il I had had 
iwoopanne, when or ii thou hadsl bad 
Wulattakpanse, when or if I bad had 



Nulatrakenkup, when or If w« bad 

w ill im.i. pi. k ip, *\ ben "i ii ymi h id 
rYulattochUtup, when oj U the] bad. 



Pluperfect. 

Sul irtawenkpanoe, when or If wal 

u alattaijuekpanne, when 01 ii 

W olattocbdtpanne, when or U the] lud had. 



Tin Future 
Is formed from the present as alum m. mi i< >rni I 



\ 1.1. ITU 1 FORM. 



INDICATIVE MOOD 



Preterit. 

kul.iitoui, mil.ittowi 
I'lur. Nolatlowaneeo, kubittowttihliiM, 
towun 



Preterite. 



Nulattowtp, knlal owlp, irolaNowfp 

/'/hi Nul itii , kuhutowihhl 

laltciHiim •»•■ 



VOL. III. 3 K 



322 



GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 
[eighth conjugation.] 



Future. 

Sing. Nulattowitsch, kulattowitsch, wulatto- I Plur. Wulattowunnentsch,kulattowihhirnotsch. 
witsch wulattowunewotsch. 



The other Moods are not given. 



In the same manner with this verb the following are conjugated with 
very little variation. 

Poniton, to let something be or remain. 

Pakiton, to throw away. 

Palaton, to earn, to acquire. 

Nipachton, to raise or set up something, as a 

post or pole. 
Nitaton, to do or he able to do something. 
Niskiton to dirty, to bewray. 
Schellachton, to hang up. 
Pagachtschaton, to fill. 
Logillachton, to tear, to destroy. 
Hatton, to place or fix something. 
Gaton, to conceal, hide. 
Apachtschiechton, to display, to spread, to setf. 



Maniton, to make*. 

Wuliton, to make something well. 

Palliton, to spoil something, to do it wrong. 

Matschiton, to do mischief. 

Kschiechton, to wash, clean. N'gieschiechton, 

kischiechton, guschiechton, I clean, thou 

cleanest, he cleans, or I wash, &c. 
Gischiton, to make, prepare something. N'gis- 

chiton, I prepare, has all the tenses, but not 

the personal forms. 
Pakantschiechton, to fulfil, complete. 
Pakandhatton, to repair something, to make it 

whole. 



* Note by the Translator. — From this word probably comes manitto, manitou, God, the crea- 
tor, the maker. Patamawos, another name for God, comes from pataman, to pray ; the one to 
whom we pray. 

•f JVote by the Translator. — In the original manuscript there is in this place a number of para- 
digms of verbs and parts of verbs not classed under their different conjugations, but mostly belong- 
ing to the first. In the translation which I made for the Philosophical Society I iuserted them un- 
der the head of additional verbs. On examining them afterwards more closely, I found several 
were deficient in moods and tenses, and were clearly considered by the author only as materials 
to be made use of in a revision of his work. Among them were repetitions of verbs already given, 
but in some respects more complete, containing moods and tenses, which in the first examples 
were wanting. It will be seen in the verbs, particularly of the first conjugation, that they are not 
all carried through their different voices, forms, moods, and tenses, so that one often supplies the 
deficiencies of the others. If the author had lived, it is probable that he would have brought his 
work to a greater degree of perfection. This I could not undertake to do: but I thought it unne- 
cessary to swell this grammar with these additional verbs and fragments of verbs thus inserted with- 
out order or method. I therefore left out all that belonged to the first conjugation, already full 
enough, contenting myself with extracting what was wanting in the first paradigms, in order to 
complete them as much as possible. Of the other additional verbs I have inserted two or three 
under their proper conjugations, leaving out the remainder, which 1 am satisfied was not intended 
to remain in its present form. 



OF THE LENNI LENAPE INDIANS. 
[OF \ EBBS.] 







IRREGULAR VERBS, 



OR, VERBS THAT ARE DEFICIENT IN PERSONS <>R TENS1 S 



.Vote by the Translator. — These are chiefly of the class which we rail 
impersonal; but the] do not all belong t<> it. as will be Been by the es 
amples. Th( refore the denomination of the author has been preserved 

( )f those which an- called irregular 111 the ancient ami modern languages 

of Europe, that i- to -ay, ot' which the several tenses ami n Is appi 

to have sprung from different roots, as in Latin awn, cram, fui. in French 
i///</-. j( vais, j'irai. and in English I go, I went, he gives no examples; 
and probably there are none in this language. It is a fact worthy of 
some attention. Among the examples the author had included some of 
the adjective verbs hereafter mentioned, which we have transferred to 
their proper head. 



EXAMPLES OF IRREtU I.AR VERBS. 



Soke) an, it rains 

mrep, it rained 
Sokelantschi, it will rain 
Solcelanke, it it tain* 
Si.k.'l.mki'iM It. when it will rain 

SokeUnkpanna, if it bad rained. 

K'-rlill.iti, It r.mi- h.tr. I 

K'flchilaneepi n r.iim-i) barf 

Popetelan. it mini now and then, by -hower*, 

Popetelanop, it rained mm md ttien 
Uhacquot, ii lin i exti ndil 

a large surface r.t country) 
tchkikalaD, it elects. 

it -now" 
W in. .-[., it mowed 

w hi htechf, it w ill -now 

w ioeke, it or « hen it -now* 
u inekpanne, it >' bad mowed 

Topan, i' freeze* .i whib 
Topanecp, it did freeze i wbid 



K'scb ik hi, ili.- wind blown hard 
l\ it bakaneep, the wind bk w barf 
K'achachinke, *\ ben 01 a it bio \ hard 
Inn-, eou ii' kachakan, it will Mow 

hard 
ApitchanehelleUi it blow - i eontran j wind 

(pitch , they bare itiary wind 

In. ii. the wind coma from i.i pa tl 

Wini.!-. benneep, the wind did come from, 
Wnndachinke, when <n II the wind i 

Mowbhaquat, th< up, Ii getunf 

from ii ■ 
Mo chbaqu u bleep, the rivei eli 1 ed np 

M k . ili.- m .-I drift 

M . 1 1 i.|Miri lirn. the wall i i- IhlIi 
m . h "('ii' i I" Dei p, thi wate waa 
m - J. iqi i. ■ hinke, win n of the watei i- h 
juti chinkp .inn', when "i a tl" 

>>, h,,.! t .-.ii In^li 

I ien, the watei if wing 

ilecbeneep, llM ^ iti i waa >■ ring, 



Yitr by the Trantlalnr— Tln« Wrorf la compounded "I Utmtt •••■ ■ 
iture lerminalioo tsch. 



- - 



I • ■ LA Si 

I 



i ■ 



■ 

•rr kiV 









Ik 



'•-..-..- • .••-,•" — . w.-..-t. : 
.7 wvo 






• ?»« « tdke*. 



\ 






■ 


■■■ 




■ 
• 






— — 
N rat I wStoekfe 

■ 





■ 





i 






- 






i 







- 




- . 




- 1 




" • 












> 








1 




- 









ft 



■ 



' -!£ ' • 



. . 







i 



OF THE LEKNI LENAPfi INDIANS. 

| in \ I Illis. ] 

OF ADJECTIVE \ ERBS 



Able by tin Translator. — The authoi observes In re thai li«' hi sitati ii 
long whether he should class adjectives bj themselves 01 include them 
all under the head of verbs. On the one hand he could no) but observe 
thai there are in this language pure adjectives, which receive different 
forms when employed in the vi rbal Bense, Buch as umlit, wuKk, umhsto, 
good, handsome, preltj ; irulilis.su, he, she, or ii is g I, pretty, <>r hand- 
some, :irnl several others of which the author i:i\> - examples, a< li.r in- 
stance (Class I.) in tabbeleechen, Bparkling, glittering, whence sabbeleu, 
it sparkles, glitters, llui these are nol verj numerous. A great Dumber 
of them are impersonal verbs in the third person of the singular of the 

present tense, while others are conjugated through va - persons, moods, 

and tenses, as appears fi the following examples. Be determined, at 

last, after presenting a few under the head of adjectives, above page 103, 
to include them all in ;i lisl of verbs of this description, which the Trans- 
lator has called adjective ueros, as he has denominated adverbial verb* 
those « hich are formed by <>r derived from them. 1 1 is to !»■ regretted that 
Che venerable missionarj ilul not more particularly distinguish the pure 
adjectives from the others, and did not enter more full) into this subject 
1 1 i- most certain thai all the adjectives of the Delaware language are not 
verba ; but a rule or principle of discrimination is wanting, and the Trans 
lator cannot undertake to establish it. 

The Author here exhibits ;i li-t of adjective verbs, divided into < l< \> □ 
classes according to their termination, which in the three lii*i is that "i 
tin- iliinl |" rson singular of the indii ative mood ol the firs) conjugation. 
Tin first is in eo; the Becond in vox; the third in uoi 0; the fourth in on 
r, r mi : the fifth m at. at; the sixth in to; the seventh in i; the eighth in 
it. ik. it: the ninth in en; the tenth in <" 01 on; and the eleventh in in, 
This last appears to belong to the first conjugation, and ii- t< rmination 

i- thai of the infinitive m I. It is conjugated through sev< ral moods, 

persons, ami tenses. 

UMECT1VI VERB! 

. I. I - - I 

' last l In i u. 

It b) I Mi j kacbl iol ».irm 

B ■ p, ii mi * I Atla t-i -initi'Hi|i. ii mi n"i •■■ 



• \ *...*»■ 1,11 thi Trmulator I 

101 i 

heir thee not, md ■• 

VOL. 111. i I. 



336 



GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

[adjective verbs.] 



Kineu, it is sharp 
Kineep, it was sharp. 

Guneu, long (it is) 
Guneep, it was long 
Guneuchtschi, it will be long. 

Kschiecheu, clean (it is) 
Kschiecheep, it was clean. 

Machkeu, red (it is) 
Machkeep, it was red. 

M'cheu, big, large 
M'chap, it was big. 

Gachteu, dry 
Gachteep, it was dry. 

Teu, it is cold 
Teep, it was cold 
Teuchtschi, it will be cold. 

Poquihilleu, it is broken 
Poquihilleep, it was broken. 

Pimeu, pimiecheu, oblique 
Pimihilleu, it is oblique 
Pimihilleep, it was oblique. 

Pisgeu, it is dark 
Pisgeep, it was dark. 

Takpeu, wet, damp 
Takpeep, it was wet 
Takpeuchtschi, it will be wet. 

Winkteu, winkteek, it is quite done, boiled 
Winkteep, it was boiled 
Winkteke, if or when it is boiled. 

Wisaweu, wisaweek, yellow. 

Waktscheu, crooked. 

Woapeu, white 
Woapeleechen, it appears white. 

Suckeu, black 

Suckeleecheu, it appears black 

Suckeep, it was black. 

Wtackeu, soft, delicate 
Wtackeep, it was soft, delicate 
Wtackeuchtschi, it will be soft, delicate. 

Acheweu, bushy. 

Achgamcu, broad 
Achgameeke, if it waji broad. 



Achgiguwen, to be lively, jocular 
N'gagiguwe, I am lively 
Kagiguwe, he is lively 
N'gagiguweneen, we are lively 
Kagiguwenewo, you are lively 
Achgiguwewak, they are lively. 

Achginche, to be quick of hearing 
N'gaginche, I am quick of hearing 
Kaginche, thou art quick of hearing 
Achgincheu, he is quick of hearing 

Achgumeu, dull cloudy weather. 

Gischachteu, it is clear, light 
Gischachteep, it was clear 
Gischachteke, if or when it was clear 
Gischachtekpanne, if it had been clear 

Gischhatteu, it is ready 
Gischhatteep, it was ready 
Gischhatteke, if it was ready 
Gischhattekpanne, if it had been ready. 

Gischuteu, warm, lukewarm 
Gischuteep, it was lukewarm 
Gischuweu, it is warm 
Gischuweep, it was warm 
Gischuweuchtsch, it will be warm. 
Gischuweke, if it was warm 

Kschillandeu, it is hot (weather) 
Kschillandeep, it was hot 
Kschillandeke, it it was hot. 

Moschachgeu, bald, bare 
Moschantpeu, bald headed. 

Pimochqueu, turned, twisted. 

Sabbeleu, it sparkles, glitters 
Sabbeleecheu, sparkling, glittering. 

Schauwutteu, it is faded 
Schauwutteep, it was faded 
Schauwutteke, when or if it is faded. 

Wapaneu, easterly 
Wundchenneu, westerly 
Lowaneu, northerly 
Schawaneu, southerly 
Gachpatteyeu, south easterly. 

Tibbilleu, it is cool (the meat) 
Tihhille, I am cool (after being heated) 
Tihhilleu, he is cool. 

Tschitaneu, strong (it is) 
Tschitaneep, it was strong 
Tschitaneke, if it was strong 



UF THE LENNI LENAPE INDIANS. 

| M.iKi i i\ y \ i nit-. J 



687 



Waseleu, woacheyeu, clear, light. 

Wtackaneu, if la mild (weather) 

Wtmckaneke, when it i- mild 

i mop, it w.ci mild 
Wtackaneuchtsch, it will be mild. 

Achgepinque, to be blind 

INDICATIVE MOOD 

PRESENT TOTS! 

S n ^ular. 
N'iracepinque, | am blind 
k epinque, thnu art blind 
I inqoe, he la blind 

Plural. 
N u ,p pinqueneen, we are blind 
K rpinqiicncwo, you are blind 
Achgepinquewak, they are blind 

PRETERITE TENSE. 

Singular. 
N'gagepinquep, ! was or have been blind 
Eaeepinquep, tbou wast or heal been blind 
Achgepinquep, he was or has been blind 

Plural. 
N'sragrpinquep, we were 01 have been blind 
Kacepinquenewoap, you were or have hern blind 
Achgepinqucwapannil, they were or have been 
blind. 

Achgepchoan, to be deaf 
\ _■ pchoa, I am deaf 
B boa, thou art deaf 

Achgepcheu, he is deaf. 

Achsinnigeu, stony, stony land. 

P ill- dark ( night) 

PI ■ ■• ip, 11 n .- .lark 
Achwipiskea, quite dark 
Achwipiskcep, it was quite dark 

Ifemeedi iltio, to be barefooted 

N'menn-rbaiiin. I am barefooted 

K'ni'-iiifrbaitin, thou a;' 

M. in. . rbxiii I), he is barefooted. 

\|. -it.h. y"'U, whole, entire. 

Pagatschateu, full, to till. 

P.-ni'iir.Ti. dry 

II, if is dry 
I', nipiihilleep, it «as dry. 



Pikihhilleu, h Is mm 

l'lkibblllii|i. il was lorn. 

Pun. ii bt. 'bmpii'.%]uiiit eyed 

Pimarhtelinipleu, he I- squint eyed. 

PoquibJlleu, ii is broken 

Poquibilli'i-p, ii was broken. 

Chitqueu, chuppecat, deep water 
Chuppeachtop, it irasdeep water. 

Schacb ■ light, ■ V'N 

\\ -.lii. ben, wHcharhan. -mooth, glossy 
\\ -rb arlubillni, 11 i- -inn. )lb, lloai] 

Wschachihilleep, il mi -nnmth, glossy. 

Schaawlpachteu, II i- Elded 
Scbaawipachteep, II « >- laded. 

Tachanigeu, woody, full of wood 
Taarhaingeep, il was woody. 

Tonquihilleu, it is open. 

Tsachgihilleu. it is torn off 
TschachpihiUeep, it was torn off. 

Tschetschpihilleu, split, broken off 

T-rhrl-t 'hpihillewall, they are split 

i che i'bpibii]i'i'|i, ii mi -phi. 

Wulelcinileu, it is womb 

\\ iililt'inileep, it was wonderful 

Theae words an- eom| nded from irulelt- 

mclrnilum I wonder, and /( u u is so. 

Scappeu. il i- are) 

w.ii. id. \ are wel (epeeking of ihlnga) 
Bcapewak, (hay art- arel ins) 

Wolamoe, he leyi boa or the troth 
R unoyUj u is triir, right 

Kut.i e, lb. hi ail Midi'. •- rl 

n\ mI i he '- right 

Null iirtii, are are tight 

kill aiii'iibbii nght 

\\ uhunovraka tiny ire right. 

ii. in ii lb] . Iliil'IdV 
i ■ lkll\i|. .b-. | 

w id ipej ii. hODOQftble, upright. 
v\ oakiyeyu, II i- Den 
Mycyu, it is old. 



-228 



GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

[adjective verbs.] 



9 Class II. 

Contains only the pure adjectives in wi. which see above page 104. 



Class III. — In u or o. 



Schahacbgekhasu, long, straight, striped. 

Sassapeekhasu, speckled. 

Psacquilchasu, crucified (he is) 
Psacquitchasoop, he was crucified. 

Wiyagaskau, fickle. 

Wtacksu, soft, tender, supple. 

Wschewinaxu, wschewinaquot, painful. 

Waliechtschessu, puchtschessu, hollow (a tree). 

Tachpachaxu, little, mean. 

Schiphasu or schipenasu, spread out, extended, 
from schiphammen, to spread, extend 

Schipenasike, when it is stretched, spread out, 
extended 

Schipenasop, it was stretched, spread out, ex- 
tended. 

Piselisso, it is wrinkled 

Piselid tulpe, a large sea tortoise, so called be- 
cause its shell is soft and its skin wrinkled. 

Pimochkhasu, stirred, moved 
Pimochkhasoop, it was stirred, moved 
Pimochkhasike, if it was stirred, moved. 

Machtu, machtitso, bad 

Machtitso sipo, a bad creek (to cross) 

Machtitsoop, it was bad. 

Machtississi, thou art ugly, dirty looking 
Machtississu, he is ugly, dirty looking. 

Gischatnbeso, bound. 

Aschukiso, to be poor, worth nothing, to be a 

beggar 
N'daschuki, I am poor 
K'daschuki, thou art poor 
Wdaschuku. he is poor 
Aschukiso, one who is poor 
W'daschukuwak, they are poor 
\scbiikoop, to have been poor 
Mote. — Although the Indians often apply this 



word to themselves, yet it is an insult if applied 
to them by another. 

Wulisso, good, handsome 
Wulilissin, to be good 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT TENSE. 

Singular. 
Nulilissi, I am good 
Kulilissi, thou art good 
Wulilissu, he is good 

Plural. 
Wulilissihummena, we are good 
Wulilissihimo, you are good 
Wulilissowak, they are good 

PRETERITE TENSE. 

Singular. 
Nulilissip, I was good 
Kulilissip, thou wert good 
Wulilissop, he was good 

Plural. 
Nulilissihummenakup, we were good 
Kulilissihummoakup, you were good 
Wulilissopannik, they were good. 

Walhasu, buried (he is). 

Tschingalsu, stiff, unbending. 

Papesu, patient. 

Messiau, naked. 

Sopsu, soopsu, naked, from sopsin, to be naked 

Messissu, whole. 

Lusasu, burned 
Lusasike, if it was burned. 

Linxasu, melted 
Linxasike, if it was melted. 

Leekhasu, lekhasik, it is written 
Leekhasoop, it was written 
Klekhasik, as appears written. 



OF THE LENNI LENAPE INDIAN-. 
[ADJECTIVE \ EBBS. ] 






Kj skhaau, stopped 

>p, i! im -lopped 
Kpahasike, if it wj> slopped. 

-i-u.diied. 

Wapsii) white 

in white 
. thou art white 
W white 

il i- white 

I I, a while person 

W -ihik, the white people. 

Auchzu, wild, untractabh — 

This i* said nl ipplicd to men it 

means avaricious, difficult to deal with, hard, 

Wiau, fat i !. 
Wisop, be n 



Kiliu-'j. Gtoi 

nine i- -li a] ' uah 

■ 

Kihneop, he baa bei d ih up, jealotB 

\- li 
Vkihn-i in Getaonhowit, I am ■ jealous ' ■ 

Winn, it i- ripe, lit to eat: a» tor instance, th< 

Indian com 

:i II i- rip. 

Winoop, it \\ 

\\ inuchtschi, it will be 

Aloku, If ui. 

Wipiechku, rotten wood. 

Windaan, menti id, named 

[i ii was mentioned, nami 
Windasop, il was mem ioi 
lutscb, it will be mi 



< lass II '. — In on or an. 



Schwoo, 

Schwonnoop, it was -alt tasted, sour. 

Acbewon, strong, spirituoua 

Ariiewontiuop. il n i- strong, -piiituous. 

Kschuppan, blunt, dull. 

on, hard, difficult 

nool, they arc hard (thin. 

I v ('hings) 

noop, it was easy. 



Thitpan, bitter. 

to eat 
Winganool, they wan uim.l tasted, good to eat, 
(apples, &c.) 

i ..hi. thii k | i board, plank) 
ikjato, thick i i kin, hi 

Wlquon, dull, blunl 

'hill. 

I D, dry 

lYiiipiihhiUru h..ki. the earth la 



Clats l'. — In ui. at. 



yiot.lame. 

Ipuat, eaaj (to 
Ipuati 

(Till 

mrpiol. a blind man Ot person. 
■ II. 
Achpcipiot, WOuni 

VOL. III. 1 U 



Arh"U It, I 

M ihr 

I 

i 

A_\.,ii.' 



330 



GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

[adjective verbs.] 



Class VI. — In to. 



Chawaehto, dear (it is) 

Talawachto, how dear is it r how much docs it 
cost i 

Apuawachto. cheap, from apuat. easy. 

Achgepchoa, deaf. 



Tepawachto, from tepi, enough, and c'mca- 
tcachto, a just, equitable price, it is not too 

Jem . 

Tangawachto, cheap, low priced. 



Class VII— In i. 



Wuski, new. 



Amangi, great, big, huge 

Amangewall, (narnesssd), the fishes are large. 



Macbeli, m'chelit, much, imnj 
Machelook, they are many 
Machelopannik. they were many. 



Class VIII. — In it. ik, et. 
Mcquit mequik, m'hocquik, bloody. 
Maechgilik, m'chakgilik, the great, the big. 
Machtit, bad (it is), 
Wulit, good 



Wulittol, they are good 
Wulittoop, it was good. 

Alett. rotten 

Alettot. they are rotten. 



Machkalet, they are rusty, from machkeu. red. 



Waseleechen. it is clear, light. 
Tschitaniechen, it is strong. 



Class IX. — In en. 

Waktschiechen, the road is crooked. 
Tsetschpiechen. it is separated. 



Achewiechen, strong, spirituous : as for instance, 
strong lie. 

M.ichkeleechcn, red. 

Wapeleechen, white. 



Tenktseherhen. it is open (say. the door). 
Tauwiechen. it is open (the way thithei ) 

Tacquiechen, joined together 
Psacquiechen, close together. 

Pequiechen, broken to pieces 



Class X. — in en. on, urn. 



Tacquatten. frozen (it is) 

Tacquattenol, the potatoes, £cc. are frozen 



Pret. Sing. Tacquattenop. it was frozen 

Plur. Tacquattenopannil, they were frozen 



1 1 re i • 






k poMeaa) .• »n fcaaita 

k ;..---• ■ » j. be i 



Tr p^ii. * m ape, J 



TepfaaML *r» a* Uf aye. ii * ■■* 



- . 



C1o*« XJ — / 



^mrE mood. 



/-S.-:- 



• E MOOD. 




Ik 



nraurnn hood 






«CB# : ■•OOD 



■? *» (hi he* acfc 








•riiit MOOD. 
■,»»«»— M.I 01). ■*>< 



233 



GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

[OF ADVERBS.] 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT TENSE. 

Singular. 

Nulelensi, I am proud 
Kulelensi, thou arl proud 
Wulelensu, he is proud 

Plural. 
Wulelensihummena, we are proud 
Kulelensihummo, ye are proud 
Wulelensowak, they are proud. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Tschitanessin, to be strong 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

PBESENT TENSE. 

Singular. 
N'tschitanessi, I am strong 
K'tschitanessi, thou art strong 
Tschitanessu, he is strong 

PRETERITE TENSE. 

Singular. 

N'tschitanessihump, I was strong 
K'tschitanessihump, thou wast strong 
Tschitanessop, he was strong. 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Schaxin,to be avaricious 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

.. PRESENT TENSE. 

Singular. 
N'schaxi, I am avaricious 
K'schaxi, thou art avaricious 
Schaxu, he is avaricious 

Plural. 
Schaxihtimmena, we are avaricious 
Schaxihhumo, ye are avaricious 
Schaxowak, they are avaricious. 

Ktemaxin, gettemaxin, to be poor, miserable. 

Soopsin, to be bare, naked 
Soophalan, to make one bare, naked. 



Poochpsin, to be weakly. 



Adverbs qualify the verb as adjectives qualify the substantive. They 
are the adjective of the verb. Hence adjectives proper are not un fre- 
quently used in an adverbial sense, as when we say in English he works 
hard. The same takes place in the Delaware where the same word is 
sometimes employed in the twofold capacity of an adjective and an 
adverb. 

In the following examples the adverbs are divided into classes for the 
facility of the student*. 



* Note by the Translator. — This short heading is not in the text ; but the division into 
classes has been made by the Author. It will be Been that several words which he includes in his 
lists are not properly adverbs, according to our notions of grammar; but it has not been thought 
proper to omit or transpose them, us the Author perhaps had reasons for placing them here, which 
the Translator will not undertake to judge of. 



OP THE LENNI LENAPE INDIAN-. 

[of adverbs.] 



233 



AI)\ i'.KI'.S. 



Tliese are of four kind 
Locum. 

1. Loci. 



[ Qf Place. 

1. Loci ; 2. De Loco; 3. .Id Locum : I. 



I'- 



Vim, here 

Icku, (alii, there 

N. in in- talli, cm'ii there 

1 chqni, this or th.it way 

I'.tlhwi. i Am v. 

Miami, .ill.unijiv. in there 

Mi.nnunque, uehtschegunque, within 

Wochgit-chik, woclikunk, above, at the top 

miachqui, on both sides 
Ta ? tani ? where ? 
Ta unilachqui ! where about* ? 
Taktani, be it who it may 
WCriiii ta li, every where 
Kotschemunk, without, abroad 
M.ittj ta, nowhere. 

Equiwi (hacking), under (the ground) 
Li, to, to the, thither 
Nada, yonder, to 

Peschot, peschotschi, peschuwat, near 
Wulik. yonder 
Yawi, on one side. 

2. De loco. 

Yununtschi, from hence, is used also for there- 
fore 

fcka untschi, nanne untschi, na untschiyeg, 
from thence 



T.i iint-.lii : where from? 
Wemi n untschi, from every where 
F.iili untschi, i ..in somewhere else 
Takta untschi when 

CVahhelemat, nu 
Gochpiwi, from tin' water. 

3. Ad locum. 
¥u undachqul, yuchuall, hither 
Ickali, thither 
l.nilj. whither 

Paw' undachqui : whither else ? 
Nanne undachqui ? towards where? 
Wti'lli-hiih.iw. ti i ii ink li, towards the right hand 
l.riniahawaiinink li, towards the light, to the 

right 
Kotschemunk, out of doors, out of this place 
w ,i|>.ih.itiiiiik, backwards, behind 
Pennassiechen, where the road goes slanting 

down a lull 
Menanschiwonink, to the left. 

i. Per locum. 
\ mi i m' tames) through here 

N ■ i.ilh (pomiechen uisj i". through there 

that waj 
Bchachachgeu, straight along 
Schachgiechtn, elemlecheo, along the road. 



H._ Of Tim. 



\ iK-ke, now, presently 

\ ncke ' gfschqoikj to day 

I i - hquik, this day past 

Ulaquc. veal 

Wulaqoike, last night 

u caniwi, in the evt 

Nischokunack it, two nights ago 

lo morrow 
Se<lpok, ay.iii.iwi-, to morrow n 
Wufaku, evening ( in the) 



ii i|in ke, << noon 

inlilll.i. In III*' .iftrrnoon 

rgauwitrl, tgauwiwi, slowly 

hi . ngemewi) \ anest I, alvt 
Lappi, 

i. likhiqul, ai ill times 
Likhiqut, about the time 
\ mkc Hkhlq .i. about tin- present lime 

Loamissowe, 



1'rrtnslntnr. — Pomicchrn, from ti walk. an. I 011.7. • "" ■'• ' " 'Iking 

road, a path. The Aullim here give! lui 1 \|il hi aUOD 111 1 1. 

VOL. III. 3 N 



33A 



GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

[of adverbs.] 



Wuski, a little while ago (this day) 

Wusken, latterly 

Gintsch, gentsch, gintsch linitti, a little while 

ago* 
Pecho, soon 

Pecho linitti, in a little time 
Loamoe, long ago 
Wtenk, afterwards 
Wtenkuntschi, thereupon 
Elemokunak, one of these days 
Elemi gendcwoacan, this week 
Elemi kechocunak, in a few days 
Metochimi, soon 
Schawi, immediately, directly 
Tschinge, when 
Esquo, esquota, nelema, nelemago, nelemala, 

not yet 



Aschite, then 

Yahtschi, quayaqui, yet 

Haschi, ever, at any time 

Atta haschi, ikaschi, never 

Tschigantschi, likhiqui, as soon as 

Tamse keechen, sometimes, now and then 

Tatamse, ametschimi, often 

Elgiqui ametschimi, so often 

Hilleu, commonly 

N'dauwat, rarely, seldom 

Amiga, long, a long time 

Petschi, until 

Yucke petschi, 'til now 

Anena, anenawi, by little and little, by degrees. 



III. — Of Number. 



Mawat, only one 
Nekti, the only one 



Whence nukti, once more 
Mamayauchsid, each one. 



IV.— 0/ quantity. 



Mecheeli, mecheltol, much 

Mecheelok, many 

Mechelgik, a great many 

Mechelit, much (applied to inanimate things) 

Husca, very 

Husca mecheli, very much 

Allowiwi, more 

Wsami, too much 

Tepi, enough 

Tatchittu, tatchen, little 

Kcechitti, a little 

Alende, some 

Ta keechc, some, a little 

Wiacki, in abundance 



Gunalachkat deep, (speaking of a hole, canoe, 

&c.) 
Chitqueu, deep water 
M'chaquiechen, high water (when it is swelled 

with rains) 
Guneu, long 
Achganeu, broad 
Cobachean, thick 
laquetto, short 
Sangettu, tangitti, small, little 
Wschappan, waskeyek, thin 
Mayauchsu, maurhstf, a person, one 
Happi, with it, in the bargain. 



V.— Of quality. 



Linaquot, elinaquot, elgiqui, so, so as 
N'delgiqui, so as 1 
R'delgiqui, so as thou 
W'delgiqui, so as he 



2;ood 



Pallilinaquot, otherwise. 

Wulit, wulinaqtiot, well, 

Mlowivvi wulit, better 

Elewiwulik mayawi wulit, best, the best 



* JVotc by the Translator. — There are undoubtedly shades of difference between these various 
expressions, bul the Author has not explained them, except in the instance of wuski, which is con- 
fined to i lir space of a day, 



OP THE LENNI EENAPE INDIANS. 

[or Ain kius-.J 



-.;:. 



Hu>k.i wulit, very well, very good 
Maclitii. in.ichtii-o, ill. bad 
Apuai, easy, easily i tome work to be done) 
Fjnga n , tight, ool heavy (speaking of weight) 
Ksuequon, hard, hardly 
Lilchpin, diligent (is a verb) 
Wingi, fain, willing!) 
Nawmgj, I bin (would, be.) 
Knwingi, thou Inn wouldst 
Wawingi, be bin would 
Wahsso, handsome 1 1- a verb) 
Lippoe, lupi oe, h isely 
1 1. right, rightly 

u, right, exact, correct 
v i, thin 

Schacbachgiecben, straight way 
Nutschque, in rain 
Schachachai, certain, certainly 
Leu. t tie 
Leunowinaquot, manfully 



Kind, secretly 
Moschiwi, clearly, openly 

Leppi, over .1- jiii 

*\ uunochki, among each other 

Meaitscheyen, wholly, entirely 

Nisi helene] . twofold 

Nacheleney, threefold 

Newelene) . fourfold 

i 'heveleleney, manifold 

rschitanek, last, si 

Schawi, immediately, directly 

Miechaninaquot, shameful 

l'i imiki, something, be it what it will 

Temilri koecu, something 

I »w I, Hi'- side 

W .-i-i'i. tii,' best i Sing | 
Welsitachik, the besl < I'lur.) 
Moschai I D, . not turbid 

Moschpecat. clear water 



VI. — Of Interrogation. 



Gachane, whether, if 

Quatscb, why 

Quatsch eet, why perhaps 

Koen untschi, for what reason or cause .' 

■i atta, «h\ n.ii 
T.i wo. ta undachqui, towards where? 

Lj -( i.i. whence, wherefrom ! 

Tchinge, when - 



Tacbingetacb (in the future) 

Ta liklmjiii, at what lime i 

Ta schacld, how lot 

Ta ni' liecken, hon i* it ? 

Ta linaqnot, what i~ ii like? 

Koen eet, what may il be 

Ta liatich (leu, how will it be .') 



Vll.— Of Similitude. 



Elsiqiii. a-, likn as 
N : _ iqui, I am like 
E'delgiqui, thou art like 



he Is Uke 
Mallacnacbe, like unto. 



Allowiwi, more 
Tschitscli, still more 



\ III. — Of Comparison. 

fl linaquo, linaquot, j< this, that, or (he 
rpiaqul, exactly so. 



I.W — OJ I', rh naion. 



huscaleek, very, very n 
\\ tellgiqui, so tnut U so 
Elgiqui, as much «o 
I M h, yet, -till 



I'.ikant-i in full) . entlrelj 



236 



GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

[of adverbs.] 



Tgauwitti, by little and little 
Gachti, almost, nearly 
Koechitti, a little 



X. — Of Diminution. 



Mingaclisa, a little better 

Schuk, only 

Schuk atta, but not, only not. 



Gohan, kehella, woak, yes 
Bischik, yes indeed 
Kitschiwi (leu) certainly, truly 
Kitschikele, yes it is true 



XI. — Of Affirmation. 



Nanne leu, it is certainly true 
Schachacki, certainly 
Huscateek, certainly true. 



XII. — Of Negation, Prohibition. 



Matta, atta, 'ta, no, not 
Atta am, 'ta am, not at all 
Atta haschi, no, never 
Katschi, let it alone, don't do this 
Matta tani, in no way 



Attago, by no means 

Ponito, let it alone (this is a verb) 

Atta ihaschi, not at all 

Atta ilewi, not at all true. 



XIII.— Of Doubt. 



Pit, piteet, eet, perhaps, may be 

Na eet, perhaps 

Taneek, perhaps I don't know 



Taktani, perhaps some where, I don't know 
where. 



XIV. — Of Demonstration. 



Sche, Schela, see there ! (a verb) 
Schepella, see there ! (a verb) 
Penna, loquel, see thou (a verb) 



Loqueek, see ye (a verb) 
Elinaquot, also, likewise 
Elgiqui, like that. 



Kitschiwi (leu) truly 



XV. — Of Asseveration. 

| Schachachki (leu), certainly true. 



Na schachki, so far 
Na yu pitschi, to here 



XVI . — Of Restriction. 



INachgiechen, contrary, against 
Psacquiechen, close to each other. 



OF THE LENNI LENAPE INDIANS. 

[of adverbs.] 



237 



Jukella, ah ! that (it were so) 



XVII.— Of Desire. 

| Ayema, if, if only (it were so). 



XVIII.— Of Exhortation. 



Gattati, (Sing.) well ! allons ! 

'• itook, i Plur. I n II ! aUom ! 

Wiscbekill, (Sing.) ou, briskly, go on with your 



work carefully, attentively. — Wischiksik. 
Wischiki, {Plur.) 



Tpettawe, all together 
Tachqi iwl, together 

Net hoh.i, alone 
N'gutleli, singly 



XIX. — Of Collection and Separation. 

N'gutteleneyachgat, a single one 
I. urn, secretly 
T-i'm i. t-|i.it, separately 
Mnwuui, assembled, 



XX. — Of Exclusion. 



Schuk, Schukend, only 
TVpat, strange, unusual 
fill, another 



Miguipili, otherwise 
Palliwi, elsewhere. 



XXI— Of Order. 

N r, n'hitam, netamiechink, first, in the first Nechink, the third time 



place 

N I ink, in the second place 
Lappi, again, once more 



Wti-nk untschi, thereupon, afterwards 
Ickalin, iurlller 
Wtenk, lastly, at l.i i 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF ADVF.RHS. 



Amies, long 

Ahm.-i. \v. ,'ind, over, Ihc other -ide 

V no 
Allaiiiuuk. allamunque, allarni, iHameyey, lie re. 

in, in 

Al* tele, some 
Aleodemiyeek, <ome of you 

Alendemiyenk, -"ii I 

Ah ii' 1 ome "I them 

Apitschi, by and by 

VOL. III. 3 O 



Abtachi, alw 

il ,n drat 
luween, st fm, somebody 
Uta k. eku, nothing 
\i,n.i»i, anenawi, by little and linle 

' l Ml. Mil- |1 

Alacqui, 'tis pity 

Auk, when (., condldonal conjunction sin 
to i erbf ) 

I no means 

Attach, moreover 



338 



GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

[of adverbs.] 



Alappa, to morrow 

Awossi, over there, the other side 

Awossake, behind the house 

Awossenachk, that side of the house 

Awossachterme, over the hill, over there 

Alod, there, yet 

Atta haschi, never 

Atta auween, no body 

Auweeni, who is it ? 

Auweenik, who are they ? 

Achgameu, over against 

Achparni, about. 

B. 

Bischi, bischik, yes, willingly. 

C. 

Chuppecat, deep, high water 
Chitqueu, deep water 
Chweli, much 
Chwelit, much (water, meal). 

E. 
Eschiwi, through 
Elemameek, every where 
Eet, perhaps 
Endchen, so often as 
Endchi, so much as 
Endchiyenk, as much as we have 
Endchiyeek, as much as ye have 
Endchichtit, as much as they have 
Esquo, esquota, not yet 
Elgiqui, so as, like 
Eli, while 

Eligischquik, to day 
Ehelikhicqui, at which time 
Ekee, ay ! 
Ekayah, ay ! ay ! 
Es, yet 
Eliivi, both 

Elemiechink, long (on the way) 
Eliuquechin, before me, before my eyes 
Elinquechinan, before thee, before thy eyes 
Elinquechink, before him, before his eyes 
Elinquechinink, before us, before our eyes 
Elinquechinoak, before you, before your eyes 
Elinquechcnhittit, before them, before their eyes 
Enda, where 
Equiwi, under. 

G. 

Gamunk, over there, over the water 

Gohan, yes 

Gachti, almost, close by 

Gintsch, gaschene, if 

Ginlsch linitti, directly, presently 

Gunawekc, yet a while 



Giechgi, near, by 

Gatti, gachti, gagachti, near, almost 

Gunih, a long while 

Gopene, about, thereabouts 

Gahan, shallow (water). 

H. 

Husca, much 
Huscateek, very much 
Hackung, above 
Hacking, under 
Haschi, ever, at any time. 

I. 

Ickali, ikali, thither 
Ickatalli, there, over there 
lcka, there 

Ickalitti, a little way farther 
Hi, though. 



Kitschiwi, certainly 

Kehella, yes 

Kotschemund, out 

Ktschimine, as soon as 

Keeku, something 

N'telli, that I ! 

K'telli, that thou ! 

W'telli, that he ! 

Keechitti, a little 

Keechi, keecha, how much ? 

Kechoak, kechowak, how many of them? (speak- 
ing of persons) 

Keechennol, how many of them ? (speaking of 
inanimate things) 

Keechihhimo, how many of you ? 

Keechihhena, how many of us ? 

Katschi, no, no, let it alone 

Kceku wuntschi, why ? 

Kimi, secretly. 



Lappi, again 
Likhicqui, as, so as 
Likhicquiechen, so as 
Li, to (some place) 
Lawat, long ago 
Lannitti, a little while 
Linaquot, as, like 

Linaquachtop, (Pret.) it was so, like 
Linaquachtool, they are like (speaking of inani- 
mate tilings) 
Lelawi, half way 
Luqui, at this time. 



OF THE LENNI LENAPE INDIANS. 

[of adverbs.] 



239 



M. 

Matta, mattago, no 
Miqui, far, fai off 
Miqui palliwi, quite different 
M.Mu-wi, iu ,i particular place 

hi, already 
Metschimi, soon, presently 
Mi. Eheie, there it is 
Mayawi, alone, simple, ri^t 1 1 
Mayauchsu, rnauchsu, one alone 

wat, iniw.tt, one, only one (of inanimate 
tilings) 
Mingach<u. better 
M ill ichsche, as it. a-< it were 
Mcchingui, large, big 
M lucnsit, one alone 
Megungi, purely, quite alone 
M. iii.LY.i'uii-iv< nk. each of us 
M eki uiechink, on earth. 

N. 
N hogunakat, two nights (days) ago 
Nischogunakhacke, within two days 
Nissahwi, by night 
Naehpi, with 

N'hittami, ni^ani, at first, the first 
Neehoha, alone 

Nihillatschi, self, one's own person 
Nado, therein 

N'gemeewi, .dways, constantly 
N i. I (do, say, &c.) thus or 90 
K't. Hi, thou dost thus or so 
W't, Hi, he does thus or so 
N entschi, therefore 
Na tchi, so much 
Nail ne tchi, it is so much, that is all 

• hi, from thence 
Nachwcna, thereupon, after 
Nagayeek, by and by 
V Igewitti, in a little while 
Nutscbque, in vain 
Nahik, under the water 
N ibiwi, above the water 
Nutchen, oolttcheD, tb.it is all 
Nutschi, at the beginning 

.v,it. rare, i 
N i, nclemago, not yet 

N i, tin- Gral 
N'hittami, al first 
*^ 

N. ill link, uallahiwi, the water here above 
N i. the only one, single 
\ go ilia 

N'titechta, Q Utechquo, tin ID, while, 

P 

I . soon 

Pechun >t. peclruwiwl, near 

Pechoi~i In. ranch more 



Pel i in. 'til theie, to nu 

Palliwi, elsewhere 

IVki, perhaps then 

I'm. i'lini, perhaps 

Pai i inUebli fully, enough 

Poquen i ht n ay, directly 

Pill, other, another 

I'ili keeku, something else 

I'ili auween, somebody else 

hi, half, the hall 
Hitachi, unwilling)] 

Q 

Quatsrli. wh\ 

Qual icheet, why perhaps i 

Quonna, however, uevertfc 

(^iiniui lurt-rb, it will he indifferent 
Quayaqui, yet, yet more 
Quin, long 
Quenek, short. 



Sayewi, at first 

Schawl, immediately 

Schi, schita, or 

Sbacki, so Ear as 

Si-ki, so long 

Schuk, oidy, but 

Schukand, but then 

Sedpok, to iiniiuiw morning 

Schepage, (Pret.) this day early 

Schigi, pretty 

Sche, icbela, see there 

Schiogi, unwillingly 

Cfacbingi, I (do ill unwillingly 

E x i ingi, tb lost it unwillingly 

Wachingi.he doesil unwillingly 
Bch ichachki, certainly 
Schachachgek,jujl 

T. 
Tschigantschi, full, enough, all 
TangittJ, small, little 
Taquetto, tangi tto, short 

i' ii-bt ii'in .in, thick, steep i i bill i 
Tacbqulwi, together 

a iwi, betwi 
Tepl, em 
i ogle one ( thing) 

ikeeku, i angle tiling 
: i hen I 

I ,i in. 
1 

ion 

I on? 

ii 
Tawonnf, although 
I amee, sometimes 
Tachhunae, noit aud then, often 



240 



GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

[adverbial verbs.] 



Ta tchen ? how many ? (inanimate) 

Tatchitfu, little 

Ta haschi, never 

Taat, as if 

Tackan, another 

Takeet, perhaps I don't know 

Taktani, 1 don't know well 

Tschetschpi, tschetschpat, differently 

Thagitti, a little while 

Tpi'.tawe, altogether 

Tschitsch, once more 

Talli, there 

Tatchendo, very little 

Tgauwitti, by little and little. 

U. 

Untschi, of, by, therefore 
Undach, here, this way 
Uudach litti, a little this way 
Undachgameu, this side the water 
Undachqui, hither. 

W. 

Wapange, to morrow 

Wulaque, yesterday 

Wulaquike, this evening 

Welaquike, last evening 

Wulaguniwi, in the evening 

Wak, and, also 

Wtenk, at last, the last 

Wtenk untschi, thereon, thereafter 

Weeski, sometime to day 

Wiechgawotschi, unexpectedly 

Wottalauwin, wotsche ancuk, by the way 

Wotschi,near by 

Wiemochki, among each other 

Wemi, all 



Wemi auween, every man 
Wentschi, therefore, for this reason 
Witschi, with, at the same time 
Wtscheyunque, within 
Wsami, wsamiechen, too much 
Wulamoe, long ago 
VVulamissowe, a little while ago 
Wuli, there 
Wingi, willingly 

N'wingi, 1 willingly 

K'wingi, thou — — willingly 



Wawingi, he - 



-willingly 



Wochgitschik, up there, above 
Wiacki, wiackat, enough and to spare 
W untschi, of, on account of 
Wtellgiqui, likewise 
Wiwuntschi, before this 
Wiwuntschkamik, very long ago. 



Yucke, now 

Yucke gischquik, to day 

Yun, yutalli, yunlalli, here, there 

Yucke untschi, here 

Yucke likhicqui, to this time 

Yucke petschi, 'til now 

Yanewi, always 

Yuch, yuclmook, well ! allons 

Yuwuntschi, from hence 

Yulak, there 

Yukella, O ! that (it were so) 

Yuketeek, (Plur.) O! that it (those thiDgs) 

were so 
Yapewi, on the river bank 
Yapeechen, along the bank 
Yabtschi, yet. 



ADVERBIAL VERBS, 

OR, VERBS FORMED FROM ADVERBS. 



I. — From Schingi, unwillingly. 



Schingelcndam, I dislike, it is against my will 

or my inclination 
N'schingelendam, it goes against the grain, I 

hate it 
K'scbingclendam, thou hatest it 
W'schingelendam, he hales it 
Schinginamen, to h&te something 
Schingaltam, to be unwilling about something 
Schingalau, to hate a person 



Schingsittam, to hear something with displea- 
sure 
Schingoochwen, to go somewhere unwillingly 
Schhigachpin, to be somewheie unwillingly 
Schiugimikemossin, to work unwillingly 
Schinghakiheen, to plant unwillingly 
Schingiglistam, to hear unwillingly 
Schiiigtschenamen, to hate something to excess, 
not to be able to bear something. 



OF THE LENNI EENAPE INDIANS. 241 

[ im ERB1 \i. \ BBBS.] 

II. — From Wingi, willingly. 



Wmggittam, to hear somebody willingly 
H _ iiuiiK'ii, 10 be pleased with 

n rachpln, to be willingly somewhere 
9 • hweiii to go willingly somen 

Wingipendam, to hear (something) willingly 
YViugaliawui, to hunt willingly 



WmgUauohsm, to live willingly in I pnrticul.ic 

manner 
9 ii igt ilendam, to love or be pleased with some- 

t luiiii 

\\ ingi lawemen, to do ■ pleasure 
w ingelawossi, yon have ■ good tire. 



III. — From Eschiwi, through. 

EschooebwOD, to go, pa«« through o. Iiw.il.in, to help or carry one through 

Eschoochweyu petacnindehenk, ii penetrates Lsclioochwalukguu, he has brought me through, 
through the bear! I 



IV. — From Gunili, long. 

Gunelendam, to think one long IG D HID, I" I"- long, t.ill »l stature 

i, • ii su\ out long Gunaquachtol, they are long (the fishes). 

Guuaquot, it is long 



V. — From Lappi, again. 



Lappilcnin, to come again together 
Laphatton, to restore something to its former 
state 



Laphachken, to replant 

Lappiechsin, to n |ieutsometliingovci. 



VI. — From Mayawi, right. 

Mayawiechton, to do something right, as it I Mayawihllleu, It Is well as It Is 

ought iwi Ii ml mi. in be fixed or settled in mind 



VII. — From Mayauchsu, single. 

Mayaucnsowl (Mj ), ol one mind, united I Mayaachsohen, to make of one mind, 

' . hsuwin, lu be of one mind 



X" III. — From Nipahwi, by night. 
•....I. bweni in go, travel iiy night 

VOL. III. — 3 P 



242 GRAMMAR OP THE LANGUAGE 

[adverbial verbs.] 



IX. — From Pechuwat, near. 

Pechuwelendam, to think one's self near | Pechuwihhilleu, the time is near. 



X. — From Nechoha, alone. 

Nechohanne, nechohalennin, t» be alone I Nechoheteu, the house is empty. 

Nechoochwen, to go, travel alone 



XI. — From Nekti, the only one. 

Nektilenin, to be quite alone (somewhere). 



XII. — From Nahik or Nahiwi, down, beloio. 

Nahimen, to go down the water (river, creek) I Nahimenke, if or when we go down 
Nahihilleen, to sail down the water | Nahoochwen, to go down or below. 



XIII. — From N'gutti, one. 

N'guttitehin, to be one, to agree. 



XIV. — From Nallahik, above (the ivater). 

Nallahhemen, to sail up (the water, river) | Nallahoochwen, to go up (the water, river). 



XV. — From Petschi, until, unto. 



Petschihilleu, he is coming 
Petscholtin, they are coming 
Petschimuin, to escape to 
Petapan, the day breaks, it dawns 
Petist; - aiiwan, to hunt or drive beasts to 
Petauchsin, to live till now, to this day 



Petaquiecheu, the water has risen up to him 
Petachdoiiamen, to come to seek something 
Peteuchtummen, to come weeping 
Petschitchen, to press so lar 
Atta auwen petschitchewi, no body can think so 
far. 



XVI.— From Pachsiwi, half. 

Pachsenummen, to divide equally in two parts 



OP THE LENNI EENAPE INDIANS. 
[ \n\ BBBIAL TUBS. ] 



243 



XVII. — From Sliacki, so far, so long. 

Shackoochwen, (o go so far off and uo further. 



Will. — From Palliwi, otherwise. 



PalliHssln, lo <lo wrong 

P U> go '» i> 

l' ial, go ,m.»\ i linper.) 

PallatscUnuin, t>> speak otherwise than the 

truth 



PaDltrochwen, to go i In . 
Paflanumn en, pallueuemen, to do or attempt 
something wrong. 



XIX. — 1'ioni Scliachachki, certain. 



Schachachgelendam.to be sure of a thing 
Bcbachachgi nnemen, to make straight (what i> 

crooked) 

oochwen, to go straight, follow the 

straight way 



Schachaehkatschinio, to say, relate the troth 
Bchachacbkaptonen, to -peak the exact truth. 

tell a true Straight -tory 
Schachachgapcwiu, to be true, correct, upright. 



XX. — Fro7n Tangitti, small, little. 



I lam, langitchen, to think little of one's 

-It 
Tangeleusin, to be humble 



Tangeli'i, chwen, to walk humbly 

Tangenensin, to vouchsafe, condescend 
Tangawachlo, cheap. 



XXI. — From TV pi, enough. 



Tepihilleu, it is enough 
I iwehan, to satiety one 

Tepikeu, it is ripe, full grown 



Tepawachte, it i* reasonable, not too dear 
Tepil iweei h to be ■..iti-licd, to 

havi ituuactioD. 



\ \ FI. — From T'pi8gauwi,jtMJ to. 

T'pisgauwichton, to do something just so | T'pi-npiihhilleu. the Umedmwi DMI 



\ VIII. — From Trchetschpi, different , not alike. 

Tschetschpihillen, to be split off, separated from I TtchctachpUfln, to I"' unlike 
one another 



£44 



GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

[adverbial verbs.] 



XXIV. — From Untschi, Wuntschi, or Wentscbi, of, from, on account of, 

for the sake of. 

Untschihilleu, it comes from somewhere Wundanglen to do something, for the sake of 
Undochwen, to go somewhere for the sake or something 

purpose of something Wundaptonen, to speak of something 

Wuiidanunxin, to be angry at or for something Wundelenmin, to boast of something 

Wuntschimen, to call some one hither Undauchsin, to live for something. 
Wundchen, the wind comes from thence 



XXV.— From Wemi, all. 



Wemihilleu, it is all over 

Wemoltin, wemoltowak, they are all going out, 

forth, abroad 
Wemiteu (Infin.), to go all out 



Wemihawak, they have made an end of them, 

they are all destroyed 
Wemihawak awessiwak, they have destroyed 

all the ground. 



XXVI. — From Wapange, to morrow. 



Wapanacheen, good morrow 
K'wapanacheen hummo, good morrow to you 



Tamsa matta wapanachewi, he will not per- 
haps live 'til to morrow, or until morning. 



XXVII. — From Wulakik or Wulaku, evening. 

Kulakween, good evening | Kulakween hummo, good evening to you. 



XXVIII. — From Gischi, ready, done. 



Gischapan, it is day, it is day light 

Gischiecheu, it is ready, done, finished 

Gischikia, born, to be born 

Gischikheen, to make a house ready, put a 
house in order 

GischitooD, to make something ready 

Gischileu, it has proved true 

Gischacbpoanku, the bread is ready, it is baked 

Gischachgenutasu, it is concluded, settled, de- 
termined 

Gischalogeu, to finish a work 



Gischaloge, the work is finished 
Gischackiheen, ready to plant 
Gischatten, it i> there icady 
Gischuwallen, is ready packed, ready laden 
Gischeenachk, the fence is ready 
Gischamocholheu, the canoe is ready 
Gischitchen, to be determined 
Gischenaxin, to lie ready, prepared 
N'gischipenauwelenuam, I have considered of 
it, I have made up my mind, I am ready. 



XXIX. — From Machtit, Machtitso, bad. 



Matschiton, to spoil something 
Mattoochwen, to travel badly 
Machtatenamin, machtateuamohen, to be unfor- 
tunate 



Mattelendam, to be uneasy, troubled in mind 
Matteleman, to despise one 

oiinan, to act use one 

iMachtmouhen, mattaptooneu, to abuse, scold. 



OF TIIE LENNI EENAPE INDIANS. 

[of PREPOSITION-.] 



2-1.-1 



XXX. — From Pitsclii, accidentally, by chance. 



Pitenummen, to commit a mistake 
Pitaptonen, to blunder in Bpe ikin; 
N'pitacbi, 1 blunder accidentally 
K'pitscbi, thoti blunderest accidentally 



I'u i hi, he blundera accidentally 
N'pitschi li--iu, 1 have not done it wilfully »> 
designedly. 



XXXI. — From Witschi, with, togo with. 



to go witli 
Witschindeu, to put on with hands 
Witalogen, to work with (somebody) 



H itawendln, to wink togethei 
v\ iio~.li\\ I'll, to go or travel with 
Widhomen, to go in a canoe with (some one). 



Prepositions are particles which are placed before nouns or verbs, 
to express an accessory idea in connexion with them. 



EXAMPLES. 



Li, liwi, to 

I eanwi, tpisqul, .ip.iinst, over 

Vu undach, this -idc 
i 

l mwiwi, between 
Eli, In ■■ 
I' I hgi, near, by, close by 

a. after, -it last 
CTntschi, hi, by, bom 
Newentschi, therefore 



\ nil, berc 

\ ii schacld, so far as here 

I i i. ~n long 
Seki, petschi, until 

T.i'lii. quite* 

I I < In in. ilia, not at all, quite, absolutely not 

I'.ik.mi-i I i iili\ . i ntircly 

Ayema, If, If only. 



Prepositions nre frequently compounded with nouns and verbs, as in 
the following examples : — 

From \\ ochgilscbi, above, on the ti>,>. oron il» surface of. 

Wochgidhackamiipii'.iiii Ifae earth [ Woctudtaque, on tb. ■ i"|> ul the house. 



• ffbttbythi TriimUii.tr. — Thto ia mote pfopertj in adverb ; but the kuuWnotanfreqoently 
confound* the different parts of speech, which ia □ ilnwhichtJ 

so strangely Intennixed. Beside*, it Ii evident he latef tag ui tali worki 



VOL. III. ! () 



246 



GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE 

[OF PREPOSITIONS.] 



Laphatton, to restore, replace 
Laphacki, to replant 



From Lappi, again. 



Lappilenin, to be again together 
Lappiechsin, to repeat. 



From Witschi, with. 



Witen, to go with 

Witachpin, to live, dwell with 

Witonquam, to lodge at one's house, board with 

one 
Witschingen, to help, (in German init helfen) 
Witschendin, to help one another 



Witalogen, to work with 
Witatschimolsin, to advise with 
Witschiniachke, to put on with hands 
Wipengen, wipenditam, to he, sleep with ano- 
ther. 



Kimixin, to go secretly somewhere 
Kirningehsin, kimochwen, to steal away pri 
vately 



From Kimi, secretly. 

Kiminatlan, to make some one escape secretly. 



From Untschi, of, therefrom. 



Undaptonen, to speak thereof 
Undochwen, to come for or on account of some- 
thing 



Untschihillen, to come from somewhere 
Wundenummen, wundelemuin, to flow that way. 



From Awossi, that side. 



Awossenachk, that side the fence 
Awossakihakan, that side the plantation 
Awossenuppeque, over the lake 



Awosschakque, that side the stump or the tree. 
Awossachtenne, over or beyond the hill. 



OF THE EENNI EENAPE INDIANS. 

[OF CONJUNCTIONS INTERJECTIONS.] 



247 



T*.— <Df Conjunctions. 



Conjunctions are of different sorts : — 



1. Copulative. 
Wait, and, also 

Schi, schitta, or, either 
Nanne wak, as also. 

2. Disjunctive. 
Schak, but 

Wak aita, nor, neither. 

3. Conditional. 

These are severally compounded with the 
verbs active and passive m the Conjunctive 
Mood ; they are ane, anup, anpanne, when, if, 

as, ice. 

4. Adversative. 
Schuk, but 

lyabtschi, yabtschi, yet, though 

Hi-'lii. to in' surf, true 
Auwiyewi, yet. 

5. Concessive. 
A, am, well indeed 

Quonna, although 

Leke (a verb), true (it is*). 



6. Cautathe. 

PTtiteachqao, for 
Ell, •rentachl, because 
N'tt-lli, that 1 
K'u IN. that ihou 
W 'telh, that he. 

7. Conclusive. 
Ncwenlschi, yuwuntsclii, then 'line 

Nanne nrantachl, n»h«m« arentschi, for this rea- 
son 

Nanne wuntschi, therefore. 

8. Otdinative. 
Woak lappi, repeatedly, again 
lckalissi. farther 

V.1I, at hut 

Nan utink. hereafter 

Vucke pctschi, 'til here, 'til now. 



T**.— <T>f *ntcrfcctfons. 

Interjections are particles, sometimes a mere exclamation to express 
the different emotions of the mind. 



I Of Joy, as 
Hoh ! hohok '. yu ! anischik. qnek. 

2. Of Laughter, as 
II ,' ha ' be! he! 

:i Qf Sorrow, at 

Ihik ' mi ' ihih ' auwtl 



I I if Indignation, as 

s.i, ui -- ' "> nUkelendam (which la « verb), gi< 
■a, eldai li 



6. Of Blandishment, as 
Nil-ill, my <- 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 . 



• .\V», by Hi. Translator.— V,nm this vcib i« formed finnm /- A. r.r/i. Amen, .o be it ' .Vnrinr 

thia or that, tekeUch it (he adjective verb Xekt in the future tense, and b< • atini 

potential aenae, may (Mi »r that br frw . that i^ !■■ My, hap) m Thus Amen, hiDekwan 
advei 

t .Vote by the Translator.— "My little friend," from mtis, friend, mj In. 



248 



GRAMMAR OP THE LANGUAGE 

[concluding note.] 



6. Of Calling, as 
Hu ! yuhuh ! 

7. Of Answering, as 
Vu ! yo ! oh ! oho ! 

8. Of Approbation, as 
Eh ! eh ! kehella ! gohan ! 



9. Of Admiration, as 
Ekayah ? hoh ! quatschee ! ekee ! ekisah ' 

10. Of Exclamation, as 
Ohoh, ho ! wo ! 



CONCLUDING NOTE BY THE TRANSLATOR. 



J_ HIS Grammar exhibits a language, entirely the work of the children 
of nature, unaided by our arts and sciences, and what is most remark- 
able, ignorant of the art of writing. Its forms are rich, regular, and 
methodical, closely following the analogy of the ideas which they are 
intended to express; compounded, but not confused; occasionally ellip- 
tical in their mode of expression; but not more so than the languages 
of Europe, and much less so than those of a large group of nations on. 
the Eastern Coast of Asia, I mean the Chinese and those which possess 
analogous idioms. The terminations of their verbs, expressive of num- 
ber, person, time, and other modifications of action and passion, while 
they are richer in their extension than those of the Latin and the Greek, 
which we call emphatically the learned languages, appear to have been 
formed on a similar but enlarged model, without any aid than that 
which was afforded by nature operating upon the intellectual faculties of 
man. To what cause are these phenomena to be attributed 1 

I hope I shall be excused for saying that this question, which I think 
of the highest importance, as it leads immediately to that of the origin 
of the variety of human languages, and perhaps of language itself, has 
not received, either in America or Europe, all the attention that it de- 
serves. In Europe, an idea appears generally to prevail, that the gram- 
matical forms of languages have proceeded, if not entirely, at least in a 
very great degree, from the operation or influence of the art of writing, 
which is saying, in other words, that these forms have been produced or 
essentially modified by the arts of civilization. A celebrated French 
philologist, to whose varied talents and extensive acquirements no man 
pays a more willing homage than myself, M. Abel llemusat, expresses 



OF THE LENNI LENAPE INDIANS. 249 

■ [CONCLUDING NOTi:.] 



himself thus on this subject: "I do not only speak of those forms, the 
object of which is to point out the relations of words and the mechanism 
of which, simple or complicated, ingenious «>r confused, attests the more 
or loss successful efforts of the trriti rs w h<> first gave lairs to language*". 

This learned author, whose exquisite sense and sound judgment |ea\e 
no room to suppose that it ever occurred to him that his proposition might 
be contradicted, appears evidently to have considered it as one of those 
philological axioms which have been so long and so universally estab- 
lished that no one even thinks of calling them in question. And so it 
has appeared to many other European miters, and it seems, in fact, to be 
an opinion generally received in that part of the world. I must own that 
to me it seems inconsistent with the facts which. this Grammar exhibits, 
and which all point to nature and not to art as the source from whence 
have proceeded the various grammatical forms of the languages of men. 

I have not room to develop here this conclusion, more than I have done 
incidentally in the preface; I have thought it right, however, to point it 
out specifically as the principal result which, in my opinion, the publica- 
tion of this Grammar will produce. It appears to me that after a care- 
ful reading of the work and a comparison of this language with those of 
civilized nations, the mind must be necessarily drawn to the following 
inferences: 

1 That the grammatical forms of a language constitute what may be 
called its organization. 

2. That this organization is the work of nature, and not of civilization 
or its arts. 

3. That the arts of civilization may cultivate, and by that means polish 
a language to a certain extent ; but can no more alter its organization, 
than the art of the gardener can change that ofanOIWOAOr & potato. 

4. That the contrary opinion is the result of the pride of civilized men ; 
a passion inherent in our nature, and the gr< atest obstacle thai exists to 
the investigation of truth. 

In thus expressing my opinion with all the clearm-- ami precision 
that I am capable of, I do DOl 1>\ am means intend to establish these 
propositions as axioms; but merely to submit them as fUUtiOM to the 
investigation of the learned, if the y shall be thought \\orth\ of the atten- 
tion to w Inch a appears that the Bubject entitles them. Thai new facts, or 
facts already known m part, but now moreclearlj made apparent, should 
produce new opinions is what may naturally be expected, and he will lie, 
I hope, acquitted of presumption, who simply expresses his sentiments 00 
this new subject, without any other pretension than that of eliciting the 

* Je ne parte pas settlement cle ces formei deatlnMM i marqucr les nppoitl dM moU, •■< l""i 
le in' ■ mi i • -impte oil compHque', Inglnieux ou embroullle, itteete m eflbrtl plmoo mi 
hen:''' \ dM eeilMBfU qui onl l< - premier! iooui del loix au langagc. — Rechtrches tw fel /"" 
§u«s Tartares, Ditcotm PrfUmtaaire, p. xvj. 

VOL. III. — 3 B 



250 GRAMMAR OP THE LENNI EENAPE LANGUAGE. 

[concluding note.] 



thoughts of men better qualified than himself to trace it to all its impor- 
tant consequences. 

To what degree nature and art have respectively contributed to the 
formation of languages, or their improvement, appears to me to be a ques- 
tion highly deserving of deep consideration ; I am afraid the part of na- 
ture will be found to be the lion's share. If it be true that the poems 
attributed to Homer were composed at a time when the Greeks were 
ignorant of the art of writing, we have the true measure of nature's share 
in the formation of this beautiful language. The Romans, who could 
write, did not prove by their idiom the superiority of art. 



Many observations, arising from the details of this Grammar, and which 
would considerably tend to the elucidation of its contents, have suggest- 
ed themselves to my mind while this volume was passing through the 
press ; some of them I have subjoined in the form of notes, and the rest 
I must reserve for another opportunity. 

I ought to observe, however, before I finally conclude, that the Author 
writes the termination of the third person plural of the Perfect Tense of 
the Indicative, indifferently pannik or pannil, without any apparent rule of 
discrimination. This was noticed by Vater, who published a few Delaware 
conjugations (under the name of Chippeway) from some loose sheets of 
Zeisberger's own manuscript, which I had transmitted to him. The learn- 
ed professor was of opinion that pannik was the correct reading, and I 
have, in consequence, adopted it throughout this Grammar. Perhaps 
the difference arises from the variety of dialects. See Analekten der 
Sprachenkunde, Zweytes Heft, p. 50, in note. 



E UK AT A. 



This mark ( * ) shews thai the lines arc to be counted from the top, and this v I I ,r011 ' ''" 
bottom. The running titles are not to be reckoned. 



Page fi7, line 22t, for " 17th" read - 19th" 
" «7, line >ti\, for " 19lh" read " 20lh" 

99, lin inel.it" read " inil.it" j and for " eternal life" read " he gives (to him 

'I life" 
" 100, line lit, for •• noon" read " noom" 
" 111. line 17*, lor '• Nowikin" read " -Vivikin" 
" 11G, — In the Future c " 

piwenque, 
" 120, — In the Present of the Sabju 

•• Hssiehtite" 
■• 180, line 10t> for " Ponnnanchnchtique' iramauchsichtl 

■ • 184, line 8f, for " N'dellu risen" read " N'dellauchsohal 

•■ 166, line 1 I,, for " Hull lendawichtil ,;•" n.r! ■■ \\ ulelend imichtitup" 
171 .,.,. I2f, for" atta n'pendaniawunap" read" attan'pen ■ •■■ ■ 
286, lii ii read " keelcu" 



Snwikin read " « wikin 

• of ile- Subjuncti' ■■ M lines i it, 8d, and .">iii 

ichpiweke, achpicl I 

in of the Subjunctive, line 6th of thai te foi " unichtique 



No. III. 

Description of Eleven New Species of North Jon rutin Bwects 
By N. M. Hint z. Professor of Modem Language* in tin 
I'ninrsity of North Carolina. — Read Xomnhir lit. 1827. 

ClCINDELA. 

1. C. (hnliriilii/a. Bright green ; mandibles slender, lon- 
ger than the head ; elytra polished, with a subsuturaJ series <>l 
impressed punctures, a suhhumeral dot, intermediate triangu- 
lar spot and terminal lunule white; pectus, postpectus, and 
trout in the male, hairy. 

Length half an inch. 

Inhabits Massachusetts. 

From C. (i-git/fa/ti tin* species may be easily distinguish- 
ed by its elongated mandibles, its pectus and postpectus very 
hairy, and the head also, in the male. The punctures on the 
elytra of this species are exceedingly minute and distant, whilst 
they are deep in C. 6-guttata. ' To Dr T. W. Harris I am 
indebted for this and the next species. Thai gentleman, 
whose knowledge and labours are aol less remarkable than 
\\\^ disinterestedness, has furnished me also with the following 

Varieties. 
■ — Elytra purplish hlue; spots as in the >pccies. 
(i — Anterior dot of the elytra wanting. 

\ OIn III. — 5 - 



254 DESCRIPTION OF ELEVEN NEW SPECIES 

y — Anterior dot wanting; triangular spot reduced to a 
transverse line ; posterior lunule interrupted so as to form a 
fourth spot. 

5 — Two anterior spots wanting. 

• — All the spots wanting except the terminal lunule which 
is merely an abbreviated transverse line. 

§ — All the spots wanting and terminal lunule obsolete. 



2. C. haemorrhoidalis. Hairy, dull cupreous or purple ; 
elytra with a humeral dot, a round dot behind, a curved band, 
two dots behind, and a terminal lunule whitish. Deep pur- 
ple beneath ; venter ferruginous. 

Length 9-20ths of an inch. 

Inhabits Massachusetts. 

This beautiful little insect, also communicated to me by 
my excellent friend Dr Harris, is very remarkable for its 
numerous markings, in all twelve, on the elytra. The 
head and thorax are marked with purple and green, the thighs 
are green, and the sides of the thorax, pectus and postpectus 
are hairy. 



3. C. splendida. Bright green; disk of the elytra crim- 
son or purple, with a submarginal subtriangular transverse 
line near the middle, and a terminal transverse line ; whole 
margin green. 

Length 6-10ths of an inch. 

Inhabits North Carolina. Swarming in April. 

This species is closety related to C. marginalis of Fab. 
C. purpurea of Olivier, and chiefly so to the variety /3 of Mr 
Say ; but several reasons have induced me to consider it as a 
distinct species. The thorax of C. marginalis is sensibly 
transverse, in this species it is less so, and with the head en- 
tirely bright green : C. marginalis is quite hairy, this is slightly 
so. The former inhabits usually shady places near or in the 



or NORTH AMl'.HK \\ INSECTS. J ". ". 

grass; C. splcndkla is always found on barren dry clay or 
sand. The middle line is sometimes wasting, sometimes tile 
terminal one is obsolete; and I have observed two specimens 
with a humeral whitish spot. 



Lejua. 

4. L. gram/is. Ferruginous; elytra purple, venter pi- 
ceous; thorax remarkably transverse, posterior angles sharp, 
nearly rectangular. 

Length rather more than 9-20ths of an inch. 

Inhabits North Carolina. 

The remarkable size of this species will be sufficient to dis- 
tinguish it from L. atriventris, Say. which it very much re- 
sembles; but it is nearly twice as large, being, I believe, enor- 
mous lor this genus. The head is darker than the thorax, 
and the striae of the elytra are deeper (ban in T.,. atriventris. 
I have never seen but two specimens, found at night, attract- 
ed by the light. 



5. L. borca. Mead dark green; disk of the thorax, tarsi, 
lower ends of the tibia, knees, and anterior thi ! piceous; 
elytra green, substriate; postpectug and venter ferruginous. 

Length rather more than ">-2oths of an inch. 

Inhabits Massachu :tts. 

This insect cannot be mistaken for L. tricolor of Mr Say. 
The striae of the elytra cannot lie seen by the naked eye, but 
with a lens thej ap] trt be punctured and regular, though 
superficial. The margin of the thorax is. ferruginous ; the 
middle part of the tibia and upper pari of the two posterior 
pairs of thighs are testaceous. The fliree ftrsl joints of ih< 
antennae are ferruginous, darkening upwards, the rest art 
black. 



25C) DESCRIPTION OF ELEVEN NEW SPECIES 

6. L. solea. Testaceous ; elytra with deep impunctured 
strict, a common sutural band narrower near the middle, not 
reaching the apex, to which it is contiguous on each side, 
with a submarginal band which tapers towards the humerus. 

Length hardly a quarter of an inch. 

Inhabits Massachusetts. 

This insect is quite distinct from L. vittata, which is larger 
and differs from this in many respects. I cannot see that the 
interstice between the black bands has ever been white, as no 
trace remains of that colour as in L. vittata. The body and 
feet are testaceous ; the head bordering on the rufous ; the an- 
tennae are dusky with paler base. The interstitial lines on the 
elytra are convex, which is not the case with L. vittata. 



Melolontha. 

7. M. porcma. Densely covered with short yellow hair ; 
clypeus emarginate ; head piceous or black with a few hairs ; 
antennae and legs ferruginous ; thorax punctured, very hairy. 
with a longitudinal black line formed by the absence of 
hair ; elytra castaneous, pubescent. 

Length little more than one inch. 

Inhabits Massachusetts. 

This must be a rare insect, as I never saw but one speci- 
men, and it was new to my friend Dr Harris ; the head and 
thorax are piceous or blackish, but the thorax is covered with 
so much yellow hair, that it gives it a pale greenish appear- 
ance. The hair which covers the insect is short except on 
the margin of the elytra and postpectus, where it is long. 



8. Mi variolosa. Covered with short white hair ; clypeus 
subquadrate, broader at tip, entire, ferruginous ; antennae fer- 
ruginous, clava very long, seven laminae ; thorax blackish with 
three obsolete longitudinal impressed lines obsoletely marked 



OF NORTH AMERICAN INSECTS. 257 

with white hair ; elytra dark castaneous. with suture, hume- 
ral line, and irregular spots, and the disk white : postpeetus 
with thick long yellow hair. 

Length very little smaller than the preceding. 

Inhabits Massachusetts. 

This cannot be referred to Melolontha 1 0-limata of Mr Say, 
which has its clypeus emarginate, and differs from it in 
other respects ; both are somewhat related to M. fullo of Eu- 
rope. I never saw but two specimens. 



PVROCHROA. 

9. P. ? vnjvmata. Black, hairy ; head deep black, polish- 
ed; antennae and palpi ferruginous at base; thorax ferrugi- 
nous, polished ; disk black : elytra hairy, punctured. 

Length nearly 3-10ths of an inch. 

Inhabits Massachusetts 



10. P. ? clegans. Slightly hairy ; head deep black, polished ; 
thorax, palpi and legs bright yellow, polished; elytra blue 
black, punctured, with a terminal yellow spot, polished, raised 
and impunctured. 

Length not quite J-lOths of an inch. 

Inhabit- Massachusetts. 

The two last insect- answer well to the characters of Pij- 
rochroa as given by Latreille and Lamarck, and cannot In 
referred to any other genus mentioned in the books. The 
palpi in both have their last joint larger, subsecuriform. Tin 
penultimate article of the tarsi i- remarkably bifid. Their 
antenna have subcylindrical joints, and are inserted into a 
groove of the eye. 



vol. in. — 3 T 



258 DESCRIPTION OF NORTH AMERICAN INSECTS. 



Nemognatha. 

1 1 . N. nemorensis. Black, hairy ; mouth and thorax fer- 
ruginous, with three hasal impressions black ; elytra punc- 
tured, substriate ; suture raised. 

Length 3-10ths of an inch. 

Inhabits the woods of North Carolina. 

This interesting insect is probably rare, for I never saw 
but one specimen, found in May. The second joint of the 
antennae is shorter than the first and the third : and all the 
joints are very hairy. The maxillae which are usually bent 
under are nearly as long as the antennae. 



In the above descriptions it is not unimportant to observe 
that Dr T. W. Harris has found in the vicinity of Boston 
Cicindela formosa, which Mr Say described from specimens 
brought from the Missouri by Mr Nuttal. He and I have 
also found there Clytus speriosus, described by Mr Say, in the 
Appendix to Long's Expedition of 1823, as discovered on the 
banks of the Wisconsan, Prairie du Chien. I have seen in 
North Carolina a number of insects which he had found only 
in the west, 



No. IV. 

Description of Six New Species of the Genu* Uhio, embrac- 
ing the Anatomy of the Oviduct of one of lhcn>. together 
with snini Anatomical Observations on the Genu*. Jiy 
Isaac Leo. — Read before Ike American Philosophical Society 
November 2d 1827. 



}JrcUiuiuan> lttmavhs. 

FN the present contribution to the science of Concholoey, 1 
■have endeavoured to be as brief as I thought the subject 
would permit 

I have often fell the great inconvenience sustained from 
too short and indefinite descriptions; and am therefore fully 
sensible of the necessity, for the proper distinction of the spe- 
ci( 9, of a more minute notice of their characters than i> usu- 
ally given. In ihix Mr Barneshasshewna laudable example, 
and he deserves the acknowledgments of the conchologist*. 

It will be observed I have followed his plan of dividing the 
margin of the disk into eight parts, reversing hi> posterior and 
anterior margins. 

3wamson says, "Although Lamarck has described so many (Uniones),lhe 
short descriptions he has given, and the want of figures to elucidate them, rendei il 

impossible to determine accurately one half the species which he has enumerated 



260 SIX NEW SPECIES 

The genus Unio, established by Bruguieres, and placed by 
Cuvier* in his fourth class of mollusques, les acephales, and 
second family, acephales testaces, or the mytilaces; and by 
Lamarck in his eleventh class, conchiferes, first order, conchi- 
feres dimyaires, thirteenth family, les nayades; is to the con- 
chologist one of the most interesting of all the genera. Re- 
cent American writers on the subject have added many new 
species to this genus, and other new ones are almost daily dis- 
covered. 

I propose now to add six species, which I believe to be dis- 
tinct from any hitherto described. In doing which, I give 
very exact descriptions accompanied by drawings, with a 
hope they may not hereafter be confounded with' other species. 

The constant and perplexing changes which the species of 
this genus assume have led even the accurate Lamarck into 
the error of describing several varieties as different species ; 
and it is not without due hesitation and caution that I am in- 
duced to add the present. It has been doubtful with some 
conchologist's whether the species of the genus Unio are not 
the mere varieties of one speciesf. To the naturalist, who has 
had the opportunity of examining numerous specimens, the 
gradations are so interesting, and at the same time so perplex- 
ing, that he is lost in the maze of their changes, and he seeks 
almost in vain to draw a distinctive line between them ; for 
even the tuberculated shells sometimes pass by almost insensible 
gradations into smooth ones. Although this line may not 
always be satisfactorily drawn, I think their division into spe- 
cies should be retained, if it were only for the sake of system. 

The comparative anatomist finds in the animal of the Unio 
an organization very far advanced towards a state of perfection. 
Lamarck places it, in his scale of perfection, higher than in- 
sects, and we cannot be surprised at this, when we examine 
its structure and find it possessed of brain, heart, branchiae, 

v .Regne Animal, vol. ii. p. 453. 

t The following genera, separated from the genus Unio, dipsas (Leach), hy- 
ria (Lamarck), alasmadonta (Say), damaris (Leach), cannot in the opinion of 
Mr Swainson retain their station among the genera. 



01 Till. DEN1 8 r.NIO. 261 

liver, intestines, and an arterial and venous circulation, - 
complete a* to excite our greatesl admiration. 

Taking the natural position of the animal. I have reversed 
the anterior and posterior margins ;is used by Linnaeus, Bru- 
guieres. Lamarck. Bose. and others : and have followed t'uvi 
and Blainville. That margin which has the ligament be- 
tween it and the beaks is considered by Lamarck as tin ante- 
rior margin, but it will be found on examination not entitled 
to be so considered, for two reasons: 1. The moulli over 
which is situated the brain is placed in the opposite margin. 
2. When the animal is in progressive motion, this oppoe 
margin is always pointed in the direction of its progress. I 
therefore follow Cuvier in his anterior and posterior margins, 
because they are founded in truth. 

A recent and very accurate writer, Blainville. gives us so 
simple an explanation of the position in which a bivalve should 
be placed, that I am induced to extract it. He says — •• We 
suppose the shell to cover the animal, and that it is passing 
from the observer, the head (mouth) in front. The beaks 
should be above — the ligament between the beaks and the 
observer. In this position the opposite side to the beaks 
wonld be the base, and the two extremes of the perpendicular 
diameter of this direction would be, the one anterior, the other 
posterior.'" 

Ol the habits of this animal we know little; future obser- 
vations must open to us an interesting history of them. 
With regard to their food, it seems to be a matter of doubt upon 
wbat they subsist I have strong reasons to believe tbey feed 
upon animalcula. which are ever found to exist in water and 
which tbey might separate from the constant stream, which they 
pass from the posterior part of the shell, and which must be 
taken in at another part This interesting operation I witnessed 
frequently in a vessel in which I kept them forsome months. 
If the water was not changed for twenty-four hours. I uni- 
formly found my interesting captives perfectly quiet, but wit bin 

* Rignc Animal, vol. n. p. 172. 

vol. in. — 3 i; 



262 SIX NEW SPECIES 

a few minutes after it was changed, they as uniformly com- 
menced the passage of this constant stream. I cannot sup- 
pose this operation to he for the sole purpose of breathing, as 
there is no intermission in the stream of the water, and the 
quantity thrown out. is too great for this purpose only. I 
believe it to be the result of the action of the separation of the 
animalcula from the water. 

Lamarck informs us that the animal of the anadonta (which 
is essentially the same with the unio) is hermaphrodite and 
seems viviparous ; for the eggs pass into the oviduct placed 
along the superior branchiae, where the young are found with 
their shells complete. In the dissection of an anadonta undu- 
lata nearly three inches long, I met with the oviducts 
charged with about 600,000 (as nearly as I could calculate) 
young shells perfectly formed, both valves being distinctly 
visible with the microscope. 

There cannot be a doubt that the two pairs of muscles, 
which support the foot and serve by their alternate action to 
give the animal locomotion, are entirely distinct from the 
great anterior and posterior muscles, which seem but to serve 
the purpose of closing the valves opened by the elasticity of 
the ligament. The cicatrices of the muscles of the foot, ante- 
riorly, are placed under the great anterior cicatrix, posteriorly 
over the great posterior cicatrix, and are sometimes confluent 
with the great cicatrices, sometimes entirely distinct from 
them. 

It is necessary to notice here another set of attaching mus- 
cles, which seem to have escaped attention. We find, on 
closely examining the region of the cardinal tooth, a small ir- 
regular row of muscular impressions. In those species which 
possess large lobed teeth, these will be found generally on the 
inner side of them and somewhat underneath. In the more 
fragile shells, possessing comparatively small teeth, such as 
the alatus, gracilis, &c. we find these impressions in the 
cavity of the valve beneath the beaks. To this part of the 
shell I found in many species the animal to be quite strongly 
attached. It seems to serve to support the mantle, branchiae. 



OF THE GENUS l Mo. 

&c. by the centre, and in this certainly serves a very useful 
purpose. 

Being exceedingly anxious to examine the animals of the 
various species of the Unio from the Ohio, my brother, 
T. G. Lea. kindly sent me thirteen species and many varieties. 
which, with the assistance of Mr Stewart, were carefully dis- 
sected. Those consisted of the species mytiloides and meta- 
nevra of Bafinesque; sUiquoideus, triangularis, gibbosus and 
cornutus of Barnes; purpureas, alatus, ovatus of Say: iEsopus 
of Green; irroratus and ellipsis now firsl described. This ex- 
amination furnished me with several interesting results. It con- 
firmed me entirely in my belief thai the oviducts erf the irro- 
ratus were different from any other species yet examined: a 
drawing and description of which will be found in this paper. 
The prolongation of the sacks of the oviducts is peculiarly 
interesting. In some of the varieties of the cornutus, winch 
seem to run into the JEsopus, we found the posterior and infe- 
rior parts of the shell unnaturally extended. The mark of 
the animal on the shell had its usually curved shape, while 
the mantle, quite callous, extended to a protruded and irregu- 
lar margin. 

It has been a matter of speculation how the calcareous 
matter was secreted to increase the outer margin of the teeth 
as well as their whole surface. In this examination we found 
the surface of the broad teeth, some of which were near half 
an inch thick, to be completely covered with a prolongation 
of the mantle, extending from the gnat anterior to the great 
posterior cicatrix: so that when the teeth closed they completely 
enveloped it. This part of the mantle is exceedingly thin and 
transparent. 

In the study of this genus, we are naturally attracted 
by the beautiful rays which frequently are found in the 
epidermis. This to the unpractised eye would seem to 
be a sufficiently distinctive characteristic to mark a species. 
Their i-. however, no character more fleeting and various 
The young of many species uniformly possess rays, and we 
sometimes find fine adult specimens of extreme beauty. Tin 



2b 3 SIX NEW SPECIES 

naturalist is therefore obliged to abandon this character as al- 
most useless. In noticing the colouring of the epidermis we 
must not pass unobserved the peculiar spots which are found 
on the cylindricus of Say, the metanevra of Rafinesque, and 
triangularis of Barnes. These have generally the form of 
an arrow-head, but sometimes so much elongated as to form 
rays. The hair like rays of the cornutus of Barnes and its 
varieties are peculiarly beautiful in fresh and perfect speci- 
mens ; and the spotted lines covering the irroratus over its 
whole disk will yield to none of the painted epidermides. 

In the measurements I have adopted the plan of Barnes : 
1 he greatest transverse line is the breadth, the greatest line, 
perpendicular to this is the length, and the greatest line per- 
pendicular to those lines, that is, from the most ventricose 
part of one valve to the most ventricose part of the other, is 
the diameter. We thus have the three greatest measure- 
ments of the shell, and the marginal descriptions give the 
form. It should be remembered that different localities pro- 
duce various sizes, and even the thickness of the shell is 
frequently changed from this circumstance. 

In considering the word "Unio" as of the masculine gen- 
der. I have followed the American conchologists, in oppo- 
sition to Lamarck and other Europeans, who consider it as 
feminine. Ainsworth, in that part, of his dictionary ap- 
propriated to pure Latinity, gives the following definition : — 

Unio, onis, m. (ab unus, quod in conchis nulli duo reperi- 
antur indiscreti, i. e. similes,) A pearl, called a union, because, 
many being found in one shell, not any of them is like the 
other. Plin. 9, 35. Unionum conchae, mother of pearl. Suet. 
Ner. 31. 

In Ainsworth's " Index Vocum Vitandarum" is to be found 
the following definition : — 

Unio, onis, /. (quod unum facit) Union, concord, agree- 
ment ; the number of one, Theol. {In this latter sense it 
must be masculine, as ternio, senio, &c. *J. C.) 

J. ('. John Carey, the editor of the last edition of Ainsworth's quarto dic- 
tionary. 



of Tin: geni - i mi. 265 

It is evident, that the word explained by (the former ot 
these definitions is the most proper to express g genus oi 
shells: and consequently, in Ckmchotogy, the word Hwo is 
niascnline. 



1. Unio Calceolus. Plate III. fig. l. 

Tc*r; imrrniiUi/vrali, transversa, aliqwmtulbm cyl tenuitei 

rugalti ; dente cardinali prominente. 

Shell inequilateral, transverse, somewhat cylindrical, finely wrinkled : 
cardinal tootli prominent. 

Hah. Ohio. T. G. Lea. 

My Cabinet 

Cabinet of Prof. Vanuxem. 

Diam. -6, Length -S, Breadth 1-5 inches. 

Shell ventricose, cylindrical, transverse — substance of the 
shell thin, rather thicker anteriorly — beaks slightly elevated, 
undulated and touching: not decorticated — ligament short, 
partly concealed by the beaks — dona] margin straighl : pos- 
terior dorsal margin oblique and carinated; posterior margin 
angular; posterior basal margin curved ; basal mar gin nearly 
straight ; anterior and anterior dorsal and basil margins round- 
eel — epidermis dark green at the margin and becoming lighter 
towards the beaks; rays indistinct — cardinal tooth of right 
valve prominenl and somewhat pointed; the single tooth of 
this valve shuts in before the tooth of the left valve, instead of 
passing into i< ; the tooth of the latter valve is emarginate — 
lateral tooth very short and single in both valves — posterior 
cicatrices confluent, as are also the anterior ones — cavity of 
the beaks deep — nacre pearly, white and silvery, iridescent in 
the posterior margin. 

Bemarto. — This curious little shell is peculiar in its promi 
n. ni curved tooth, shutting in before that, of the other ralvt 

\ oi.. in. — i \ 



266 SIX NEW SPECIES 

Its nacre is uncommonly silvery. It swells considerably along 
the posterior umbonial slope. This causes its greatest diame- 
ter to be semidistant between the beaks and posterior margin. 

I have given a view of the right valve of this shell for the 
purpose of exhibiting its remarkable tooth. It might at first 
be considered as a malformation, but in the three specimens 
which I have seen this character has been uniform. 

The calceolus approaches as nearly in its general appearance 
to the donaciformis as to any other species. It is however a 
thinner shell, and differs in the teeth as well as the colour of 
the epidermis. 



2. Unio Lanceoeatus. Plate III. fig. 2. 

Test a transversirn elongatd, compressd, postice subangulatd ; valvulis 
tenuibus ; umbonibus vix prominentibus ; dente cardinali acuto, obliquo. 

Shell transversely elongated, compressed, subangular behind ; valves 
thin; beaks scarcely prominent; cardinal tooth sharp, oblique. 

Hab. Tar River at Tarbornugh. 

My Cahinet. 
Professor V.nnuxem's Cabinet. 
Cabinet of the Academy of Natural Sciences. 
Mr Nicklin's Cabinet. 
Peale's Museum. 
Diam. *5, Length -7, Breadth 1-7 inches. 

Shell transversely elongated, elliptical — substance of the 
shell rather thin — beaks scarcely elevated, decorticated — liga- 
ment small, terminating between the beaks — dorsal margin 
slightly curved ; posterior dorsal margin carinated ; posterior 
margin subangular ; posterior basal and basal margins curved ; 
anterior and anterior dorsal and basal margins rounded — epi- 
dermis lemon-yellow and olive-yellow, with transverse lines 
of growth, glabrous — cardinal tooth compressed, crenulated 
and oblique — lamellar tooth straight, long and rather abrupt 
— posterior cicatrices confluent, anterior cicatrices distinct — 









I VOiUA 



l r n,io Xa,r\A:.c,ttiOLtu,s • 



■ 



ft 



IV 






ft 









V 






















OF THE GENUS I MO. J (.7 

cavity of the beaks shallow — -nacre salmon colour and irides- 
cent ; colour stronger under the beaks, from Which beautiful 
fine rays diverge to the margin. 

Remarks. — This species, which I have seen only in Tar 
River, N. C. approaches more closely to the unio pic-fo- 
rum of Europe than any yet discovered in this country. 
When I Grsl found it. I felt assured it was the same; but 
upon closer examination and comparison find it to be i -n ( . u - 
tially different. The cavity of the beak is much less and the 
cardinal tooth shorter and more lobed. 



3. Unio Donaciiohmis. Plate IV. fig. 3. 

Testa in<c<i>ithitrra\i, transversa, cuneata, rugatd ; dentecardinaii pro- 

minente ; nmbonibus posticv angulatis ; margine dorsali posteriori sub- 
arinatd. 

Shell inequilateral, transverse, cuneiform, wrinkled ; cardinal tooth 
very prominent ; beaks angular behind ; posterior dorsal margin subca- 
rinate. 

Hab. Ohio. T. G. Lea. 

My Cabinet. 
Diam. -7. Length 1-0, Breadth 1*5 inches. 

Shell not very thick, rounded before and pointed behind — 
substance of the shell not thick — beaks slightly elevated, not 
decorticated, almost touching : angulated by an oblique carina 
parsing from the beaks to the posterior margin: this causes i 
flight concavity from the beaks towards the posterior mar- 
gin — ligament passing to the point of the beaks — dorsal and 
posterior dorsal margins slightly curved, the latter sub-cari- 
nate ; posterior margin acutely angular; posterior basal mar- 
gin nearly straight ; basal margin curved; anterior and ante- 
rior dorsal and basal margins rounded — epidermis olive, with 
green rays diverging from tin beaks to all parts of tbe mar- 
gin; surface glabrous and slightly wrinkled; has distinct 



268 SIX NEW SrECIES 

marks of growth — cardinal tooth large, prominent, serrated ; 
in the left valve deeply divided by the entering of the oppo- 
site tooth — lateral tooth abrupt — posterior cicatrices distinct, 
anterior cicatrices also distinct — cavity of the beaks rather 
deep — nacre pearly white and iridescent in the posterior mar- 
gin. 

Remarks. — The characteristics of this little shell are its 
angulated posterior slope giving it in some measure the form 
of a donax, and its large divided cardinal tooth. Its beautiful 
angulated beaks approach so closely together as scarcely to 
admit the edge of a piece of fine paper. 

In its most prominent character, the peculiar angulated 
slope, it most resembles the ovatus of Say, but differs greatly 
in the size, the ovatus being four or five inches in breadth, 
and very much more inflated. The latter has a double car- 
dinal tooth in each valve ; the donaciformis only in the left 
valve. 



4. Unio Ellipsis. Plate IV. fig. 4. 

Testa figuram ellipseos habente, longitudinali, ventricosd ; valvulis 
crassis, umbonibus fere terminalibus ; dentibus grandibus et distinctis. 

Shell elliptical, longitudinal, ventricose ; valves thick ; beaks nearly 
terminal; teeth large and well defined. 

Hab. Ohio. T. G. Lea. 

My Cabinet. 

Cabinet of T. G. Lea. 

Cabinet of Prof. Vanuxem. 

Cabinet of Mr Nicklin. 

Peale's Museum. 

Cabinet of the Academy of Natural Sciences. 

Diam. 1-3, Length 1-7, Breadth 2-3 inches. 

Shell very thick, ventricose, margin elliptical — substance 

of the shell thick and ponderous — beaks thick and projecting 









' 



■ 






> 













OP THE GKM B I MO. c J69 

beyond the margin, marly terminal, decorticated — ligament 
partly concealed by the beaks — epidermis reddish-brown, 
smooth — surface somewhal wrinkled — cardinal tooth 'thick, 
elevated, compressed at top, crenulated; direction same as la- 
teral tooth — lateral tooth long, thick and slightly curved, ab- 
rupt — posterior cicatrices distinct, as are also the anterior ones 
— cavity of the beaks small — nacre pearly-white, silvery ami 
iridescent in the posterior margin. 

far. a — red inside, rare. 

Cabinet of th>- Academy of Natural Sciences. 
My Cabinet 

Remarks. — The ellipsis approaches somewhat to a variety ol 
the mytiloides of Rafinesque, but is more swollen ami ponde- 
rous, and differs in always having an elliptical margin. 



5. Unio Irroratus. Plate V. fie;, o 



^ - 



Test<i maquilaterali, &ub-orbiculata, longitvdinali, tvbercviata, rug 
UmgitvuHnaliter tmisulcatd ; detite laterali dbrupU terwmanU. 

Shell inequilateral] suborbicular, longitudinal, tuberculated, wrinkled, 
longitudinally sulcated ; termination of lateral tooth abrupt. 

I lab. Ohio. T. Bakewell. 

My Cabinet 
Cabinet ofT. G. Lea. 
( !abine1 of Prof. Vanuzem. 
Cabinet of the Academy of Natural Sciences. 
Mr Nicklin's Cabin- 1. 
Diam. hi. Length 1*8, Breadth 1*6 inches. 

Shell extremely thick and swollen — marly round, slightly 
elongated — substance of the shell thick and ponderous — beaks 
somewhat elevated and recurved, decorticated — dorsal mar- 
gin rounded^ posterior, posterior dorsal and posterior basal 
margins rounded; basil margin slightl] emarginate; anterioi 
\ oi.. in. — :3 y 



270 , SIX NEW SPECIES 

and anterior basal margins rounded ; anterior dorsal margin 
slightly rounded — epidermis yellow, but filled completely 
over with numerous dark green spotted lines, running in a 
sweep from the beak to the margin. In the anterior part 
the crowding of these lines generally forms five or six bands, 
the largest being in the furrow in the middle of the shell : in 
the posterior part there are no bands — disks transversely and 
deeply wrinkled, with a slight longitudinal furrow from the 
beaks to the basal margin — tubercles slightly elevated and nu- 
merous, and generally situated on the wrinkles ; cardinal 
tooth wide, depressed and sulcated ; lamellar tooth slightly 
curved, thick, rather depressed, short and abrupt — posterior 
cicatrices very distinct, the smaller one being placed directly 
over the larger one and beneath the point of the lamellar 
tooth — anterior cicatrices distinct, the great one deep — cavity 
angular and exceedingly small for the size of the shell — na- 
cre pearly white and silvery. 

Remarks. — The very minute and delicate spotted lines 
which pass from the beaks to the margin of this species well 
characterize it. They are so fine and approach so nearly to 
each other as to give a general olive appearance to the disk, 
the ground of which is really yellow. I have not observed 
this to pervade completely the surface of any other spe- 
cies, and in this it is constant. The substance of the shell is 
exceedingly massive and ponderous, more so for its size than 
any other species which I have seen. The animal is the only 
one in the organization of which, during my examination 
of this genus, I have been able to detect any essential differ- 
ence. From the shell being longitudinal and peculiarly mas- 
sive, we might be led to suspect a conformation different from 
the other species, and such is the case. 

By the exertion of my brother T. G. Lea, I have been for- 
tunate enough to obtain three individuals of this species in a 
state of impregnation considerably developed. In those I ob- 
served an appendage, in form of a depressed cone, attached to 
the branchiae on either side, and a very slight examination 
fully satisfied me these were the oviducts. 



OF THE GENUS VSIO. 27 1 

In all the other species which I have examined I have found 
the ovaries and oviducts as described by Cuvicr. Hose. Ca- 
ms, &c. The oviducts in these lie in a direct line between 
the two great muscles, and are attached to the upper pair of 
branchiae. In the irroratus this space is >o small, as is also 
the cavity, that it seems to require adifferenl conformation to 
accommodate the oviducts, and thus we find them pendent, 
and not placed along the plane of the branchiae. The long 
sacks containing the ova air inserted about half way up the 
branchia* and somewhat posterior to the centre. The num- 
ber of these sacks in my three specimens consists of eight in 
two, and seven in the other. The posterior sack is the outer 
or surrounding one. and measured two inches ; the second and 
fourth 2-2; the third 2-4; the fifth 1-9; the sixth l-(>: the 
seventh 1-4. In diameter the sacks are nearly the same size. 
the interior ones being rather smaller than the exterior, which 
measures one-twentieth of an inch. 

These measurements were effected by separating the mem- 
branes which connect the sacks together and stretching them 
out. The diameter of the cone is *G ; its elevation -2 of an 
inch. The outer sack terminates after making one revolu- 
tion; the second advances one-third on the succeeding revo- 
lution, and eaeb succeeding one obeys the same law until the 
last terminates in the centre, and the mass having performed 
three revolutions, the whole forms a depressed cone. 

Tins curious arrangement of the sacks to form the depres- 
sed cone, which has its base resting on the region of the sto- 
mach, is admirably calculated by the economy of nature to 
harmonize with the construction of shell, which presents 
only at the centre of its di>U-> room for the essential purpose of 
propagation. See plate V. 

Fig. 6 represents the interior, fig. 7 the exterior of the ovi- 
duct, the mantle being removed. 

a the mouth. 

b the greal anterior muscle. 

c the superior righl branchial. 



272 SIX NEW SPECIES 

d the great posterior muscle. 

e the inferior right hranchiae. 

f the right oviduct. 

g the foot. 

h the superior left branchiae. 

i interior view of the oviduct. 



6. Unio Lacry3ioscs. Plate VI. fie:. 8 



r^ - 






Testa sub-quadrangulari, incequilaterali, postice angulatd, transversa, 
tuberculata ; dente laterali abruptc terminante. 

Shell subquadrangular, inequilateral, angular behind, transverse, tu- 
berculated ; termination of lateral tooth abrupt. 

Hab. Ohio. T. G. Lea. 

.My Cabinet. 
Cabinet of T. G. Lea. 
Cabinet of Prof. Vanuxem. 
Diam. -9, Length 1-7, Breadth 1-8 inches. 

Shell rather depressed and rounded anteriorly — substance 
of the shell thick — beaks slightly elevated with the ligament 
passing between them, recurved and almost touching, free 
from decortication, and covered with beautiful delicate raised 
points — when viewed on the back all the visible part is co- 
vered with them — dorsal margin oblique ; posterior dorsal 
margin subangular, carinated ; posterior margin angular : pos- 
terior basal margin emarginate ; basal, anterior and anterior 
dorsal and basal margins rounded — epidermis yellow-green 
and very smooth, almost white at the point of the beaks, an- 
teriorly slightly rayed — disks tuberculated, having a smooth 
channel, margined by two rows of tubercles or raised points, 
running from the point of the beaks, and diverging one to the 
basal, the other to the posterior margin — tubercles, enlarging 
towards the base, taking the form of flowing tears, and resem- 
bling coagulated gum ; they are very minute at the point of the 
beaks — undulated delicately along the posterior dorsal mar- 




VI 









' 



■y- 



► 










OF THE GENUS UNIO. 273 

gin — have one distinct line of growth — cardinal tooth very 
wide, depressed and sulcated — lamellar tooth straight, short, 
crenated and abrupt — posterior cicatrices confluent; anterior 
cicatrices distinct, the great one deep and partly surrounding 
the cardinal tooth — cavity not deep, but angular, and extend- 
ing under the cardinal tooth — double impression of the man- 
tle very perceptible — nacre pearly white and silvery. 

Remarks. — This rare shell forms without doubt the most 
beautiful and perfect species yet discovered of this genus. Its 
beautiful tubercles, lively colour and delicately pointed white 
beaks, together with its strikingly pure nacre, entitle it to a 
precedence over all that have yet found their way to our ca- 
binets. The form of the tubercles is very peculiar and they 
distinctly mark this fine species. The specimen represented 
in the drawing is the largest of five which I have seen. 

This species is more nearly allied to the metanevra of 
Rafinesque than to any other. It differs however, essen- 
tially, in its having a greater number and more distinct tuber- 
cles ; its colour, and the tuberculous ridge of the latter being 
replaced by a smooth furrow, enlarging from the beaks to the 
posterior basal margin and bordered by two rows of small tu- 
bercles. The metanevra is also larger and more ponderous. 



VOL. III. — 3 z 



No. V. 



On the Geographical Distribution of Plants. By C. Pick- 
ering, M.D — Read October 19th 1827. 

^ ilHE observations of travellers in every part of the globe, and 
-■- our greatly incrensed knowledge of the species both of ve- 
getables and animals, have of late yeaa-s brought forward the 
interesting subject of their geographical distribution. The 
materials accumulated prior to the last half century were few, 
and insufficient to solve many questions which have since 
yielded to the labours of naturalists. Much has been accom- 
plished by Humboldt, Brown, Schouw and others — the sub- 
ject is continually receiving increased attention, but it is uni- 
formly rendered intricate by attempting to reduce under the 
same laws both species and groups (as families, genera, &c), 
while it is evident that the local causes, which, in the one in- 
stance, greatly influence their distribution, by no means affect 
the other. In this essay, species and groups are examined 
separately, the inquiry is directed more particularly to the 
former, and their range is followed as a guide in the arrange- 
ment here proposed. 

Solar heat is evidently the principle which puts in motion 
the fluids of plants, and these vary in their relation to it, 
some requiring a temperature that destroys others; conse- 
quently, a plant being carried far north or south of its natural 



ON THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF PLANTS. 275 

station meets a climate fatal to it, from a deficiency or excess 
of heat, marking its northern ami southern limits. 

A plant can thus exist only within two lulls encircling the 
globe, one in the northern, the other in the southern hemi- 
sphere, in general coinciding with the parallels of latitude, 
hut rendered irregular by the variation of climate at different 
meridians, elevation <>f the eartl-.'s surface, 8tc 

The breadth of these belts varies greatly in differenl spe- 
cies, and though experience has sufficiently demonstrated that 
it may he determined to within one degree of latitude, this 
has not yet been fully accomplished in a single instance. A 
careful examination of North American plants, and a compa- 
rison of authorities have yielded the following result. In a 
great part, perhaps one third, of the North American species, 
it does not exceed five degrees of latitude, and rarely attains 
twenty. 

The range of plants is. however, far from being as exten- 
sive as clhiuih would permit. The plants of the northern 
and southern hemispheres are different : the same may he said 
with respect to the plants of the eastern and western conti- 
nents, except in the extreme north. Hence we must seek 
for some other cause restricting the diffusion of plant-, and 
this will be found in the ocean, a great exit nt of which at 
once prevents farther progress. 

\_ain. few plants stretch aero— (he whole extent of the 
continents, in their wider parts, their range is usually still more 
limited. This leads to the examination of oth< r can lea which 
impede their diffusion. 

My ascending above the level of the ocean, the temperature 
is found to he reduced in the same manner ;«- on advancing 

towards the pole-, ami at the heighl of perpetual mih« we 

find a polar climate. The relative mean proportion has been 
estimated at about six hundred feet of elevation to a degree 

of latitude. Accordingly, if a chain of mountains extends in 

the direction of the meridians, plants of cold regions, meeting 

a parity of climate, descend on their summit- into Lowef lati- 
tudes. On the Rocky mountains, arctic plants reach the nor- 



276 ON THE GEOGRAPHICAL. 

thern provinces of Mexico. Magellanic plants likewise exist 
on the Andes of Chili. In the southern parts of the United 
States, the low ridge of the Alleghanies (which rarely exceeds 
three thousand feet Of elevation) affords a multitude of plants 
which avoid the low country, and are otherwise confined to 
the northern states. 

Mountains thus introduce seeming confusion into our flo- 
ras, while there exists in reality the most perfect order. 

A lofty and unbroken chain likewise presents a barrier in- 
surmountable to many plants. There is much difference in 
the vegetation between the northern and southern sides of the 
European Alps — the flora of Chili differs essentially from that 
of the country on the opposite side of the Andes. 

A great river is also an obstacle to the diffusion of plants, 
apparently less easily overcome than a much more considera- 
ble extent of ocean. Many plants on either side of the Mis- 
sissippi do not cross it. The great rivers of Siberia are known 
to exert a like influence on vegetation. 

Water, with those substances it dissolves in the soil, is the 
the food of plants, and the quantity they require for the per- 
formance of their functions varies in different species. A 
plant can vegetate only in a soil containing a certain propor- 
tion of moisture. The seeds of aquatics will not germinate 
unless beneath the surface of water, while some plants flourish 
only in the most arid sands. 

Difference in soil, so far as vegetation is concerned, is known 
to consist mainly in the quantity of water it is capable of ab- 
sorbing, and its power of resisting evaporation, two qualities 
dependant on a variety of circumstances : — on the character 
of the rocks from which the mineral part is derived, whether 
such as resist decomposition, or yield to it, forming clay ; or 
such as break down into gravel and sand, &c. — on locality, 
whether on plains and the summits of hills, or on declivities 
moistened by the filtering of water from higher places, or in 
low grounds perpetually saturated with it, thus forming 
marshes and bogs ; — whether in the vicinity of, or at a dis- 



DISTRIBUTION OF PLANTS. 27 7 

tance from mountains; — whether exposed to the rays of tin 
Mm. or protected by forests, ice. 

This relation of plants to water* confines them to particular 
Situations, and any one plant can occupy but a small portion of 
the surface of the soil, while at the same time a great Dum- 
ber of species can exist together within a limited space. Un- 
der certain circumstances, this may have considerable influ- 
ence upon their range. 

These phenomena, with many others which are continu- 
ally presenting themselves, carry usat once to the supposition, 
that each species must have originated on a particular point 
of the earth's surface, from which, in the course of successive 
generations, it would have spread over the whole globe, hut 
that it has been kept hack and confined within narrow limits, 
by causes, of which the above mentioned are the most pro- 
minent We find accordingly, that almost every practical 
botanist, conversant with the subject, has followed. (.Hen un- 
consciously, a mode of reasoning which ultimately leads to this 
conclusion. 

That no species has ori^inaled on two differ* nt points of 
the earth's surface is proved by a variety of circumstances ; 
most of the instances where a plant occurs in two distant and 
mingly insulated places being readily accounted for bj 
existing causes. 

There has been much discussion relative to the quadrupeds 
common to the eastern and western continents; hut it is now 
admitted, that those species only are common, whose range 
extends near to, or within, the arctic circle where the two 
continents closely approach each other. 

The foregoing conclusion is also confirmed by tin vegeta- 
tion of islands. In those which are situated at the distance of 
from one to several miles from the main land, all the plants 
are common to the neighbouring continent: while if at a 

greater distance, they frequently afford some species not to be 

Maritime planti arc confined to a soil impregnated with muriate of aoda, and 
i few species appear to i"- peculiar to limestone rocks. 
VOL. III. 4 A 



278 ON THE GEOGRAPHICAL 

found there : and lastly, countries separated by a vast extent 
of ocean, and at the same time insulated by climate, do not 
possess in common a single phcenogamous plant* — as, the 
southern extremity of Africa with that of New Holland, or 
of South America. 

Among the principal agents in conveying the seeds of plants 
to a distance from their original site, are the winds, and the 
currents of the ocean. 

The seeds of West Indian plants are thrown by the gulf 
stream upon the coast of Northern Europe, and sometimes 
germinate there, but are destroyed by the frosts on the ap- 
proach of winter. Accordingly, those species, which are 
common to countries separated by a great extent of ocean, are 
observed to be generally aquatic and marsh plants, especially 
maritime, whose seeds are formed to bear a long exposure to 
water. 

Some estimate of the influence of the winds in distribut- 
ing the seeds of vegetables may be formed, from the fact of 
the ashes of a volcano being frequently carried many hundred 
miles from its crater. Botanists have observed that the crypto- 
gamia, especially lichens, in their geographical distribution, do 
not appear to follow the same laws with phcenogamous plants, 
many of the former being found in every part of the globe. — 
The excessive minuteness of the seeds of these plants autho- 
rizes the conjecture, that the winds alone have accomplished 
such an universal distribution. 

The fact of the European Alps affording on their summits 
some arctic plants is not so readily disposed of, as the general 
direction of this chain of mountains is parallel with the equa- 
tor, and there is a wide interval, of several hundred miles, 
between their most northern bend and the southern extremity 
of the mountains of the Scandinavian peninsula. Here, with 
the exception of the annual migration of birds, the winds 
appear to be the only agents left us, and it seems improbable 

* Exceptions are extremely rare : among fifty thousand phrenogamous plants, 
now known, Samolut valerandi is the only well authenticated instance of a plant, 
which is common to almost every part of the globe. 



msTlMUl tion OP PLANTS. 279 

that they should have conveyed the seeds of plants to so great 
a distance. — The Andes, in this respect, present a striking con- 
trast with the mountains of the eastern continent This 
greal chain of mountains appears to extend, almost uninter- 
ruptedly, from near, or within, tin' antic circle to Cape Horn; 
md arctic plants, which in the eastern continent do not reach 
the European Alps, have been here discovered as low as 40 
N. lat.. far south of those mountain; — as, Campanula unijlora. 
Saxijraga nivalis, ix.c. 

Great confusion has been occasioned in our floras by man 
himself carryine ■with him, in his migrations, a multitude oi 
plants. In the more settled parts of the United States, the 
greater portion of the entire surface iscovered with European 
vegetables : many have even wandered into the woods, so as firi - 
quently to perplex the botanist in determining, whetherthey 
have been introduced from Europe, or existed here previous 
to the discovery of the country. The flora of Pursh, which 
is usually appealed to as giving evidence of the number ol 
species common to the two continents, contains upwards of 
one hundred and fifty species, now generally admitted by 
American botanists to have been introduced, hut on which 
that author does nol express an opinion, leaving the foreigner 
without any means of deciding, except that, being frequently 
indicated as found about held- and cultivated ground, they art 
of course liable to suspicion. 

Thus, climate and the ocean are the two greal pow< ra 

which sr) bounds to the diffusion of plant-, and at the -aim 

time, by insulating certain portions of land, divide the surface 
of the globe into several greal botanical regions. 

In this essay the following division ha- been adopted: 

I. Greenland, Iceland, and the arctic regions of both con- 
tinent-. 

II. The temperate portion of North America. 

III. Tin' temperate portion of tlw Ka-tern continent. 

IV. The West Indies, and the intertropical regions "i 
America. 



280 ON THE GEOGRAPHICAL 

V. Madagascar and the islands in the vicinity, the inter- 
tropical regions of Africa and of Arabia. 

VI. The intertropical regions of Asia (Arabia excepted), of 
New Holland, the East Indies, New Guinea, New Caledonia, 
and most of the islands in the Pacific. 

VII. The temperate portion of South America. 

VIII. The southern extremity of Africa. 

IX. Van Dieman's land, and the temperate portion of New 
Holland. 

X. New -Zealand. 

XI. The Falkland Islands, Terra del Fuego, the South 
Shetland Islands, and the southern extremity of South Ame- 
rica. 

Some volcanic islands are situated in the midst of the ocean, 
at a vast distance from land, and are so completely insulated, 
that they cannot be referred to any of the above regions : — 
such are the islands of Ascension, St Helena, Tristan dAc- 
unha, in the Atlantic ; Amsterdam Island in the Indian Ocean, 
&c. The flora of islands of this description is restricted in 
the number of species, but highly deserving attention ; and it 
would even appear that they possess species peculiar to them- 
selves, an extremely interesting and important fact. 

All the plants existing in either of the eleven regions here 
laid down are not invariably confined to it, a few being com- 
mon to two or more of them ; and we observe that if two of 
these regions approach each other at any point, several spe- 
cies are common to both ; — thus, many species are to be 
found in the northern parts of the two continents, and in the 
intertropical parts of Africa and of Asia : — while to those 
which are most completely separated, no phcenogamous plant 
is common. 

As the plan refers solely to the range of plants, it is liable 
to the objection of elevating a comparatively insignificant 
portion of southern Africa to the rank of a distinct region, 
while the whole of the northern and temperate part of the 
eastern continent, comprising more than a third of all the land 
upon the surface of the earth, forms but one : and if the in- 



DISTMB1 Tlo\ in PLANTS. 28] 

termediate portion of this continenl had been originally cover- 
ed by the ocean; the eastern and western extremities, accord- 
ing to the presenl system, would undoubtedly have ranked as 
two botanical regions: but, the land being continuous, plants 
have so intermingled that it is impossible to chaw a lin 
distinction. 

As few plants arc diffused over the whole of the more \ 
tensive of these regions, subregions maj be established, and 
the principal rivers and chains of mountains should be em- 
ployed for thai purpose a- the natural boundaries, each v, il>- 
regiun containing many peculiar species. This has been 
attempted in the second and third regions only. 

Tin- second region comprises four subregions: 

1. Flora Canadensis. All Canada, from the Atlantic to 
the Pacific, and hounded south by the rivers Oregon, Mis- 
souri, and St Lawrence. 

2. Flora of the United States. The country situated be- 
tween the Atlantic and the Mississippi river. 

3. Flora Ludoviciana. The country situated between the 
Mississippi and the northern Andes. 

i. Flora Californiana. The country situated between the 
northern Audi- and the Pacific. 

The third region comprises six subregions: 

1. Flora Europea. The north of Europe and western Si- 
beria, bounded easl by the river Fenisei, and south by the 
chain of the Alps, of Caucasus, ^e. 

i. Flora Siberica. The country situated between the ¥e- 
nesei and the Pacific. 

3. Flora Mediterranea. The south of Europe and north 

of Africa. 

4. Flora Persica. Persia, Syria and the north of Arabia, 
bounded i asl by the Indus. 

.. Flora Thibetana. Thibet and the north of Hindostan. 

6. Flora Chinensis. China. Corea and the islands of .la- 
pan. 

These four last do not corn -pond precisely with the threi 
southern subregions of North America: as on the fortieth p 

\ in., in. — 1 i: 



282 ON THE GEOGRAPHICAL 

rallel of latitude, this continent, in breadth, hardly exceeds 
one third of the eastern. 

It is not our purpose to examine in detail the geogra- 
phical distribution of forms. In general, the intertropical re- 
gions should be contrasted with the remainder of the globe, 
and thus all forms will be either intertropical or extratropical. 
— The Palmx, Scitaminex, Musacex, Bromeliacex, Jluran- 
tiacex, Guttiferx, Sapotex, Piper aeex, Malpighiacex, Melasto- 
mex, Meliacex, Sec. are intertropical forms. — The Rhododen- 
dracex, Ericex, Saxifragex, Umbelliferx, Jlmentacex, Com- 
ferx, Proteacex, Epacridex, Rosacex, Geraniacex, Caryophyl- 
lex, Cistinex, Cruciferx, Ranunculaccx, fyc. are extratropical 
forms. 

Again, the northern and southern regions of the globe may 
be contrasted. — The Proteacex, Epacridex, fyc. are peculiar 
to the southern ; the Cistinex, fyc. to the northern portions 
of it. 

Descending from superior to inferior group, we observe a 
continual tendency to become restricted to some one of the 
above botanical regions : — to some of which, entire natural 
orders are limited, and where orders are not, families or tribes 
are : descending still lower, many genera are found to be pe- 
culiar to each ; and even if a genus be not so far restricted, a 
natural section of it, or some peculiarity in structure or habit, 
is frequently confined to one region. These facts are deserv- 
ing of the greatest attention : it is to be observed, however, 
that from analogy of structure, a like relation to climate might 
be expected. 

On the same principles, maps of the geographical distribu- 
tion of quadrupeds, birds, reptiles, fishes, mollusca, Crustacea, 
insects, &c. may be constructed ; each of which classes will re- 
quire particular modifications. 

Thus, examining the distribution of land quadrupeds, we 
observe that their range is not so much influenced by tem- 
perature, as that of plants, and more so by the ocean : — un- 
like the seeds of plants, they cannot pass a great extent of wa- 
ter, while at the same time they roam through more degrees 



DISTBIBUTIOK OF PLANTS. 283 

of latitude. For this reason, the intertropical position of N< \\ 
Holland must be restored to the remainder of this continenl : 
— the northern part of Africa should, perhaps, be united with 
the intertropical part ; — Madagascar, from the number af pe- 
culiar species, maydeserve the rank of a distincl region, while 
New Zealand is almost a blank in the geography of land 
quadrupeds. 



On the accompanying map of North America, the ranges oi 
several plants are delineated. It is to be considered merely a 
sketch; as a large portion of the country has not ye1 been visited 
by a botanist, anil even in those parts which are besl known. 
observations are either unpublished, or too few to determine, 
with exactness, the range of a single species. Under these 
circumstances, we are forced, in some instances, to substitute 
conjecture for fact. 

Tin southern boundary of the arctic plants. In the eastern 
pari of this continent, these plants cannot descend lower than 
lat l l 1 *. on account of the inferior altitude of the Alleghany 
niountain> south of thai line. How low they descend od the 
northern Amies is no! yet ascertained. — The following have 
been observed at the stations indicated on the map. Rum/ex 
digynus, Silent acaulis, Polygonum viviparum, Trisetutn sub- 

spirillum. tVr. 

The coloured portion represents a fragment of a belt, 
beyond which certain plants cannot exist, and the irregulari- 
ties and inflections into which it is thrown in this continent, 
by the inequality of climate and elevation of the surface: 
the transverse lines mark the cessation of certain species. — 
Thus, a few species do not appear to extend west of the M- 
leghanies; — others are confined to the summits of these 
mountains, as Pinus pungensj Rhododendron Catawbiense, 
li. minus, ffiphytteia cytnosa, Pachysandra procumb&u, jSeo- 
nitum urn ■nullum, Galax iijilii/l/u. tyc. — westward of the Al- 
leghanies, plants occur which do not reach the Atlantic: — 



284 ON THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF PLANTS. 

many are confined between the Mississippi and the northern 
Andes, as different species of Pcntstemon, Eriogonum, Psora- 
lea, Gaura, Mnothera, fyc. — the summits of these mountains 
again present peculiar species: — the country west of this 
chain affords others still different, and some in the more nor- 
thern parts, which are common to eastern Siberia. 

Of maritime plants, some are peculiar to America, as Uni- 
ola maritima, Spartina glabra, Gerardia maritima, Aster sub- 
ulatus, A. sparsiflorus, Solidago laevigata, Uniola spicata, fyc. 
— while others are common to the eastern and western con- 
tinents, as Arundo arenaria, Salsola kali, Pimm maritimum, 
Glaux maritima, Statice Limonium, tyc. 



No. VI. 

J» Account of some Human Bones found on tin ('oust <>j 
Brazil, near Santa*. Latitude 24° 30 S. Longitude 
46° W. By C. D. Meigs, MB.— Bead ill, December 

1827. 



r |MIOSE members of the Philosophical Society who hav< 
-■- read Mr Konig's account of the skeleton carried by Ad- 
miral Cochrane from Guadaloupe to England, and preserved 
in the British Museum, will find considerable interest in tin 
specimens now on the table. 

M. Cuvier has decided that not a single example of human 
bone has been found among Hie extraneous fossils of animals 
thai are so profusely scattered over the face of the earth ; and 
remarks that "human bones preserve equally will with thos< 
of animals when placed in the same circumstances" — whence 
arises the Datura] inference "thai the human race didnol ex> 
U\ in the countries in which the fossil bones of animals hav< 
been discovered, at the epoch when these bones were covered 
up: as there can not be a singli reason assigned why men 
should have entirely escaped from such general catastrophi 
or, if thej also had hem destroyed and covered over al tin 
same time, why their remains should doI now be found along 
with those of the other animals." This learned aaturalisl 
does not asseii thai man did Dot exist al those periods, bul 
says he might have inhabited some narrow regions or conn 

VOL. III. — I I 



286 ACCOUNT OF HUMAN BONES 

tries which form the bottom of actual seas, where all his re- 
mains are buried. 

The homo diluvii testis et theoscopos of Scheuchzer, and 
the mountain of similar debris described by Spallanzani as 
existing in Cerigo, have been proved not to belong to our 
race, and of the jaw dug up among the fossil bones at Cron- 
stadt, Mr C. remarks that no sufficient notes or precautions 
were taken at the time of its discovery, so to its pretensions 
also there is a non liquet. 

Granting that no human extraneous fossil exists, it is ne- 
vertheless admitted that such remains have been found, which, 
without having undergone any process of lapidification, are of 
an extremely ancient date, and the more ancient they are, 
the more interesting do they appear. Professor Blumenbach, 
for example, has a skull from an ancient Roman tomb, and 
it is in a good state of preservation. The Egyptian mum- 
mies of a very remote age have their osseous structure pre- 
served in a perfect integrity, and there is in these mummies 
a circumstance which goes to shew that no limit could be 
properly assigned to the duration of bony organization. I 
allude to the facts recently published in relation to the dissec- 
tion of those relics : in M. Passalqua's mummy, the dia- 
phragm still retained its suppleness, though from a papyrus 
which was deciphered by M. Champollion, the subject was 
found to be daughter to an officer of the Temple of Isis at 
Thebes. In Dr Granville's dissection, the stomach, kidneys 
and ovaria were still discernible. Now if the fibrous and 
membranous structures are capable of being preserved for 
more than twenty centuries, why may we not suppose the 
osseous portions of the frame to endure for forty or sixty 
under favourable circumstances. 

The present specimens are particularly interesting, inas- 
much as they belong to the American continent, and as ad- 
ding another link to that chain of testimony concerning the 
early occupation of this soil, of which the remains are so few 
and unsatisfactory, but of which another link or strong analogue 
exists in the Island of Guadaloupe. in a good measure neglect- 



FOUND NI'.Ali >ANT\< IN HHVZll.. 287 

ed or disregarded on account of its Loneliness or want of con- 
nection with similar facts. 

These specimens were brought bo this country in June 
last by Captain J. D. Elliott, of the l~. S. navy. That officer, 
with a liberality which can not be too highly esteemed, both 
in reference to is intrinsic nuiit and the usefulness of the ex- 
ample, collected in his bite cruise on the Brazilian station 
many interesting objects in natural history, arts, agriculture, 
Sec., with which hehasenriched his own country. 

While riding along the banks of the river Santas, in his 
way from the port of Santas to tin 1 town of St Paul, he dis- 
covered a mound or elevation, whose area he thinks must ex- 
I three acres, and whose height is aboul fourteen lift. 
The surface is covered with soil in which grow many large 
trees. 

This mound or hillock is about four miles from Santas, and 
the little river Santa- rises in the mountain of C'nbiton. whos< 
summit is elevated aboul 2~> 00 feet, and stands at the distance 
n miles from the sea. 

These bones were diig from the lace of the hill where it 
was cut by the wash of the stream, and are parts of one ske- 
leton out of many hundreds thai are still lying in their lied 
of tufa. 

Captain E. describes them a- resting in the rock in an ob- 
lique direction; the heads uppermost, and the lower extremi- 
ties dipping at an angle of from 20° to 25° below tin horizon 

eastwards. This is a very curious loci, if < Lpared with 

what M. Lavaysse says of the east and wesl direction of 
the Guadaloupe skeletons — a position which occasioned them 
to be regarded as the tenants of some ancient cemetery, though 
Mr Eonig justly remarks thai from the looseness of Lavaysse's 
account of the accompanying petrifactions, ool much stress is 
to be laid on his description 'd this point. 

There are in all nine pieces : 

\ i. l is ili<- largi -i. and consists of the |,fi os temporis in 
i very entire state. To it is attached a portion of the parj 
tal bone and a fragment of the occipital. 'I'll' specimen is 



288 ACCOUNT OF HUMAN BONES 

remarkable for the uncommon thickness of the squamous 
portion, which just above the petrous part is nearly half an 
inch through. I have seen, however, a recent skull thicker 
than this. The mastoid portion is entire. 

The squamous and mastoid portions are invested externally 
with a stalactitic deposit of carbonate of lime, looking very 
much like mummified skin. The internal or cerebral sur- 
face is wholly destitute of any incrustation : whether it was 
filled with the gangue, or any other substance, I can not tell. 

The petrous portion is entire, with the exception of a frag- 
ment near its point ; the part broken off extended from the 
foramen innominatum obliquely to the upper orifice of the 
carotic canal, of which the floor or lower wall is nevertheless 
in a natural state. In every other respect it is whole. It is 
proper to remark that along the upper limit of the specimen 
an old fracture is to be seen, which was probably a fissure, 
and filled with a greenish matter, probably some ferruginous 
salt. The diploe is natural, having no lapidification whatever. 

No. 2 is part of the superior maxillary bone, exhibiting a 
portion of its body with the alveoli and bony palate. To it is 
attached a part of the os palati ; also three incisor teeth dis- 
located from their alveoles, but held nearly in contact with 
them by the gangue. Close to one of the teeth is a serpula 
and a piece of oyster shell. 

No. 3 is part of the left greater wing of the sphenoid 
bone. 

No. 4 is a remnant of the lower jaw, viz. the angle, the 
condyloid and coronoid processes, and part of the ramus as 
far forwards as the foramen for transmitting the nerve and 
vessels. 

Nos. 5 & 6 are pieces of parietal bone. 

No. 7 is a piece consisting of broken ribs. 

No. 8 an incisor tooth remarkably worn by age. 

No. 9 a specimen of the rock of which the mound is com- 
posed, and in which the skeletons are imbedded. It consists 
of. fragments of shells united by a stalactitic matter. I beg 
leave to point out small nodules of carbonaceous matter, which 



lul M) M'.AH SANTAS IN BRAZIL. -' s 9 

are curious, inasmuch as similar masses arc mentioned bj Mr 
Knni»- as found in the Guadaloupe rock, and which detonated 
with nitre like gun powder. 

The rock at Guadaloupe, which contains so many skele- 
tons, is covered by .high tides, and extends along the shore 
nearly a mile. Bach skeleton seems encased in a targe no- 
dule of an oval shape. OT in a ma— resembling a nodule de- 
tached From a larger ruck. The ruck is described a- an 
"aggregate, composed principally <>f zoophytic particles, and 
the detritus of compact limestone. It readily dissolves in 
diluted nitric acid without leaving any evident residue." — 
Konig. 

Mr Konig's rock is "a greyish yellow passing into a yel- 
lowish grey. When more closely examined it is found to 
consisl of yellowish grains, intermixed with others of a more 
nr less deep flesh red colour. These grains, though minute, 
are in some parts of the m>s perfectly defined, and in close 
contact with each other, although no cement is perceptible. 
In other parts the-, are, as it were, confluent, forminga more 
Mi- Less porous mass. In others, again, they form a compact 
mass, in which the former distinct concretions, especially the 
red ones, are only indicated by a difference of colour. 

The specimen of rock before us is certainly a small one. 
and may. on that account, he an unlit subject for comparison 
with that described by Mi' Konig. In regard i" colour il is 
more nearly blueish grey passing into blue; some parts of it 
are yellowish: at a little distance from the eye it resembles 
a piece of dried mud idled with broken oyster shells. There 
are particles of a reddish, or rather Spanish brown colour. 
disseminated through it \* n sparsel 

This specimen is»quite hard and heavy; it has numerous 
pore- or interstices, some of which constitute a sort of \,r\ 
-mall geodic cavities lined bj a drusj looking Btalactitic car- 
bonate. The Guadaloupe stone i^ harder than statuary mar- 
ble, hut I think this is considerably soft r. 

I can not discover in il a vestige of the yellowish grains 
descrihed as making so large a pari of the -t • in the British 

\ OI.. III. I II 



290 ACCOUNT OF HUMAN BONES 

Museum ; there are several laminae of a yellowish substance, 
and some smaller portions of the same kind disseminated here 
and there — the larger are manifestly splinters and scales 
of bone, probably from crushed pieces of the skeleton ; the 
latter I can attribute to no other source. . 

Mr Konig speaks of several kinds of shells — in this there 
are many broken oysters and one serpula. Mr Konig does 
not mention an oyster shell in his description. 

A question naturally arises as to the date of that catastro- 
phe which enclosed several hundred individuals in the tufa 
of the Rio Santas. The aborigines of that coast were always 
very poor, few and ignorant: — could they erect such a 
mound? 

Monsieur Lavaysse was at Guadaloupe when General Er- 
nouff wrote his account of the Galibies to M. Faujas St Fond, 
and says he collected many specimens, as heads, arms, legs. 
vertebra, &c. for his own use. He also found a cote des 
Sqelettes, mortars, clubs, &c. &c. in a petrified state, and 
consisting of a basaltic or porphyritic stone. We might ask, 
how can you petrify a basalt or a porphyry. Mr L. regards 
the skeletons as indigenes burried in a cemetery. 

It seems unlikely that these remains were formally buried 
by surviving friends. It is unlikely that so solid a stone 
should have been formed at so great a distance from the sea. 
The enormous trees that grow on the surface make it neces- 
sary to go back many years in search of the date. 

1 would not venture to differ from the opinion of Mr Cu- 
vier on such a subject as this if I could learn his opinion. I 
will, however, take the liberty of referring to some appear- 
ances of our maritime borders for illustration of the few addi- 
tional observations I have to make. This alluvion extends 
from Long Island to the province of Texas, widening in some 
places till it recedes 150 to 200 miles from the sea shore. 
From North Carolina to near the mouth of the Mississippi 
there is traceable, at intervals, a line of beds, consisting mostly 
of oyster shells in some particular spots of an enormous size. 
These beds are, at the point where the line crosses Eddistoe 



FOl NI) XKA11 SANTAS IN IlliVZII.. 291 

and Savannah rivers, verj wide and deep. No doubt thej 

arc co-existent with the emerged land: they arc not to be con- 
sidered as the results of human industry. The shore of the 
Atlantic must have formerly swepi nearly in a line with the* 
remarkable deposits. But the Atlantic level lias remained 
nearly what it is for more than 4000 years, and still these oyster 
shell-- are whole: they are not petrified; they are occasionally 
burned for lime. Within tin- bed, or nearer than it to the 
sea, are found fossil bones of elephants, &c. which can not be 
so old as the unfossilized oyster shells, since they could not 
have been fossilized anterior to the existence of the soil, out 
of which they are dug, unless you consider them as boulders, 
which is not admissible. Such fossils do not perhaps deserve 
the name of extraneous — that is all we can say ot them, sine 
they exist in an alluvion. 

I am sorry I can not learn the geological character of the 
mountains of Cubiton. There is a long chain running near 
the coast from Rio Janeiro southwesterly. 

The geologists are at liberty to determine the date and 
rank of the Santas tufa and thereby the probable age of th< 
hones: our alluvial border, at least, bears no marks of volca- 
nic agency, [t emerged from a sinking sea 5 its organic re- 
main- are of an indefinite age. Did the Santas mound come 
above water by the same proc( — 



No. VII. 

Some Observations on the Moulting of Birds. By George 
Ord.— Read March 7th, 1828. 

r PHAT Birds, in general, annually shed their feathers, will 
not he disputed. This change takes place, in some spe- 
cies, in summer ; in others, in the autumn. When the old 
feathers drop, their place is supplied by new ones, which, in 
some species, are of quite a different complexion from those 
that they succeed. But when, in the spring, a retrocession 
of colour is found to have taken place, naturalists have 
concluded, that these birds undergo a double moulting; for 
in no other way could they account for a change of colour, 
which has been supposed to be dependent on a change of plu- 
mage. The species which are usually domesticated have 
been said to moult but once a year* ; because, not perceiving 

* With respect to the genus Anas, the author of the Manuel a" 'Ornithologie 
expresses himself thus : " La mue, chez le plus grand nombre des especes con- 
nues, a lieu deux fois l'annee, en Juin et en Novembrc. Les femelles muent plus 
tard que les males, et peut-etre ne lefoht-elles qiflinefois." — p. 814. 

It here seems evident, that, in these remarks, Temminck would include the do- 
mestic geese. With us these valuable birds commence laying about the 1st of 
March ; early in April they sit ; and in May bring forth their young : the period 
of incubation being four weeks. Moulting then commences, and continues until 
August. In September they tire pretty well fledged ; and in November, the very 
season in which, agreeably to Temminck, the second moulting takes place, they 
are in full feather ; and give frequent evidence of the fact by short flights, espe- 
cially if dwelling near a lake or river. The same remarks are applicable to ducks. 



SOME OHSF.HV.VTIONS OS TIIF. MOULTING OP BIRDS. 293 

any material change in their garb, it is inferred that n<> 
change is necessary; and yet if any notable mutation had ob- 
tained in any one of the domesticated species, i( is probable 
it would be affirmed of thai species, that there was some phy- 
sical necessity for this exception, which did no1 hold of the 
rest. 

Three great naturalists hive given <>|ii 1 1 i< n 1- on this part of 
the physiology of Birds, which dom t altogether coincide with 
each other. From Buffon we learn that they moult but one* 
a year*. Baron Cuvier says thai their feathers Fall tvria a 
yearf. And Temminck informs us, that, in some gem ra, the 
whole of the species are subject to a double change of plu- 
mage: in others, only some of the species experience it ; whilst 
in the remainder, the moulting takes place bul oner a war}. 

The object of this inquiry is to ascertain, whether the opi- 
nion of Temminck. thai some Birdsg change their plumagi 
Urici a year, is founded in fact. 

The intention of Nature in rem wing the covering of Birds, 
appears to be a revigoration of those powers which are neces- 
sary to the propagation and conservation of the animal. At- 
ter the breeding season is passed, the period of moulting com- 
mences. The effects of this exhausting process, which, if 
not a disease) . is closelj allied to it. are well known. When 
the Bird recovers its strength, we find it in a new garb, which 
advances to perfection in proportion to its necessities: th< 
which migrate to great distances standing in need of ;i speed} 

It seems thai Temminck is doubtful whether the female* moult more than once . 
this doubt baa arisen, we presume, from bis inability to discover any variation 
their plum 
* Discours surla Nature d< • Oiseaux. 

R ■!, tome I, i>. - 

I Manuel <!'• hmitholo 

te, that I have referet ofn tttm 

14 La t pour too ■ ■ I d< maladie, i 

deretraite: la pluparl aonl foiblt el tri b - pendant una tool 

trte malai utrespet ucuna ne chantent tant qu'elle dun 

eachent, prennent pen d'ibal uent plus rarement dana ar* 

brcs, ou dans les prairies." — McOtdvyt. 

VOL. III. 4 E 



294 SOME OBSERVATIONS ON 

maturation* ; whilst others continue in the act of moulting 
between three and four months. 

The most perfect state of plumage is observed in the 
spring. Now, if we admit the fact of a vernal moulting, 
then must this moulting be characterized by other circum- 
stances than those which obtain in the autumnal ; for, after 
the latter, the plumage requires several months to arrive at 
maturity ; and the Bird, in ridding itself of its excretions, 
finds itself in too exhausted a state to perform the functions 
of propagation. The spring moulting, therefore, so far from 
exercising any debilitating influence upon the physical pow- 
ers of the Bird, should seem to afford them additional energy : 
for this moulting is pretended to take place about the period 
of the sexual union, when all the powers of nature are in full 

vigour. 

In those singing Birds which winter with us, we can per- 
ceive no diminution of vital energy during the vernal season, 
either as respects vigour of body, or capacity of voice. The 
Fringilla tristis, though migratory, frequently continues the 
whole year with us ; and his song, in the month of March, 
while yet his autumnal dress continues, is tuneful and ani- 
mated. The change in his garb begins to appear in April ; 
and early in May, we behold him in his brilliant yellow plu- 
mage, which may be termed his bridal garniture, for shortly 
thereafter commences the period of nidificatiou. During all 
this season of animation, his tuneful powers are unabated. 
In September, both sexes are nearly alike, for then they have 
moulted. 

When the Reed-bird (Emberiza orijzivora) visits us in Au- 
gust, the male and female adults, as well as the young, so 
much resemble each other, that it is difficult to distinguish 

* Many Birds change their feathers slowly, particularly their quills, so that they 
are not prevented from flying ; but wild swans and geese cast their plumage so ra- 
pidly, even their wing-feathers, that they are unable to fly for several weeks : hence, 
in the northern parts of our continent, where they breed, many of them become 
the prey of foxes, and the Indians ; and if they were not endued with extraordinary 
vigilance and sagacity, their race would stand a chance of becoming extinct. 



Tin: MOUIiTHIG (»r BXBDB. 295 

them. But in May. in their return to their breeding 
plaees. the garb of the male is so totally dissimilar to that of 
the female, that many persons are doubtful whether or not 
they constitute the same species. This change begins to 
take place in March, the plumage at first assuming a mottled 
appearance; and in May. he exhibits the full party-coloured 
dress, which is the striking characteristic of hi-- w \. Hut 
during the time thai the male is undergoing this metamor* 
phosis. there is no change of fathers: their colours being 
altogether the result of their organical secretions. This fad 
has been verified in many instance- of these birds confined in 
cages or aviaries. Even if we had no means of experiment- 
ing upon this subject, analogical reasoning alone would not 
a little aid us in investigating the truth: for no person who 
his taken the trouble to keep Canaries, or IVfocking-birds, 
will venture to affirm, that they shed their plumage, or moult, 
more than once a year. 

So long ago as the year 1811. Wilson, in his history of the 
Carolina Parrot, in giving an account of the vernal change of 
the colours of the feathers of the young of the preceding 
year, asserted, that B the colour changes without change ttf plu- 
mage." Bad this excellent ornithologist been fully aware 
of the importance of this fact, it would, doubtless, have led 
him to an investigation, the result of which might bave had 
a tendency to repress much of the absurdity which, since his 

time, has been promulgated on the subject <»f the moulting 
of Birds: for the authority of bo experienced an observer, 
would have had greater weight than that of a mere compiler, 
or a closet naturalist 

in the year 1819, the Rev. William Whitear communica- 
ted to the I mi nea 1 1 Society of London, some «* Remarks on the 
changes of the Plumage of Birds." These were published 

in the Transactions of that learned body. This gentleman, 

after detailing the result of observations which had been 
made, during the winter and spring, upon Mallards. Sandpi- 
pers, a Black -headed (Jull, and some other hi ids. thus expresses 

himself: — -The above observations seem pretty strongly to 



296 SOME OBSERVATIONS ON 

confirm the fact which Mr Youell has pointed out, namely, 
that a change in the colour of the plumage of Birds does not 
always arise from a change of feathers, but sometimes pro- 
ceeds from the feathers themselves assuming at one season of 
the year a different colour from that which they have at ano- 
ther*." 

The Rev. Dr Fleming, in his Philosophy of Zoology, cor- 
roborates the above opinion of the Rev. Mr Whitear's ; but 
maintains, that, " in those species whose plumage changes co- 
lour with the season, the different moultings take place at 
corresponding periods." "In the autumn," continues he, 
" we find that the black feathers on the head of the Larus ri- 
dibundus change to a white colour. But besides the altered 
feathers, others spring up, of a white colour, to increase the 
quantity of clothing. This Gull has, therefore, during the 
winter, some of the feathers of the head old, and others young. 
Again, in spring the white feathers of the winter become 
black, and a few new feathers make their appearance, like- 
wise of a black colour, to supply the place of the older ones, 
which drop off in succession. Some of the feathers on the 
head of this Gull are half a year older than others ; and con- 
sequently, we may infer, will fall off sooner than those of 
more recent growth. From these, and similar facts, furnish- 
ed by several species of British birds, we are disposed to con- 
clude, that the feathers which are produced in autumn, and 
the beginning of winter, and which correspond with the con- 
ditions of the season, change their colour in spring, and con- 
tinue in this state until they are shed in autumn. The 
feathers which are produced in spring, continue of the same 
hue during the summer, change their colour in winter, and 
fall off again upon the approach of spring. In this manner, 
the quantity of the plumage fit for the different seasons of 
the year is easily regulated ; and it is only necessary that the 
change of colour in each feather should take place but once 
in the course of its connection with the birdf." 

* Transactions of the Linncan Society of London, vol. xii, p. 524. 
t The Philosophy of Zoology, vol. ii, p. 28. 



TUB MOtLTING OF IMHIIS. 297 

Now wo cannot but consider this succession of moultings ;in 
at variance with the remarks of the Rev. Mr Whitear, on tin- 
Larva ridibvndus; for the latter natnralisl does not tell us, 
that there was a uniformity of hue in the same feather; but 
on the contrary, that "the same feather retained some of the 
brown of the imperfeel bird, together with the light blu< 
colour of the adult state:" ami that -the two colours prevail- 
ed in various degrees." 

But why resort to all these conjectures to account for a 
supposed succession of plumage, when it i- admitted that a 
change of colour may take place independent of moulting? 
In the greater part of those 1 >i rcls whose colours are uniform 
throughout the year, naturalists admil but of one moulting. 
Is there any physical necessity, then, for two moultings in 
the course of a year? — or even three, as some pretend? I 
know of none. 

Montagu inform- us. that he had k< pt a Herring Gull tor 
several years, for the purpose of witnessing its change of plu- 
mage. This naturalist had previously asserted, that he had 
u no conception of the feathers themselves changing coloi . 
hence, when a change was perceptible, he n 11- i;-. that ■• the 
partial spring moulting of his Herring Gull commenced aboul 
the middle of February ;■:" a Man in which all animals, in 
climate- like our-, require an abundant nrpply of clothing, to 
obviate the effects of those vicissitudes >f weather, to which 
they are constantly exposed. Montagu v. rver; 

and hail hi- mind not been under the influence of a tie i\. 
we an- persuaded th.it he would have endeavoured i i . 
tain, whether the winter change of hi- Gull was the n rait of 
moulting or not. Nature administers liberal!} to tin want* 
of lur en atures, having a due i md circum- 

stances. Tli'—' animal- whieh p ■■-< 38 the means of ini_i.il 
ing from cold to temperate climates, arc not a- abundantly 
provided with clothing as those which are compelled to re- 

* Introduction to the • Imitholo [ical I ' 
t Supplement to the Ornithological I * i ■ I 

VOL. III. 4 F 



298 SOME OBSERVATIONS ON 

main. Quadrupeds and Birds, which hyemate in high nor- 
thern latitudes, are well known to he supplied with a covering 
of extraordinary thickness and warmth : and this winter garb 
suffers no diminution, until the return of that temperature, 
which will enable the animal to dispense with it without in- 
convenience. 

There is one more remark which we would make on this 
head. When in the act of moulting, hirds are greatly sensible of 
cold : an unseasonable decrease of temperature drives them to 
shelter ; and their actions give evidence that they are not yet 
prepared for such vicissitudes. In the case of those which meet 
with an accidental loss of plumage in the winter, until this 
loss is supplied, they are observed to be distressed : they seek 
sheltered retreats, and sunny exposures; they lose their 
wonted activity ; and, like an animal which suffers a wound, 
they appear to have their attention completely absorbed by 
their situation. 

But Montagu himself affords us one of the most apposil i 
illustrations of the fact of a change of colour in mature plu- 
mage, that could well be desired. In the month of May, he 
was presented with a Black Stork, which had been taken 
in England. In June, he perceived some indication of a 
change of plumage. '-The bird," says he, "continued very 
gradually to moult throughout the summer and winter, be- 
coming much darker on the head and neck, and much greener 
on the back ; and, by the beginning of February, the upper 
part of the head, and back of the neck, became dusky- 
black, glossed with green ; the lower neck before dusky-black, 
and the whole upper part of the body, including wing-coverts 
and scapulars, dark shining green, similar in colour to that 
variety of the Glossy Ibis, known under the title of Tantalus 
viridis. The upper parts of the plumage continued as at 
first. 

"Indisposition," continues he, "having prevented my see- 
ing the bird since the last mentioned period, till the middle 
of March, I was much surprised to find the appearance of a 
few feathers, on the upper part of the back, that were dusky, 



Till. Mm l.l i\(. OF BIBD8. 299 

resplendeni with violet and purple, hating ;i margin of dark 
glossy green. These eleganl feathers continued to increase 
in number, till the whole upper part of 1 li« ■ back had nearly 
assumed ihis beautiful plumage by the first of April. \i 
this time no other part of the bird indicated any further 
change of plumage: the scapulars and coverts, many of which 
had recently changed, continued of the same colour a< 
last described, without the purple reflections or marginal 
a. It is scarcely possible to account for such a suc- 
cession of change in plumage in so short a time, excepl by 
supposing, that a change in the constitution of the bird, pro- 
duced by captivity, and a want of natural fond, bad caused 
obstruction to the usual course of moulting; and thai the au- 
tumnal change had been retarded, and was scarcely effected 
before the spring moulting commenced*." 

Withregard to the above, we would remark, that the sup- 
position of a retardation of the autumnal moulting h totally 
inadmissihle. inasmuch as the author distinctly states, from 
autoptical experience, that -the bird continued very gradually 
to moult throughout the summer and winter." And that 
there was no want of natural food in its state of captivity, 
we Irani fmni the history of its habits, detailed by Montagu 
himself, in the preceding part of the paper above quoted. 
Let it also In- observed, that all the species of the genus Ci- 
riiniu. as well as of the genus Jirdea, are acknowledged to 
cast their feathers but once a year, and that in the autumn. 

It being now satisfactorily proved, that a change of colour 
obtains, in some birds, in the winter, and the spring, with- 
out a change of plumage; I am disposed to conclude, that the 
state of Mot ltino, properly so called, takes place, in all 
l>inl>. but once a y< ax. 

* Some Remarks on the Natural History of the Black Simk, .\ 
of the Linnean i London, vol. xii, |». If. 



No. VIII. 

Experiments made on the Poison of the Rattlesnake; in which 
the Poivers of the Hiekaceum Venosum, as a Specific, 
were tested; together with some Anatomical Observations 
on this Animal. By Richard Harlan, M.D. — Read March 
1th, 1828. 

TN offering the following observations, it is not my inten- 
tion, or desire, to add another specific to the numerous an- 
tidotes to the poison of the Rattlesnake, already before the 
public. Most of these remedies have proved, on trial, to be 
either destitute of active properties, or altogether unworthy 
of serious consideration. I shall therefore briefly notice a few 
of the most celebrated. 

The most ancient, at least, if not the most renowned, is 
the volatile alkali, a remedy prescribed by European practi- 
tioners more than a century ago, not only as an antidote 
for the poison of the viper, but against the effects of the bite 
of venomous animals in general*. The Abbe Fontana, 
about the middle of last century, published a work on the 
poison of the viper, to which we may refer for many cu- 
rious experiments on the nature of this poisonf. 

* Vid. Diet, des Sciences Medicales, vol. xxxiv. p. 309 ; article Morsure. 
t The following among other conclusions arc oflcred by Fontana ; the viper 
alluded to is the "Coluber berus" of Linn. " 1. The bite of the viper is notpois- 



ON THE POISON OP THE RATTLESNAKE. 

Then- an- few authorities of the present daj inclined to 
place much faith in the volatile alkali as an antidote for th< 
specific effects of the bite of the viper; bul as tin- constitu- 
tional symptoms, produced by the bite of venomous reptiles, 
are generally adynamic in their nature, tlii- remedy, together 
with other diffusible stimulants, i< calculated to counteract 
this state of the system, and may prove verj serviceable in 
supporting the vital powers, and thus suspend the fatal opera- 
tion of the poison. To this conclusion I have been led bj 
• \|m riment 

The next remedy fur accidents of this nature worth} of 
notice; i- the "Proii/n/Iiis serpentaria" ofPursh. This plant 
i> held in high esteem l>\ the inhabitants of Virginia, as a 
remedy for the bite of the Rattlesnake, and is known to 
them by the familiar name of " Lionafoot" Pursh states 
that he had an opportunity of being a witness to the efficacy 
of this plant. A man living in Cove mountains, near the 
Sweet-springs, "was hit in the foot by a Mockeson, [Cenchris 
Mockeson: Dandin,] a species of snake considered toe most 
dangerous. An inflammation and swelling of the whole leg 
took place immediately: hut by taking the milky juice of 
this plant, hoi led in milk, inwardly, and applying to the wound 
the steeped leaves, which were frequently changed, In was 
cured in a few days. The plant is frequently confounded 
with another species of the same genus, from which it is im- 
portant to distinguish it .- this last the inhabitants name ■■ j',i/.m 
Lionsjbot" Gronovius, in his Flora, page I I >■ mentions 
l)r Witt's make-root under P. autumnalw, or Willdenow's 
■ nihirinidii." as a rented j for the bite of the Rattlesnake, which 
shews that he had information of the use made of this plant, 
though he did not know the genuine species. — Vid. Pursh's 
'Flora America; Septentrionalis," p. 199. 

onous to its own body, or to that of its own snecii I; enomi i it equtllj 

.ill animals. '>. The poison i di itbi r acid, alkalim . qoi saltish 

t. It ha.-t no positin nd taken into the month does not cause the ton 

li i- not inflammable. I , Mixed with ••■ ki to the bottom; 

when shaken it renders the water turbid^and whitish." — Vuh- Pontans "Ricer hi 
fisich< sopra il releno defla ripen." 
vol. in. — 4 G 



302 EXPERIMENTS MADE ON THE 

The remedy which next claims our attention, has been 
considered as of sufficient importance to demand legislative 
enactment. It appears that some years ago, the State As- 
sembly of South Carolina purchased from a Negro, for an an- 
nuity of one hundred pounds for life and his freedom, the 
secret of his cure for the bite of the Rattlesnake. This 
proved to be the " Jffisma plmtago," or water-plantain. 
Many of the members are said to have witnessed the effi- 
cacy of the remedy in the person of the Negro, who stripped 
himself naked and jumped into a tub, containing many of these 
venomous snakes, and received numerous wounds. He cured 
himself by swallowing one tablespoonful of the expressed 
juice of the Alisma plantago, and repeated the dose at inter- 
vals, until the effects of the poison were counteracted. An 
essay was published on this subject in the sixth volume of 
the Technical Repository of 1824, by C. Whitlaw,Esq.*, who 
states that the common plantain has been used by mistake, 
to which error he attributes all the reputed failures. 

My friend Major N. A. Ware informs me that in Florida 
and Alabama, a species of Pedicularia, or " Louse-plant" is of 
considerable repute as an antidote to poisons of this nature. 
Sweet oil has also been famous as a specific in similar cases. 
A number of experiments were performed by a viper catcher 
before the Royal Society of London, in order to prove its 
efficacy, some account of which was published in the early 
numbers of the New York Medical Repository. 

But passing over this remedy and many others of a similar 
nature, we come to the consideration of the plant which was 

The following- extract from Mr Whitlaw's Essay is probably sufficient to de- 
stroy his authority altogether among medical men, — though the above statement 
concerning the experiments I believe to be historical fact. 

" The Specific action of the poison appears to be chiefly confined to the muscles : 
after the infliction of the bite, powerful muscular contractions take place over the 
whole body, the muscles are highly inflamed, a coldness and corrugation of the 
skin surround the part which was bitten, and violent spasms resembling teta- 
nus supervene followed by mortification. A friend of mine at Savannah died in 
consequence of being bitten by a snake in the hand: when they took hold of his 
arm to place him in the coffin, the arm came off at the shoulder joint." — Vid 
Technical Repos. vol. iv. p. 258. 



POISON OP the i;\ttu>\\ke. 103 

the immediate objecl <>f my own experiments. It must be 
here repeated thai the Hieraceum venosum is nol offered as 
a specific cure fur the bite of the Rattlesnake: much further 
observation is requisite to establish its claims in such high 
virtues. It is proposed to continue the experiments on the 
commencement of the approaching season, bul in the mean 
while it was thought advisable to publish the present account 
as the first of a series, in as much as several facts have been 
elicited, which are considered very important by those who 
witnessed the experiments. 

November Id, isjt. In company with a Dumber of pro- 
fessional gentlemen, 1 visited the collection of living Rattle- 
snakes* exhibiting by Messrs Elnsworth and Murray. The 
reptiles, to the aumber of 150, were all taken by the pro- 
prietors in their native county of Susquehanna. Pennsylva- 
nia, during the current months of August and September. 
The proprietors profess to be in possession of an infallible re- 
medy for the cure of the symptoms resulting from the bite 
of the Rattlesnake; they display the utmost confidence, and 
are nn terms of intimate familiarity with every individual bl 
the collection ; they lake them in their hands and fold them 
around their Decks, — open the mouth of the snake, and exp 
his fangs to the viru of tic visitors, ice. In order to sniisty 
ourselves thai there existed no trick or deception in the case, 
and to prove that the hite of these animals, in their presenl 
stiiie of subjection, is really mortal, two living animals w,r. 
exposed to be bitten, both of whom died within the sp;,.-, ,.| 
eight minute-,. The first received a severe wound on the 
breast, the snake fastening his fangs in the flesh ; immediately 
the- '-yes of the animal i j rang cat) wire observed t<> 
change their expression, lacking lustre, and appearing like 
the eyes of an intoxicated person. En three minutes* after th< 
infliction of tin wound, involuntary discharges per anum oc- 
curred; in six minutes arine was also discharged. The pu- 

* Crotalus dui issus, Linn. 



304 EXPERIMENTS MADE ON THE 

pils of the eyes were dilated, and in eight minutes convulsions 
and death supervened. 

A narcotic or sedative effect of the poison was an early 
symptom, and this soon degenerated into insensibility. 

In the second experiment, the kitten was introduced into 
the box among the snakes, and received wounds from several ; 
one of the proprietors, Mr Elnsworth, having introduced his 
hand into the box among the reptiles with a view of irritating 
them, received two distinct wounds on the back of the hand, 
and which were observed to be inflicted by different indivi- 
dual snakes ; the wounds bled slightly. Mr E. displayed no 
uneasiness, but loitered about the room and continued the ex- 
hibition for some time, and then took an opportunity to re- 
tire for a few minutes, and returned entirely out of danger : 
two small punctured wounds alone remained visible ; the 
bleeding had ceased, and the slight tumefaction which had 
commenced around the wound had entirely disappeared. 
No marks of suction were discovered, nor were any precau- 
tions taken, in presence of the visitors, after the infliction of 
the wound, with the exception of the application of a ligature 
around the wrist. 

In fine, that the proprietors arc actually convinced thai 
they possess some means to render the poison of the Rattle- 
snake innocuous, would seem to be proved by the experi- 
ments above stated, as well as by the perfect composure and 
unlimited confidence of the man, when fairly wounded by 
the poisonous animals, which at the same time were inflict- 
ing mortal wounds on the subjects of the experiments. 

They stated to the company that the specific was of Indian 
renown, that a decoction of the plant was administered inter- 
nally, and that, for a moderate compensation, the secret would 
be disclosed. 

Accordingly, on the 1 5th of December, 1827, a number 
(if gentlemen*, including several eminent individuals of the 

* The following is a list of the names of those gentlemen who liberally contrib- 
uted towards paying the amount demanded by the proprietors for the disclosure of 



POISON ill' THE KATTLE8MAXE. 305 

medical profession, convened at my office for the purpose of 
witnessing experiments made with the poison of the Rattle- 
make, {Crotakua durissus, Linn.) Sonic days prei ious. a num- 
ber of the most lively and vicious among them were separa- 
ted, and permitted to drink : abstinence both from food and 
water having been strictly enjoined previously, during the 
period of their confinement, from an idea of the proprietors, 
that abstinence, particularly as respects water, is calcuated to 
render the poison less destructive. 



Experiment l. 

It was decided that Mr Elnsworth, who had offered him- 
self as the subject of the experiment, should be first bitten, 
and afterwards thai the same snake should be made to de- 
monstrate its poisonous powers upon a puppy. 

A large active female snake was taken from the box and 
placed upon a table in a warm room. At 11 h. 20 m. A. M. 
the man received a bite from the irritated snake on the in- 
dex finger of the left hand, about half an inch from the me- 
tacarpal bone; the wound resembled a minute incision, or 
briar scratch about one fifth of an inch in length; one fang 
only appears to have been projected, the animal striking with 
one or both fangs at pleasure: a little blood exuded. Pulse. 
Iiist before the bite was received. 1<> I per minute: but it was 
observed to van during the experiments to such a degree as 
to prevent any correct inference to be expected from that 
source. 

11 h. in in. He says the wound smarts a little, but no signs 
'if a poisonous wound are as yet exhibited. 

then ." most of whom, with several others, were present at tin experi- 

ments : — 

Dra Chapman, Harri . Meigs, Emerson, MitcheD, Wetherill, J. R. Barton, P 
nock, Captain Bazil Hall. R. N., Messrs S. Wetherill, J. 1". Wetherill, and W.Hem 
bel. N rere taken by several of the gentlemen, and 

result from a comparison of them all. 

vol. 1 1 r. — 4 H 



306 EXPERIMENTS MADE ON THE 

After the lapse of nearly an hour from the commencement 
of the experiment, no symptom denoting the action of the 
poison occurring, Elnsworth exposed the same hand to a 
large active male snake. As in the first instance, considera- 
ble irritation of the animal was requisite to force him to 
strike, and at 

12 h. 15 m. He received a second wound from a single 
fang on the back of his hand, directly over a prominent ve- 
nous branch. A large drop of transparent, yellowish, and glairy 
fluid was spread over and around the wound, which was 
doubtless ejected from the poison sack. A little very dark 
blood slowly exuded from the wound. 

12 h. 31 m. Slight swelling is observable immediately 
around the second bite. 

1 2 h. 48 m. Elnsworth again exposed his hand to the female 
snake, and received two additional punctures simultaneously, 
one from each fang, on the lower extremity of the metacar- 
pal bone of the ring-finger. As in the first instance, nei- 
ther of these wounds displayed symptoms of the specific ef- 
fects of the poison ; the second bite therefore, or that received 
from the male snake, will alone be the subject of further ob- 
servations in this experiment. 

1 o'clock, P. M. The swelling around the second bite 
has increased considerably, the tumefaction extending up and 
down along the course of the vein, about an inch and a half 
in length, and half that size in breadth, the greatest length of 
the tumefaction being below the wound. The man now 
complained of pain and numbness along the course of the 
lymphatic vessels on the inner part of the fore-arm. 

1 h. 25 m. Pulse natural, symptoms last described some- 
what increased ; swelling unattended with symptoms of in- 
flammation. 

1 h. 30 m. Although the man is perfectly willing to per- 
mit the symptoms to proceed further, several of the witnesses 
expressed their unwillingness to bear the responsibility of 
the consequences ; he was therefore permitted to have recourse 
to his remedy, and he immediately swallowed a few ounces 



POISON in' THE RATTLESNAKE. 307 

of the decoction of the root, and appeared indifferent about 
the external application of the same to the wound. He slated 
that the original stock of the vegetable being exhausted, and 
the season too far advanced to enable him to obtain more at 
present, he would be under the necessity of applying portions 
of the ilesh of one of the reptiles (just decapitated for the 
purpose of another experiment) to the wound. 

2 h. 30 m. He has held the bloody portion of the snake to 
bis wound incessantly, from which all the swelling has sub- 
sided, together with all uneasy sensations, from his hand and 
arm. 

4 o'clock. P. M. The man Elnswortb bas remained con- 
stantly in the room under my inspection. His dinner was 
offered to him. but be bad little disposition for food: says lii- 
stomach is a little sick, probably the effects of the medicine. 
No tumefaction or other symptoms remain : the wounds re- 
semble slight scratches without any appearance of inflamma- 
tion. The vein in which the bite took effect presents a pe- 
culiar appearance, being for the distance of an inch between 
the valves above and below the wound quite empty. Directly 
above the valve the vein is unusually prominent, and the pres- 
sure, from the application of the flesb. has been removed 
for more than an hour. It is scarcely necessary to remark 
thai the application of portions of the snake to (be wound. 
which the man appeared to think very important, could exert 
no other influence than might have been obtained from the 
application of (be recent flesh of any other animal. 

The root and leaf of the "specific" were produced and ex- 
posed to the inspection of an able botanist. I)r Charles Pick- 
ering, who identified it with the meraceum venomm, or 
Hawk-weed. Adder's-tongue, P ■ Robin's plantain. Rattle- 
snake weed, ^.e. — a common weed in the dry open wood- 
lands*. The same plant i> noticed by Schoepf as a remedy 
for the bite of the Rattlesnake. 

' Vi,|. Florula Cestrica, by \V. Darlington. M.D., p. B I 



308 EXPERIMENTS MADE ON THE 



Experiment 2. 

1 1 h. 31 m. A pup about three or four weeks old was bit- 
ten by the same female snake which had previously bitten 
Elnsworth in the first experiment : both fangs took effect, and 
the two wounds were about one inch and a quarter apart. 

11 h. 34 m. Pup urinates. 

11 h. 36 m. Cries and staggers. 

11 h. 37 m. Belly tense in the vicinity of the wound, and 
apparently painful ; the wound presents an ecchymosis, being 
tumid and of a dark colour. 

11 h. 39 m. Pup lies on its side, and continues its plaintive 
cries, also emits some froth from the mouth. The ecchymo- 
sis increases rapidly, and a pale bloody humour exudes from 
the wounds. 

11 h. 51 m. The animal is quiet and fanting. 

12 o'clock, merid. Appears vertiginous, turning round 
and resting on its extended fore feet ; staggering and resting 
on its side, and turning upon its back. These symptoms 
continued with little alteration until 

4 o'clock, When the animal died, having previously exhi- 
bited some stertorous breathing, but without the occurrence 
of convulsions. 

Dissection. 

I examined the body fifteen minutes after death in pre- 
sence of Drs Morton, Meigs, Emerson, &c. On raising the 
skin of the abdomen we observed an extensive extravasation 
of blood, not coagulated, in the cellular tissue over the whole 
front of the belly. The colour of the parts exposed to the 
specific action of the poison was a dark red, and the whole 
appearance in the vicinity of the wound might be aptly com- 
pared to that occasioned by an extensive and violent con- 
tusion. 

The abdomen, being laid open, displayed the abdominal 



rOISON OP THE RATTLESNAKE. 309 

reflections of the peritoneum nearly in the same condition, 
being very red. and appearing as if soaked in blood. A simi- 
lar appearance, to a considerable extent, prevailed in the pi ri- 
toneal coat <>f the stomach and intestines, the veins of which 
were congested. The internal coats of the stomach and intes- 
tines were natural in appearance. Urinary bladder was 
empty. No coagulated blood was observed in any of the vi -- 
sels throughout the system. Thorax presented no remarka- 
ble deviation from a natural stair. 

Cranium. — On raising the skull and dura mater, an exten- 
sive dark patch. Conned apparently by extravasation or con- 
g -iiou. was observed under the arachnoid membrane lyirigover 
the cerebral lobes, and extending down in a slight degree 
between the convolutions. The substance of the brain and 
spinal marrow appeared natural. The muscular system was 
rather pale. 

It will probably be remarked, that the specific action of 
the poison appears to have expended its deleterious influence 
on the cellular tissue in this animal: the usual phenomena 
which characterize death from poisons, such as non-coagula- 
tion of the blood, extravasations. &c. wire remarkably well 
developed. 



Experiment 3. 

A full grown cock, having the feathers removed from over 
the pectoral muscles, Was exposed to he bitten by a Rattle- 
snake, and at 

I 2 "Click, merid. Received two slight wound- from both 
fangs at the same time: each wound was covered with drop- 
of a transparent fluid ejected from the poison bag. 

J 2 li. i m. Tin' bitten pari assumed the appearance of a 
dark-purple ecchymosis, and the skin in the immediate vici- 
nity of the punctures was puckered or corrugated. 

12 h. 1 ") in. Tiie parts over the wounds are slightly tu- 
mid, and present a black or gangrenous appearance, and 
\ in,, m. — i i 



310 EXPERIMENTS MADE ON THE 

moistened by a yellowish ichor which exudes from the 
wounds. 

The animal finally recovered without having experienced 
any constitutional affection. It should be here remarked, 
however, that the punctures did not appear to have pene- 
trated the skin thoroughly. 



Experiment 4. 

A black puppy, a few weeks old, received three bites be- 
tween 12 h. 18 m. and 12 h. 23 m. The last and most se- 
vere bite was over the left eye. 

12 h. 27 m. Apparently drowsy. 

12 h. 40 m. Symptoms progressing slowly. And at 

4 o'clock, P. M. the swelling over the eye, vertigo, and 
general uneasiness, appear to have attained their height. On 
the day following the animal had recovered without the in- 
terference of art. 



Experiment 5. 

4 o'clock, P. M. A stout pup was inoculated with the 
poison, expressed from the poison bag of a living snake, on the 
left side of the abdomen. 

4 h. 15 m. Local symptoms are evident, and constitu- 
tional effects are beginning to be manifested. 

5 o'clock, P. M. Symptoms much increased: the animal 
cries with pain and uneasiness ; changes its posture frequently ; 
moves with a tottering and irregular gait, sometimes lying on 
its breast with the fore-feet extended : these symptoms were 
occasionally interrupted with drowsiness, and finally the ani- 
mal went into a deep sleep. 

9 o'clock, P. M. The pup commenced licking his wound, 
the swelling of which, from the ecchymosis, had so increased 
as to hang down like a large hernia. 



POISON OF THE RATTLESNAKE. 311 

The succeeding day this animal also recovered, no symp- 
tom remaining except a slight tenderness in the part where 
the inoculation had been performed. Had the •■xpnijic' been 
administered in this ease, the cure would doubtless have been 
attributed to its operation. 



Experiment 6. 

Poison was squeezed out of the sack of a living snake, and 
being placed od a piece of meat, -was given to a pup to eat: 
it produced no effect, local or constitutional, upon the animal. 



Aneitomieed Observed ions, fye. 

In all venomous snakes there is an opening of considerable 
size situate between the eye and nostril, which penetrates 
in the direction of the poison apparatus, at the base of the 
fang: tlii use of this opening, in the economy of the animal, 
as far as I can learn, has never been discovered : it has no 
direct communication with the cavity containing the poison. 
but is connected with the lachrymal passages, so successfully 
investigated hy Jules Cloquet*. On a careful examination 
of tin-; portion of tin- anatomy of the Crotalus. I have invari- 
ably found at the bottom of this cavity an exceedingly deli- 
cate transparent membrane, extending over the osseous cavitj 
in the hone at tin base of the fang. This membrane, whilst 
it intercepts any direct communication between the sack and 
externa] canal, might at the same time permit the action of 
tin atmosphere on the fluid contained in the sack, to take 
place through it. and thus to change it- chemical properties, 
'rhi> sack communicates with the oculo-palpebral cavity, 
formed between tin- eyelid and conjunctiva. The poison of 

Vid, Memoire >ur ('Existence et la Disposition des Voies Laclirymulcs dan 
les Serpens. 



312 EXPERIMENTS MADE ON THE 

the livino- Crotalus. tested in numerous instances with litmus 
paper. &c. invariably displayed acid properties*. 



General Remarks. 

In conclusion it appears, that of the number of reptiles ex- 
hibited, some possessed the venomous faculty to a considerable 
decree, in others the poison was less active, and in some it 
had entirely disappeared, and in the latter the poison sack 
was found, on dissection, entirely empty. 

These circumstances are readily explained when we are 
aware that the reptiles have remained in captivity without 
food for more than three months, during a cold season of the 
year. and. until within a few days of the experiments, de- 
prived of water. It is more than probable that very little 
poison would be secreted during a state of perfect abstinence, 
and that of less activity than when produced under ordinary 
circumstances. Hence the same reptiles whose bite occasion- 
ed the death of an animal in eight minutes, when the experi- 
ments were performed in September, required five hours in 
order to produce fatal results at the present period. The 
operation of the poison on the animal system also varied. In 
September, when the animals died early after the infliction 
of the wound, death was preceded by convulsions, which was 
not the case in the present instance : but the animal appear- 
ed to suffer more pain, and finally fell into a state of stupi- 
dity, which continued for several hours, when death was 
produced by the slow r operation of the poison on the system. 
On dissection the usual appearances produced by such poisons 

* SimilaT observations relative to the acidity of tbis poison were long a<jo made 
by Dr lirickell of Savannah, who, speaking of the external application of the so- 
lution ofc LUStic ley to the hite of the Rattlesnake, states " I was led to this by a 
chemical examination of the poison of the Crotalus Jiorridus. which shewed an 
acid to be one of its constituents." — Vid. New York Medical Repository, vol. viii. 
p. 441. 



POISON OF THE RATTLESNAKE. 313 

on the organic structure, were manifest; congestions, exuda- 
tion of blood throughout the system, together with the uon- 
coagulation of this fluid, were among the more obvious results. 
The cavities of the hear! were empty, and fluid blood was 
observed in the large veins. 

Two of the Rattlesnakes were decapitated, and the heads 
being placed with the jaws expanded against the abdomen of 
a living rabbit, they were observed to bite repeatedly with 
the desperation of expiring nature, forcing their fangs into 
the flesh their whole Length; bul in these the poison bag ap- 
peared to have been emptied previously, by repeated efforts 
of the animal to bite, and on dissection were found nearly 
void. After decapitation it was curious to observe the mo- 
tions of the body, which were continued from association; 
the cut extremity of the trunk, when an injury was inflicted 

, the tail, was thrown towards the offending body, as if with 
the intention of indicting a wound; this experiment was re- 
peated frequently. The heart torn from the body continued 
it- contractions for ten or twelve hours. 

Of all the animals bitten in these experiments, one only 
died, though all were more or less affected by the poison. 
Although the wound which was indicted on .Mr Elnsworth 
Was attended with the usual local effects, there is no proof 
that the poison would have proved mortal without the use of 
the remedy, in as much as obvious local edicts were observed 
in some u\' the animals that finally recovered without the in- 
terference of ait. Though at the same time it will be re- 
membered that the |'u>t animal experimented on died from 
the poison of the same snake which had previously indicted 
a wound on the man. 

As regards any moral inilei nee being exerted over these 
animals by the proprietors, which enables them to handle the 
snakes without the fear of being wounded. — one of the pro- 
prietors; .Mr .Murray, subsequently confessed that no suidi 
influence existed; bul that their knowledge of the habits of 
the Rattlesnake enabled them to handle them with impunity. 
Thus they are aware that the s| 1; ik c can strike only after 
\ oi.. 111. J k 



314 ON THE POISON OF THE RATTLESNAKE. 

certain preparation of the body: they assume an offensive 
attitude previously to striking a blow, and they seldom or ne- 
ver make an effort to strike when once secured by the hand. 

The Abbe Fontana has remarked that the poison of the 
viper is not fatal to its own body, or to that of its own spe- 
cies when bitten ; the contrary of this position is stated on 
respectable authority to be the case as regards the Crotalus — 
a result that might have been anticipated from the well known 
fact that Rattlesnakes, congregated together in any number, 
never inflict a wound on each other. 

Among the most remarkable peculiarities observed in the 
economy of this animal is its power of abstinence. An indi- 
vidual lived more than two years in the Philadelphia Mu- 
seum, totally deprived of food. Others in the same institu- 
tion have been observed united for a considerable time in the 
act of coition, and subsequently to bring forth young in a 
living state. In one instance I have witnessed a female with 
fourteen young at one birth, which is far from being to the 
same degree prolific as some of the oviparous Colubers. 

In the present stage of the investigation, had I occasion to 
treat a wound inflicted by a poisonous reptile, my faith in the 
Hkraeeum venosum, as a cure, is not such as to induce me to 
resort to its employment, to the exclusion of the less equivocal 
means of suction, pressure, or ligature. Some very interest- 
ing experiments, which establish the superiority of the last 
mentioned methods, have recently been made by C. W. Pen- 
nock, M.D., and will be published in the American Journal 
of the Medical Sciences for May 1828. 



No. IX. 

On llu Motion of Solids on Surfaces, in the two Hypotheses 
of perfect Sliding ami perfect Rolling, with <> particular 
Examination of their small Oscillatory Motions. By 
Henry James Anderson, M.D. Professor of Mathematics 
and Astronomy, in Columbia College. New York. — Dated 
VQth Nov. 1827. Laid before the Society 4th Jan. 1828 



I. 

r INHERE an- I* u branches of Mechanical Philosophy is 
-*- interesting in every point of view as the theory of Oscil- 
latory .Motion. From the minutest vibrations of a harp-string 
to the magnificent oscillations of a planet's axis, there are an 
infinite number of analogous phenomena remarkable for their 
curious properties or important uses. The common pendu- 
lum, that little instrument which has rendered such essentia] 
service to science and the arts, and will soon, in the hands oi 
tin skilful observer, unfold to us the internal constitution o| 
our globe, and give a (due to the process by which it lias ac- 
quired its present state, is itself indebted for i1> accuracy to 
tbe incessanl superintendence of a watchful mathematical 
analysis. The science of Acoustics in all its parts, (be varied 
phenomena of the tides, tbe theory of Saturn's ring, (bat won- 
der of the solar system, and the philosophical explanation ol 
tbe stability and harmony of the celestial motions, are in facl 

VOL. til. 4 I. 



316 ON THE MOTION OF 

but different applications of this extensive branch of Demon- 
strative Mechanics. What adds to the interest and value of 
this subject is the circumstance that a large class of oscillatory 
motions, namely those of any rigid system whatever whose 
points depart but little from the position which they occupy 
when at rest, has been found susceptible of complete deter- 
mination, by means of which the position of the bodies com- 
posing the system, may be expressed (to use the language of 
analysis) in finite functions of the time. The general prob- 
lem is one, however, of the greatest difficulty, and even ap- 
proximate solutions can rarely be obtained except when the 
conditions of the question restrict within near limits some of 
the variations of the system. Every contribution, therefore, 
however trifling, to this branch of analysis, is entitled to a 
favourable reception, and it is this reflection which encourages 
me to offer to the Society the fruits of an attentive considera- 
tion of some portions of this subject. The memoir which I 
have ventured to present to them is a general dissertation 
upon the Dynamics of solids on supporting surfaces, in the 
two hypotheses of perfect sliding and perfect rolling, with a 
special consideration of the laws of their oscillatory motions. 
The formulae which I have given, besides their use in a variety 
of geometrical and mechanical speculations, conduct as it will 
be found to a complete solution of the problem of the oscilla- 
tions of a supported body of any form and law of density 
whatever revolving on a plane or spherical surface with any 
initial velocity compatible with small deviations of the natu- 
ral vertical of the body from its position when at rest : sup- 
posing either the absence of all friction or the action of a 
friction which prevents all sliding motion, but which al- 
lows the body, at the same time that it revolves round the 
normal, to roll in all directions from the variable point of 
contact. The same formulae will conduct to the solution of 
a great variety of analogous problems, in which the excur- 
sions of some part of the system are confined to the imme- 
diate neighbourhood of its equilibrium position. They are 
susceptible moreover of easy adaptation to any hypothesis of 



SOLIDS <»N -i ft] \< BS 317 

friction, ami may readily be extended to the cases in which 
there are several supporting surfaces, even when these sur- 
faces are themselves in motion. 

It was my original intention to prefix to the following dis- 
sertation a detailed history of the problem of tli* motion of a 
rigid body, with an account of the successive advance- which 
have been made from the time of Galileo to the presenl tlav 
towards a complete determination of the phenomena of oscil- 
lating systems. The scantiness of the New York libraries 
with respect to scientific works, and the impossibility under 
which my engagements lay me of personally consulting the 
more copious collections of Boston and Philadelphia, to saj 
nothing of the fad thai some of the materials of such a ta-'k 
are Dot to be found in America, and only on rare occasions 
to be procured from Europe, have compelled me to defer un- 
til a better opportunity the execution of this part of mj first 

a. I shall therefore content myself at presenl with a very 
brief preliminary retrospect of what has been already done in 
connexion with the subject of the following communication. 

Galileo appears to have been the first who considered in a 
mathematical poinl of view even the simplest cases of the 
problem before us, the de-cent of a material point along a 
straight line inclined to the horizon', and it- oscillations in 
the arc of a vertical circumference-. In the" first of these 
two cases he succeeded in defining the motion of the point ; 
in tlie second, he wa- far from attaining the same result, anil 
in both the resistances of friction and the air were carefully 
excluded. 'J lie well known law of oscillation round a hori- 
zontal axis of support, firsl conjectured rather than demon- 
strated by Descartes in the cases of plane surfaces vibrating 
////v. and afterwards generalized h\ the celebrated Huyg- 

Operedi Galileo Galilei. Milano, 1811. 
Vol. viu. p. :<< — ;'» . The lit -i edition of the Dialogues of Galileo is that of 
Leyden, l'J38. 

* O G Vol. nii, p. J53 — 160. 

" Renati I) I Ami. Mann, 1683. Epistola LX.WII Ad 

Mersennum. Mini, .. [i 



318 ON THE MOTION OF 

hens', was finally in 1703 deduced by James Bernoulli, from 
principles which have never been contested 5 . In the mean 
time, Newton, in his Principia, had begun to calculate in cer- 
tain cases the effects of resistance in retarding the motion of 
points along cycloidal arcs, had reduced to the method of quad- 
ratures, the determination of their motion along curves whose 
planes pass through the centre of force, and had furnished 
general principles which served afterwards to facilitate the 
solution of the problem of the motion of a heavy point on 
surfaces of revolution 6 . In the same work too, Newton had 
investigated the duration of the pulses of air and the undula- 
tions of water, and had laid the foundations of the true theory 
of the tides 7 . Leibnitz and the elder Bernoullis had also 
discussed with success several interesting cases of the descent 
of a material point along given or required curves', but no 
mathematician appears to have had regard to the form and 
rotation of the supported mass, until John Bernoulli, late in 
life, proposed the problem of what he called the oscillations 
of titubating bodies 9 . In this problem none but the very 
small oscillations are considered, and the body is supposed to 
rock without sliding about an invariable axis, the surface of 
support being either a plane or the concave or convex side of 
a horizontal cylinder. After investigating the general formula, 
Bernoulli calculates the case in which the rocking body is 
the segment of a sphere or parabolic conoid. This rolling 

1 Hugenii Horologium Oscillatorium. Parisiis, 1673. Pars Tertia, Prop. V. 

5 Demonstration generate du Centre de Balancement ou d'Oscillation tiree de 
la nature du Levicr. 15 Mars, 1703. — Histoire de l'Acade'mie Royalc dcs Sciences. 
Annie MDCCIII. Paris, 1720, p. 78. — Jacobi Bernoulli opera. Geneva, 17 14. 
Vol. ii. p. 930. 

6 Principia, Lib. II. Prop. XXV.— XXXI.— Lib. I. Prop. LIV.— Lib. 1. Prop. 
LV. 

7 Principia, Lib. II. Prop. L.— Prop. XLVL— Lib. III. Prop. XXIV.— Prop. 
XX XVI. XXXVII. 

8 Acta Erud. Lips. 1694, p. 276. 364. 394. Jac. Bern. Op. p. 601. 627.— 
Leibnitii et Bern. Com. Epis. Vol. i. 23. 34. 167. 286.— Joh. Bern. Op. Vol. i. 
120. iii. 486. 

9 De Oscillationibus Corporum titubantium super superficie aliqua immobili. 
Job. Bern. Op. Lausanna; ct Geneva;, 1742. Vol. iv. p. 296. This paper was 
written posterior to the year 1738. John Bernoulli was at that time 72 years of 
age. 



SOLIUM OB *i Hi \( B8, i I 9 

without sliding (the pura provoluiio of Leibnitz") will result, 

it is trui . for small motions from the usual hypotheses of 
friction, but without some condition of this kind tin- body 
would slip or slide as well as rock. Enter is the first who 

made this remark in the seventh volume of the Com- 
mentaries of St Petersburg (1740), where he gives an 
improved solution" of Bernoulli's problem, hut does not 
appear to have been able, at that time. t<> determine what 
would take place if the body were left free In slide as 
well as to roll. Euler acknowledged his embarrassment 
to D'Alembert in a letter to him dated 1746, and it is to 
tin latter mathematician that we owe the first mhti^- 
ful investigation of the problem when the surfaces in con- 
tact are polished to a perfect smoothness. This solution is 
given by D'Alembert in the second edition of his TraiU (/< 
Dynamique, published in 1758, and is offered by him as an 
instance of the utility of his now celebrated principle". His me- 
thod is then applied to the case in which the horizontal plain- 
opposes, by its roughness, a given degree of resistance to the 
sliding motion, but the oscillations are still only of the kind 
in which the axis of rotation retains throughout the mot ion 
its original direction. This is a condition, however, which 
restricts the problem to a case comparatively simple, for it i- 
manifest that in general the axis of rotation will change con- 
tinually its position in space, and the body must lie consider 
ed as subject, Dot only to roll from side to side, but also to 
pitch backward and forward, and at the same time to whirl 
around the perpendicular drawn to the sin-face at the point 
of contact. Hut before the triple rotation of a supported body 
could be determined, it was necessary to investigate the phe- 
nomena of the rotation of a free body, to which constrained 

G. d. I.. I »<■ linefi- super lines inccssu, ejuBque trilm.s gpecieb 
radente, motu provolutionis, et composite ex ambobus. Jan. 1706. Act. Km. I 
Lips. 1706, i'. I 1 '. 

De minimi o libus corporum tarn rigidorum quam flexibilium, me- 

thoda nova ac racilis. ( ora. \ id Petrop. 1740, p. 108. 

" Des Corps qui vacillant sur des plans. Traiti de Dynamique, I796,p 181 
\ in,, in. — 4 M 



320 ON THE MOTION OF 

rotation can always be reduced by regarding as accelerating 
forces tbe unknown reaction of the point or surface of sup- 
port. Newton, whose name it is necessary to mention in the 
history of almost every interesting or important speculation 
in Mechanical Philosophy, is the first who attempted to deduce 
from mathematical principles the laws of these peculiar mo- 
tions as they exhibit themselves in that most remarkable ex- 
emplification of them, the Precession of the Equinoxes 11 . 
The singular sagacity of this extraordinary man seems to have 
protected him from an erroneous result, amidst a number of 
precarious and sometimes inaccurate assumptions to which 
the tediousness and barrenness of the geometric method pro- 
bably forced him to resort. An amended solution of this 
problem was given by D'Alembert in 1749, with all the de- 
velopments and verifications which the possession of a pow- 
erful analysis had brought within his reach 14 . The treatise 
in which this subject is discussed contains at the same time 
every thing that is necessary for reducing in all other cases 
the general problem of the free motion of a rigid body to its 
six differential equations. This reduction was in fact ac- 
complished by the same author in a memoir which he an- 
nounced in 1758 as prepared for the press, but which was 
not actually published until 1761, in the first volume of his 
Opuscules Mathematiqucs' 5 . The results here obtained, and 
to a certain extent the manner of obtaining them, differ from 
the methods and formulas of more recent authors in little 
else than the improved selection and arrangement of the sym- 
bols now employed. In this respect D'Alembert was in no 
degree superior to his cotemporaries, and indeed nothing is 
more striking than the contrast which exists between the 
profound and original views of this illustrious writer and the 
negligent and inelegant notation in which they are expressed. 
It is a little surprising that an author who has so often in his 

I' Principia, Lib. III. Prop. XXXIX. 

1 * Rccherclics sur la Precession des Equinoxes ct sur la Nutation de I' Axe de 
la Terre clans le SysU'mc Ncwtonicn. Paris, 1719. 

15 Du Mouvement d'un Corps de Figure quelconque, animd par des forces 
quelconques. Opusc. Math. Vol. i. 1761, p. 7 1. 



SOLIDS OS -I «B \('ES. 12] 

philosophical writings pointed out the influence which words 
have upon our thoughts should have studied so little the ad- 
vantages of symmetrica] and well selected symhols. It se< ms 
reasonable to suppose too, that as the general speculations of 
mechanical science refer equally to the thine dimensions ol 
space, the formulas would naturally arrange themselves in 
three sets similar in their form and in the process of their 
derivation: an arrangement which would he favoured by the 
method taught Ion-- since by Daniel Bernoulli and Euler 1 of 
separating the motion of a body into the progression of its 
centre of gravity and the rotation round that centre, those 
two constituents of the motion being absolutely independent 
of each other. There were however good reasons for not 
adopting at that time this threefold division of algebraic sym- 
bols. The most interesting application of the calculus was 
the investigation of the celestial motions, and analysts there- 
fore employed the astronomical elements of position, which 
have not the same reference to the three parts of space. Ne- 
vertheless th e preparations for a more symmetrical analysis 
had been made by John Bernoulli in ] 7 1 ">. Euler in 1736, 
and Maclaurin in 17 1-2. The first of these three authors 
had employed, in defining the position of the points of a curve 
surface, three rectangular coordinates 1 ", the second had adopt- 
ed this method for the purpose of following the motion of a 

16 Comment.i r. Acad. PetropoL I7S7, 

Leib. el B i .;. Com. Epis. Tom. II. p. 345. The inventi »n Df this method 

cribed by Euler and b Maclaurin. The following extr 

from John Bernoulli'- letter and Leibnitz's reply, while tb . bai all claims in favour 

Df the former two, maki i bat doubtful to which of the httur the meril 

lobe ascribed. "Intel uperficiem curvam datam, cujus singula puncta 

rminantur sic tri lini e curvae data puncta) per on rum 

nihil iliud 
p indicul u in 

Ntia. Sil 
mtor roor.lii. ipli gratia, Ii.tc xy: = a*. Feb. 6, 1715." To which 

Leibnitz replies, "Doctrinam de cquationibus localibua trium co urn, 

I- solidis, olim aggredi ccspi, eorumque intei ■• 
i nor planas ; mi nun racavil I pretium facerel qui stud 

impenden I Ipr. ,J . 1 715." 



;J22 ON THE MOTION OF 

point 13 , and along with Maclanrin had resolved velocities and 
forces in the direction of these coordinates 19 . 

Euler had ohserved hefore Maclaurin that all forces what- 
ever soliciting a point might be resolved in three directions 
parallel to three fixed rectangular coordinates. He merely 
employed these however for the purposes of immediately re- 
solving the forces again into three others also rectangular but 
not fixed, the tcmgentialis, normalis premens, and the nor- 
mally deflectens. Maclaurin appears to have been the first 
who endeavoured to turn to account the advantages of having 
the forces fixed in their directions, but the geometrical me- 
thods to which he in common with all his countrymen were 
unfortunately attached, made it impossible for him to realize 
to any extent the benefits of this arrangement. 

It became an easy matter then to reduce to a regular form 
the calculus of the motion of a point, but it was by no means 
so obvious what were the three elements which were equally 
concerned in defining the rotations about the centre of gra- 
vity. The formulas which were first invented for this pur- 
pose were given by Euler in 1750, and may safely be pro- 
nounced among the expressions in the science most remark- 
able for their simplicity and absolute generality 20 . In the 
perfect form in which they came at once from the hands of 
Euler, they have been extensively employed by later mathe- 
maticians, and particularly by Lagrange in his Mecanique 
Analytique. A year before the publication of this paper, Eu- 
ler had given a solution of the problem of the compound ro- 
tation of the earth 21 , which he acknowledges, in a memoir on 
the same subject inserted in the Transactions of the Berlin 

18 Mechanica analytict exposita. Auct. Eulcro. 173G. Tom. [. p. 339. 
11. 

19 Mechanica, Tom. II. 477. — Treatise of Fluxions, by Colin Maclaurin. 
Edinburgh, 1742, p. 391, § 470. 

i0 De'couverte d'un nouveau principe de Mecanique. Memoires de 1' Aca- 
demic Royale dcs Sciences de Berlin. Tome VI. 1750. 

21 Reclierches de la Precession des equinoxes, et sur la nutation de 1'axe de 
la terrc. Memoires de l'Acad. de Berl. Tome V. 1749. 



solids iin -i nr \i es. ; 2 I 

Society** for 1 7 "><>. had been composed after a perusal of 
D'Alembert's Treatise of 1749. The simplifications intro- 
duced by the discovery of the properties of the oatural axes 
of rotation by Segner* 3 in 1755 contributed materially to im- 
prove the form and manageableness of the equations of rota- 
tory motion, and in L758, Euler had made such advances in 
this theory, thai the problem of the general motion of a fi 
rigid body animated by no accelerating forces, or in other 
words agitated only by the inertia of its particles — a problem 
of some celebrity in the history of mathematics, — at last 
yielded to the power of the calculus and to the penetrating 
uius of its accomplished master**. Two years afterwards, 
Euler resumed the consideration of this subject, in an inter- 
esting paper in which he applied to a variety of curious prob- 
lems the theory of the Segnerian axes"; and finally in 1761, 
John Albert Euler. in a prize dissertation on the stowage and 
ballasting of vessels, solved by a method evidently imitated 
from his father's, the problem of a rigid body not solicited by 
accelerating forces- 3 . The analysis employed in these solu- 
tions though subtle and profound is certainly deficient in that 
directness and precision so difficult to attain in a new and 
complicated subject. To remedy Ibis imperfection. I)' \lem- 
bert, in a paper written in 1762, though not published until 
six years afterwards* 7 , derives the results of Euler from the 
principles laid down in the firsl volume of his Opuscules**, by 
a process so remarkable for it> simplicity and beauty, thai La- 
grange has adopted and inserted it with an improved nota- 

,s Avertissemenl au sujel i i Equinoxes. 

Mem. d ; lead, de me VI. I 

Specimen Theorire Turbinum. 1 i 

- i riable 

I. Berl. Tome XIV. : 

ttion d'un corps Bolide quclconque, lorsqu'il tourne 
autour d'un axe mobile. Mem Lead. Berl. Tome XVI. i 

'* Histoire de rAcadlmie des Sciences de Paris. Prix. I7G1. 

1T Du mouvemenl d'un Corps de figure quelconque. Opuscules, Tomi l\ 
1768. p. 

** Opuscules, Tome I. 17':!. p. 71— 103 

VOL. in. 1 N 



324 ON THE 310TION OF 

tion in the second volume of his Mecanique 29 . It is remark- 
able that in considering this variety of the problem, Landen, 
an English mathematician of excellent abilities, found him- 
self unable to comprehend its principles, after fourteen years 
of earnest and almost unremitted efforts to overcome its dif- 
ficulties, and that too with the solutions of Wildbore. Frisi. 
Euler and D'Alembert before him. In opposition to these 
writers he contended to the very day of his death that a cor- 
rect analysis would give a constant angular rotation about the 
instantaneous axis. 

The latter part of DAlembert's memoir is occupied with 
the general equations when any accelerating forces are pro- 
posed, and contains some valuable extensions and simplifica- 
tions of the formulas he had given before. It was now 
Euler's turn, however, to take the lead. In 1765. he had 
brought the general equations of rotatory motion into the 
form in which they are presented by Laplace in the first vo- 
lume of the Mecamque Celeste 30 , and there is an acknowledg- 
ment in the fifth volume of the same work 31 , that the equations 
of Euler appear to him to be the very simplest which it is 
possible for the science to obtain. The work in which these 
formulas are given 32 contains two interesting applications, hav- 
ing some connexion with the subject of the present essay ; 
the determination of the motion of a heterogeneous sphere on 
a horizontal plane, and a similar inquiry with respect to the 
motion of certain bodies, a given point in which remains in 
contact with the plane. Of these I shall speak more particu- 
larly hereafter. 

The general results of Euler are obtained by the aid of the 
discovery of Segner. As the motions of a system, however, 
flow necessarily from its state at a given time and the forces 
by which it is solicited, it seems fair to demand a solution of 
the problem in which recourse shall not be had to the pro- 

29 Mecanique Annlytique, Tome II. 1815. p. 261 — 263. 

10 Mtc. (VI. Tome 1. p. 74. 

3 ' Mtc. Cel. Tome V. p. 255. 

52 Theoria motus corporum solidorum seu rigidorum. Rostoch. 1765. 



SOLIDS ON si hi \(ES. 

perties of the Segnerian axes. This was firs! effected b\ 
Lagrange 33 in the Memoirs of the Academy of Berlin f<>i 
177*. In the course of this solution, which is repeated with 
an improved notation in the Mtcanique Jbtalytiqtte, the well 
known values of the resolved angular velocities in terms of 
the coordinates and resolved velocities of the body's poles, are 
given firsl as mere analytical abridgments, and made after- 
wards to exhibit their geometrical signification; a method 
which this author has followed on various other occasions. 
Nine years before this, however. Lagrange had considered 
another highly interesting case of planetary oscillation, the 
librations of the moon. His memoir on this subject was 
crowned by the Academy of Sciences in 1764 and will ever 
be memorable in the annals of Demonstrative Mechanics a* 
containing the application of the beautiful principle of vir- 
tual velocities in all its simplicity and power to the most ge- 
neral speculations of Dynamical Philosophy 11 . Combined 
with the great theorem of D'Alembert, this principle dis- 
penses altogether with the slow and enforced aids of Geome- 
try, and leads the analyst at once frojn the definition of 
velocity and force safely and rapidly to the most recondite 
- terets and the most elevated regions of the Science. In the 
Berlin .Memoirs for L780, Lagrange resumed the whole sub- 
ject, and in an admirable dissertation regarded by himself as 
the mosl finished of his productions, he terminates in formulas 
which delineate, in all their intricate variety, the motions of 
our satellite, lor ages withoul number past and to come. 
These expressions are the results of a skilful transformation ol 
the genera] equations in the case of rotation round a body- 
axis which forms with its mean direction a very small but 
variable angle, taking into account the figure which the moon 

ilution fhi Probleme 'In Moovemeot dc Rotation d'un Corps. 
. .M''m. Berl. I 
'* Recherches sur U libration de la Lune. Hist. Acad. Par. Prix. Tome IX 



326 ON THE MOTION OF 

must have acquired in the highly probable hypothesis of its 
original fluidity 35 . 

After the problem of free rotation had been solved, nearer 
approaches were made to the determination of the motion of 
a supported body. D'Alembert, who had briefly given in 
the first volume of his Opuscules the modifications of his ge- 
neral formulas applicable to this case, resumed the inquiry in 
the fifth volume of the same work 36 . For this purpose he 
undertakes a general solution of the question already consid- 
ered by Euler. A body is supposed to be sustained by one 
of its points upon a plane, and the circumstances of the mo- 
tion are required. The resulting differential equations are, 
however, so involved, that the author evidently abandons in 
despair all idea of obtaining the necessary integrations. A 
variety of simplifications and restrictions are then introduced 
with a view to obtain cases admitting of first integrals. The 
line which joins the centre of gravity and the point of sup- 
port is supposed to be a principal axis, and the point is sup- 
posed to move without friction on a horizontal plane, the 
mode of considering* the resistances of friction and the incli- 
nation of the plane being nevertheless laid down though found 
to lead to unmanageable results. On the whole, D'Alembert 
is far from having solved any but the simplest cases of this 
problem, though he appears to have proceeded somewhat far- 
ther than any of his cotemporaries. 

Euler, who had in the earlier volumes of the Commentaries 
of the St Petersburg Academy considered, in conjunction 
with Daniel Bernoulli, the effects of friction in retarding the 
motion of polyhedral solids and homogeneous cylinders on 
inclined planes 37 , turned his attention a few years before his 
death to some varieties of the general problem of greater dif- 
ficulty than these. His first memoir on this subject is divi- 

35 Thdorie <lc la librationde la Lune. Nouv. Mem. Berl. 1780. 

50 Sur le mouvement des Corps qui tournent. Opusc. Tome V. 1708. p. 489. 

37 De descensu corporum super piano inclinalo. — De nioiu corporum super 
piano horizontal aspero. Com. Acad. Petrop. Tom. XIII. 1751. — De frictione 
corporum rolantiuin. Novi Com. Acad. Petr. Tom. VI. 17G1. 



SOLIDS <>\ SURFACES. I .'7 

ded into two dissertations; treating of the oscillations of a 
heterogeneous vertical circle rolling I'nsi without and (hen 
with friction upon another vertical circle of support 1 *. The 
entire paper is a favourable specimen of the characteristic 
perspicuity of Euler, and contains the solution of the problem 
of the small pendular motions of the body, comprised in two 
eiiuations expressing in finite terms the coexisting oscillations 
of the centre of gravity around the centre of the rolling cir- 
cle, and of this centre around the centre of the circle of sup- 
port. The integrations are effected by an application of rules 
which Euler had himself laid down forty years before 30 in 
discussing the coexisting oscillations of a jointed pendulum or 
-trin-- of weights, a problem of which John Bernoulli had 
previously proposed and resolved the simplest case, namely, 
that in which all the weights cross the vertical at the same 
instant of time". Eider's solution of tin- general problem of 
the jointed pendulum stands precisely in the same relation to 
Bernoulli's that D'Alembert's essay on the vibrations of a 
tense string does to the original paper of Brook Taylor, and 
must be regarded as constituting an era not only in mechani- 
cal but equally «> in analytical science. The singular laws 
of coexisting oscillations which Daniel Bernoulli had already 

motu penduli c n cyliodricum fulcra date i nbentem 

mobilis, remota frictione Dissertatio prior. Acta lead. Petrop. 1780, p. I 

De motu penduli, ! frictionis ratione. Dissertatio altera, p. 164. This 

if the numerous posthumous memoirs of Euler. No?a 

l, Tom. VI. 1 7 7.:. The friction is here supposed to prevent all sliding. A 

ligation require: don of a friction proportioned to the 

ili'; basis of a dissertation of Euler's (inserted in the Ni 

V 1 1 foi i 71 3, the year in which he died . — De tu globi hi li rogenii Buper piano 

horizontal^ ejusque motu .i fricl e impedito. Iirthis paper the axis of rotation is 

to I horizon and in triable in direction. For :i i r recent investiga- 

n in the ca e of a boi m forward 

and on a horizontal plane, see Bulletin doa Sciences Math. Tome 

VI. II .>'•. p. 161. This paper proceeds on the same principles as those which 

form the groundwork of Eul ly— De effectu frictionis in motu volulorio. 

Petrop. 1781. p. 131 — 1 h . 

'• De oscillationibus fili flexilis quotcunque pondusculia onusti. Com. . 

1741. 
' De pendulo luxate luctione ail {>< -ii. 1 1 1 Ui m simplex iaocbronum. 

J4.i1. Bernoulli Opera, Tom. IV. p. t02. 

\ OL. ill. — 4 o 



328 ON THE MOTrON OF 

pointed out without being able to demonstrate, are rigorously 
deduced from the linear differential equations in which they 
are comprised ; and the beautiful theory of these equations, 
including their complete integration in a finite series of the 
multiples of sines of arcs proportional to the time, is, develo- 
ped and explained with admirable skill. An easy application 
of the principles of this theory solves the problem of the os- 
cillation of a heterogeneous circle within a circle, without 
friction, or what is essentially the same question, of any solid 
upon any suitable surface, the plane of motion being invaria- 
ble ; as for instance a spherical segment in a spherical cup, 
supposing no whirling to take place, or a pendulum with 
cylindrical pivots working in cylindrical collars, which is the 
form in which the problem is proposed by Euler himself. 
When the friction prevents all sliding, the oscillation is sin- 
gle, and is determined without reference to the theory just 
mentioned. The effect which this friction has in diminish- 
ing the time of a pendulum's vibrations, (along with a va- 
riety of other circumstances necessary to take into the ac- 
count when the appareil of Borda is employed) has been also 
calculated by Laplace in a paper on the seconds' pendulum 
inserted in the Connaissance des Tews for 1820. His me- 
moir is remarkable for the subtlety of the analysis, rendered 
necessary by the multitude of the considerations included in 
his calculus, but when he mentions the effect of friction 
without sliding as a singular and interesting result to which 
he had arrived, he is evidently not aware of the formulas of 
Euler and John Bernoulli, from either of which the same in- 
ference may readily be drawn. 

In the Ada Petropolitana for 1782, one year before his 
death, Euler resumes the investigation of the problem he 
had considered in -his Theoria motus corporum rigidorum. 
This problem, which consisted, as I have already mentioned, 
in determining the motion of a heterogeneous sphere along a 
horizontal plane, is called by Euler himself, qusestio maxima 
ardua, and is regarded by him as inaccessible by the methods 
then in use, except in the case in which the centres of gravity 



SOLEDS on sriir \< SES. J2' 1 

and of figure art- supposed to coincide. This simplification 
i< accordingly introduced, and. under the hypothesis of a fric- 
tion proportional to the con-taut pressure, he finally obtains, 
after a long ami complicated process, a solution of the prob- 
lem, as far as the progressive motion ami the velocity about 
the instantaneous axis arc concerned, but the determination 
of the position of this axis in terms of the time is abandoned 
.is absolutely unattainable 41 . 

The whole theory of simultaneous linear equations, so im- 
portant in a large class of mechanical inquiries, was lefi by 
Euler in a formed, hut by no means in a finished state. 
I) Alemberl. in whose capacious and prolific intellect almost 
every branch of mathematical and mechanical philosophy 

Das to have found place and to have borne abundant fruit, 
invented, for the solution of these equations, the method of 
indeterminate coefficients, a method remarkable for the faci- 
lity of its application, and the fertile variety of its results 
This method is not confined as Eider's is. to the case of con- 
stant coefficients, bul brings to their least difficulties many 
classes of equations which previously had been considered as 
intractable. It was however not applied by D'Alembert to 
the case of variable coefficients, until Lagrange and Lapl: 
had considered (lie same subject in new and interesting lights. 
In the memoirs of the Academy of Paris for 177 2. Laplace 
gives with numerous developments Lagrange's process for in- 

^rating any number of simultaneous linear equations of the 
first order with constant coefficients, and for determining tin 
value of the arbitrary constants, which is by no means the 
'least difficult part of the problem. JJoth the memoir of 
Lagrange which discusses tin- variations of the nodes of the 

11 De motu globi circa axem obliquum quemcun per piano 

[i. 1782, P. ii. p. I"7. 

' a differentielles. Opuscu 

VI!. 178 !k it had employed the method of indeterminate mul 

. thirty-two yean before in the Berlin 
telle methode de d'Alemberl [these are the word 
Laplace) est sflrement une dea plus in . el dee plus (i condea de l'n 

llanea Taurinenria, Tom. IV, 1766, p. 273. 



330 ON THE MOTION OF 

planets and of the inclinations of their orbits 43 , and that of 
Laplace which is extended so as to include all their variations, 
whether periodical or secular 44 , are alike remarkable for the 
analytical treasures they contain and the singular success with 
which this purely intellectual apparatus is made to declare 
the minutest and most prolonged of the celestial oscillations. 

In 1788 Lagrange published his Analytical Mechanics. 
The first paragraph of the fifth section of the first edition 
of this work is a masterly investigation of the small oscilla- 
tory motions of any system of bodies round the places of their 
rest. The great generality of this solution, along with its use- 
ful applications and manageable formulas, render it altogether 
one of the most important contributions ever made by mathe- 
matics to mechanical philosophy". The equilibrium posi- 
tions of the elements are supposed, in Lagrange's dissertation, 
to be determinate and unique ; that is, the system is supposed 
such that it cannot change its position without departing from 
a state of equilibrium. It is manifest however that in a large 
variety of cases, a system of material points may have a 
range, more or less extensive, in any part of which it will 
remain at rest. If the analysis of Lagrange had been made 
to comprehend, as far as that is practicable, the motions of a 
system in the immediate neighbourhood of its range of equi- 
librium, the subject would have been exhausted, and the limits 
of the science in no small degree enlarged. 

After Huyghens and James Bernoulli had completed the 

43 Recherches sur les equations seculaires des mouvemens des nceuds et des 
inclinaisons des Orbites des Planetes. Mem. Acad. Paris, 1774, p. 117. This 
paper, though of posterior date, is quoted by Laplace in the memoir following : — 

** Recherches sur le calcul integral et sur le systeme du mondc. Mem. Acad. 
Paris, 1772. P. ii. p. 293. 

* s It may be well to mention for the benefit of those who may find it useful to 
employ these formulas, that by some oversight on the part of Lagrange the values 
of all the brackelted coefficients in the final differential equations are deficient in 
all the quantities which arise from having regard to the terms of the second order 
in the devclopiuenis of the coordinates of the elements. In the American Journal 
of Science and Arts for July — Sept. 182G, p. 398, I have given the terms ncces- 

j to complete the values of these coefficients, with some remarks as to the best 
form of the function which expresses the finite action of the impressed forces on 
any one of the corpuscles of the system. 



90UD8 ON B1 BJF \< 331 

theory of oscillations round a constanl axis. Clairaul in 1735 
leralized tin" doctrine of the simple pendulum, in an ahle 
investigation of its conical vibrations, in which the effects ol 
an oblique impulse were for the firsl time subjected to mathe- 
matical determination 49 . The results for the cases in which 
the weighl describes a circle either vertical or horizontal 
were deduced as corollaries from the general formulas, and 
shown to be coincident with the conclusions to which 
Huyghens had already arrived for these simpler cases of the 
question. A mure difficult problem still remained. When 
a pendulous body hangs by a fixed point aboul which it maj 
turn freely in all directions, its motion will be affected not 
only by the obliquity of the impulse by which it is sel in 
motion, but also by the rotation of the pendulum around the 
line which j< >i ti> the sustaining point and the centre of gravity, 
so thai even when this axis is dropped vertically from a state 
of resl with the body revolving around it. this rotation will 
sufficient, at every instant of [the motion, to wrench (as it 
were) the axis from the direction in which it would move it 
left at the same instant to vibrate by itself. Up to 

it time no solution of this problem has been given 
for finite oscillations, and even for oscillations infinitely small. 
is givi u until Lagrange published, in the firsl edition 
of his Meeaniqw Jfautlytique, an ample dissertation on the 
subject. After a general investigation of the free rotation of 
;i rigid bod}-, in which the author skilfully combines all tie 
advantages of tin- various methods be had previously invented, 
he proceeds to the examination of the well known case in 
which tin- body pirouette* by virtue of tin- inertia of the ele- 
ments alone. After a masterlj detail of all the circum- 
stances of this case, Lagrange enters niton the discussion of 

■ 1 motions of a heavy body pirouetting aboul a fixed 
point not the centre of gravity, and advances as far towards 

** Exam en dee diffi rentes ' '-■ illations qu'un coi 

gqu'on l<ii donne une impulsion quelconque. M m Acad. Par. II 

II. 

VOL. III. 4 P 



332 ON THE MOTION OF 

a solution as it is possible to proceed in the present state of 
the Calculus. The case however in which the natural vertical 
of the body makes infinitely small conical oscillations around its 
resting place, while the body itself revolves about this axis 
with any velocity compatible with such oscillations, is com- 
pletely solved by means of an analysis remarkable for its bril- 
liancy, generality and rigour. The problem, it is shown, nat- 
urally divides itself into two distinct portions, one in which 
the form and density of the body is absolutely arbitrary, but 
the rotation round the vertical small and consequently varia- 
ble ; the other in which the rotation round the vertical is ar- 
bitrary and consequently constant, but the form and density 
of the body such that the conditions requisite to constitute 
the natural vertical a natural axis of rotation shall be nearly, 
though it is not necessary that they should be exactly, fulfil- 
led. 

Poisson published his excellent Traite de Meccmique in 
1811. In the second volume of this work, the author applies 
his calculus to a determination of the motions of a homoge- 
neous ellipsoid upon an inclined plane, both surfaces being 
supposed perfectly smooth. The investigation does not bring 
the formulas within the reach of the method of quadratures, 
and therefore the problem cannot as yet be considered as 
solved 47 . The author then proceeds to give an improved so- 
lution of the question considered long before by Euler and 
D'Alembert, of the motion of a solid body when it is sus- 
tained upon a plane by a point fixed in the body, but mov- 
ing freely along the plane. In the case in which the density 
and figure are symmetrical about the axis joining the cen- 
tre of gravity and sustaining point, the problem is reduced to 
the method of quadratures, and a complete solution is given 
in the hypothesis of small departures of the axis from some 
intermediate inclination to the plane. In this solution Pois- 
son has been followed by Prony in his Legons de Mecanique 

* 7 This reduction, it ought to have been remarked, is easily effected when the 
ellipsoid becomes a spheroid of revolution. 



SOLIDS ON SURFACES. 33;j 

Jlnalytique", Whewell in his Dynamics 49 , and various othei 
authors and compilers. 

It is, I think, a matter of surprize, that oone of the Euro- 
pean mathematicians should have thought of ascertaining 
whether the method of Lagrange might not be successfully 
employed in determining the variable pirouettes or oscillations 
which a heavy body bounded by a giv< u surface will make on 
a given plane or in general on any given surface of support. 
The first solutions 1 have been able to find of any case what- 
ever of this interesting question are contained in the eighth 
number of the New York Mathematical Diary for July 
isj7. The problem as proposed by Mr E. Nulty, of Phila- 
delphia, requires a determination of all the small oscillations 
which can be made by the segment of a sphere in contact 
with a horizontal plane. Euler, as we have seen, had per- 
fectly resolved this case, in the two hypotheses of perfect 
sliding and perfect rolling, as long as the motion of rotation 
is around an axis of invariable direction. lint the motion 
round a variable axis he had carefully excluded, expressly on 
the ground of its being inaccessible to the analysis of the 
day. One of the solutions published in the work which I 
have just mentioned is by I)r Admin, at that time Professoi 
of Mathematics in Rutger's College, New Jersey. This so- 
lution, which regards the segment as symmetrica] and mov- 
ing without friction, begins with a verj ingenious and direct 
transformation of Lagrang *s general formula of Dynamics 
into another in which three of the variations are. a- usual, 
variations of the coordinates of the centre of rotation, and the 
other three, variations of the finite angles employ i I by Euler 
and Laplace; a process which, though the most direct, has 
not. a> far as 1 can ascertain, been pursued <>r even suggested 
by any other author. The facility with which this problem, 
as long a> friction is nol concerned, may be 1 subjected to the 
methods and formulas of Lagrange, enabled me, in a solution 

48 Leeons de Mlcanique Analytique, Tome II. 1816, p 

45 A Treatise on Dynamics. 182a. p 



334 ON THE MOTION OF 

subjoined to Dr Adrain's in the same number of the Diary, 
to dispense with the conditions of a symmetrical density or a 
vertical natural axis of rotation. In the hypothesis of perfect 
rolling (the first instance I believe in which it has been con- 
sidered in reference to an axis varying ad libitum) the formu- 
las I have there given lead to a complete solution of the prob- 
lem 40 considered in all the generality of which it is suscepti- 
ble. It still remained to apply to oscillating bodies of any 
form whatever what is there remarked of bodies with a sphe- 
rical areola of contact, and at the same time to have regard to 
the figure of the surface of support. This I have attempted 
in the following dissertation ; with what success I leave to 
those who are better practised than myself in speculations of 
this nature, to examine and decide. 

Before entering upon this subject, I beg leave simply to re- 
mark that the new words or new combinations of words occa- 
sionally employed in the following paper, have not been intro- 
duced from any idle love of innovation, but from the absolute 
necessity of the case. The tedious circumlocutions and the 
incessant repetitions to which I should have been forced with- 
out the proposed abridgments, would have extended this com- 
munication far beyond its proper limits, and would not I 
think have added either to its interest or perspicuity. In 
short, I have employed these terms precisely for the same 
reasons that I employ the symbols of analysis, and attach 
no sort of value to them after they have served my purpose, 
but leave them to be accepted or rejected, as those who choose 
to pursue this subject may happen to find it most convenient. 



50 In consequence of an error in developing the variation of the living forces 
Hue to the progression of the system, a correction (to be made by substituting 
c — h in place of e) becomes necessary in some of the expressions at the close oi 
the paper above referred to. 



SOLIDS ON SURFACES. 335 



II. 

Mathematical Investigation of the Motion of Solids upon Surfaces, in 
the Two Hypotheses of Perfect Sliding and Perfect Rolling, with a 

Particular Examination of their Small Oscillatory .Motions. 

Let us now refer, as usual, the oscillating body (.1/) to two 
systems of coordinate axes, one of them, which 1 shall call 
space axes, fixed in space, and originating at any fixed point 
(O). the other called body axes, invariably connected with the 
body and originating at any given point (O,). Let .r, x. x . 
x. >/. z. denote the coordinates of any element Dm of the 
body referred to these two sets of axe^: f, £', £ . £. K . (. 
the coordinates of 0„ reckoned from 0. parallel respectively 
to the •-pace and body axes; ./. ]}. ('. j>. ,/. ,-. the moment- 
of inertia and the velocities of rotation round the bodj axes; 
/•'. G, //. /'. (}. J{. the integrals Sy,z,Dm, Sz,x Dm. Sx,y Dm. 
fpdt,fqdt, fnll: X. X . X . X. Y. X. the accelerative forces 
in the direction of the space and bodj axes; and finally, tin 
symhol il denoting the differentia] coefficient with respect to 
the time /". ht </.r. thj . ,/:. ,/■ . ,l r . ,1;. ,/.,•. ,/•_,, . ,/ c . ;u ,d 

•1 1.. dr. eP£„ denote the velocities and accelerations of Dm 

and O. in the direction of the axis of the body. 

As tie- general formula of Dynamics i-. by its nature, inde- 

* [ hav.- ventured upon tin- modification of the usual notation, at tl uon 

of a valu<.l friend, principally with a new to save ruum. pmbol ■•■ 

dj- 
' orm d7' ' rning more or less of trouhle and delaj to the printer, 

evidently makes ev< ry line in which it k introduced take «\> more than double the 

b which it would occupy without it The Roman d will be n ei 
m these Transactions) for simple differentials. 
VOL. in. — 4 q 



336 ON THE MOTION OF 

pendent of the direction of the axes in space, it may be pre- 
sented in either of these forms, ( 1 ) 

SDm[(d*x -+- X)dx -j- {dTx' + X')dx' -+- {d'x"-{- X")dx"] = o 
SDmftd'x, -+- X)hx, -+- {dry, -f- Y,)dy, + {dTz t + Z )&, ] == o 

where it must he carefully recollected, that in consequence 
of the motion of the body axes, the variations and accelera- 
tions in the latter formula, as well as the velocities dx„ dy„ dz,. 
d£„ dy;„ tf£,, belong to the class of incomplete differentials. 

In these equations the variations are of different values for 
different elements of the body, or in other words are functions 
of the coordinates of Dm. It is evident, however, that before 
this formula can be employed, these variations will in general 
require to he reduced to other variations common to all the 
elements, so that, in the language of the calculus, they may 
be passed from under the sign S. The manner of effecting 
this, by a general method for all constitutions of matter and 
for all conditions of motion, must have been a problem of no 
ordinary difficulty. Mathematicians however have succeeded 
in this transformation by several processes equally remarka- 
ble, each of them terminating in an equation of the form 

Lda + Mdp-hMy-t-L'dZ,-t-M'd[i-hN'dv = o. 

In all these transformations, da, d(3, by are the progressive 
variations common to all the particles in the direction either 
of the body-axes or the axes in space ; but with respect to the 
variations b'K, d(i, dv, there exists between these methods an 
essential difference which deserves to be noticed. To render 
this distinction the clearer, it is necessary to observe that the 
absolute position of a body in space involves two considera- 
tions: 1st, the position in space of some fixed point O, of the 
body, which may be denominated the station of the body ; and 
2dly, that part of the position which depends only upon the 
direction of the body-axes, and which, for the sake of brevity, 
may be called the aspect of the body. A body therefore may 



MM. ID- IIS -I HI IlCES. .'337 

change it> station while it keeps it- aspect, or it may alter its 
aspect while it maintains its station, these two constituents of 
position being entirely independent of each other. It is evi- 
dent, moreover, that the station of a body depends upon three 
arbitrary variables, the three coordinates of (> : whereas it> 
aspect is a function of the nine angles which the three body- 
axes make with the three axes in space. As the angles which 
a straight line makes with axes to which it is referred, are 
elements of very frequent use in geometrical and mechanical 
speculations, I shall take the liberty, for the purpose of avoid- 
ing tedious repetitions, to call them the axe-angles of the line. 
distinguishing also between the space-axe angles and the body- 
axi angles; thus u. «', a", /'. I>. I> . c, c. c (winch is the usual 
notation) will denote the cosines of the space-axe angles of the 
body-axes. Between these nine cosines there exist six equa- 
tions of condition, so that, in ultimate analysis, the aspect of 
a body will, as well as its station, depend upon the values of 
three independent variables. The choice of these becomes 
therefore a matter of importance. Euler. who must be re- 
ded as the inventor of this interesting branch of analysis. 
showed as early as the year 1771. in a paper published in (lie 
fifteenth volume of the Now, Commentarii of the Academy of 
St Petersburg, under the title of Problema algebraicum oh 
affectiones prorsus singulares memorabile, how these nine quan- 
tities might be expressed in terms of three independent angles, 
namely, the inclination of one of the moveable to one of the 
fixed planes, and the distances from their intersection to an 
axis in i ach plane. The author begins l>\ considering the 
question analytically; and this view of it gives rise to a prob- 
lem altogether similar, with respect to the determination of 
sixteen quantities connected l>\ ten analogous conditions, from 
which he proceeds, with hi- characteristic habit of gradual 
_ aeralization, to extend bis analysis to twenty-live quantities 
with fifteen connecting relations, and so on. It is only the 
first case ot' the problem that can have any application to geo- 
metry, but the whole paper is deserving of attention as fur- 
nishing one of the earliest specimens of the improved methods 
of modern analysis. Of all the solutions of the first case ot 



338 ON THE MOTION OF 

this problem which have since been given, there is perhaps 
none equal to Euler's in directness and perspicuity. The 
methods of obtaining the resulting formulas have however 
been, with great advantage, occasionally modified so as to suit 
particular views and purposes. It is in astronomy more es- 
pecially that these three elements of aspect are most employed, 
for which reason they are preferred by Laplace to the three 
indefinite integrals, the angles P, Q, i?, notwithstanding the 
greater symmetry which arises from the use of these three 
angles. It is to Euler also that we are indebted for formulas 
which lead to this last determination, by which the cosines 
of the nine angles are made to depend by the medium of dif- 
ferential equations on the values of the integrals P, Q, R. In 
the sixth volume of the Berlin Transactions for the year 1750, 
in a memoir entitled Decouverte cVun nouveau principc de me- 
canique, Euler gave the formulas, now so well known, which 
express the motion of every point of a system in terms of the 
coordinates of the point and the motion of progression and 
rotation common to all the points. These expressions were 
employed by Lagrange in obtaining the relations by which 
the variations of the cosines of the axe-angles were reduced to 
the three variations dP, dQ, dB, or the three analogous varia- 
tions of the angles of rotation round the axes fixed in space. 
Finally, in the Memoirs of the Academy of Turin for the 
years 1784 and 1785, there is a curious paper by Monge, in 
which, having occasion to introduce these nine cosines, he 
takes for the independent variables the three angles x 0,x„ 
x'0,y„ x"0,z„ and gives without demonstration the values of 
the other six, expressed in terms of these three. Lacroix has 
inserted these results, with an accompanying demonstration, 
in his quarto treatise on the Differential and Integral Calculus ; 
but I am not aware that this method of determination has 
been employed in Analytical Mechanics. 

One of the methods by which the transformation from indi- 
vidual to common variations has been effected is founded on 
the formulae which give the variations of the cosines a, a', a", 
&c. in terms of the variations of the angles of rotation round 
the space-axes. This method has the advantage of leading 



SOLIDS ON SURFACES. 5 39 

readily to two integrations with respect to time, thus giving 
.u mice the principles of the centre of gravity, of areas and of 
living forces: but does not allow of integration with respect 
to the dimensions of the system, without which ii is obvious 
that the phenomena of its motion cannot in general he ascer- 
tained. For this purpose either the equations of motion ob- 
tained by this transformation must be employed to produce 
six others which admit of this integration, as Laplace has done, 
or these six must be obtained directly from the general dyna- 
mical •equation by the application of the formulas involving the 
variations of the angles of rotation round the axes of the body, 
a method which was first carried fully into effect by Lagrange. 
In his Mfcamque Analytique, he effects this transformation, 
not by a direct method, but by means of his favourite subsid- 
iary formulas. {Vol. I. p. 13, edit. 1811); and in doing so he is 
under the necessity of warning the reader that the usual inter- 
change of the differential of the variation and the variation of 
the differential would not be legitimate with respect to the 
quantities ddP, o<!<{, bdR. The difference arising from the 
order in which the signs are placed (a difference obviously to 
be ascribed to the incompleteness of both the differential and 
th'' variation of the indefinite integrals P, Q, /?.) Lagrang< 
then carefully investigates and takes into account. In a note 
found among his papers after his death, and inserted in an 
appendix at the end of the second volume of his Mtcanique, 
he carries to its results, bya direct process, the Last mentioned 
plan of transformation, and extends his analysis to all possible 
systems, whether solid or not, thereby having regard to the 
intestine or proper motions of the particles. As the method 
indicated in this note appears to me to conduct to the neces- 
sary results from the simplest principles, by the directest 
means, and with the smallest quantity of analysis compatible 
with a process entirely analytical, I shall devote a page or two 
of this paper to the purpose of obtaining, by means of this 
transformation, formulas preparatory to the solution of tin 
problem I have proposed. On this subject I think it proper 
to premise, that as the whole notation 1 have adopted refers 

s on. in. — 1 n 



340 ON THE MOTION OF 

to the three dimensions of matter with absolute similarity, 
the equations will necessarily form themselves into triplets 
perfectly symmetrical, so that when the first of each triplet 
is investigated, the others will be had without calculation by 
changing simultaneously throughout the first triplet every 
letter of the triplets of notation into the letter which follows 
it circularly in that triplet. The same observation applies 
equally to the accents $ to allow of which in all cases, it was 
necessary to alter in some respects the usual notation, which 
however will not be much disturbed if we make the triplets 
of successive accents refer to the fixed axes and the triplets of 
successive letters to the axes of the body. 

Among the quantities which I have distinguished by sym- 
bols, there exist the following well known relations. 



x 
(2) X 



t' = f + fl'^+i'^+c'^ 
x" = £"-\-a"x / -\-b"y / -hc"z / 



x, = — £, -f- ## H- a'x' -f- a "x 
(3) y, = — >?, -+- bx ■+■ b'x' -h b "x" 

z, = — £ -H ex -+- e'x' -+- c"x 



a ~*ii 



(4) 



a 2 + a' a -t-a //3 
b *+b"-hb'" 


- 


1 
1 


c 3 + c ' a -Hc ,/3 


= 


1 


a 3 -+-6 a +c a 

fi "> -+- b"> + c" a 


= 


1 
1 
1 



a b -\-a'b' -\-a"b" = 

be -h b'c' -+- b"c" = 

c a -+- c'a' -+- c"a" = 

a a' -\- b b' -\- c & =0 

aV-h b'b"+c'c" = 

a" a -hb'b -4-c"c = 



dP = cdb + cdb'-hc'db" 

(5) dQ = adc-ha'dc'-ha"dc" 

dR = bda + b'da'-hb"da" 



da = bdR — cdQ 


db 


(6) 
= cdP — adR 


dc = a dQ — bdP 


da 1 = b'dR — c'dQ 


db' 


— cdP — a'dR 


dc' = a'dQ — b'dP 


da 1 = b'dR — c'dQ 


db 1 


-± edP — a'dR 


dc" = a'dQ — b'dP 



XU.11>> ON M Ul"A< I>. 341 

The equations marked (5) occur for the firsl time in La- 
grange's memoir of 177 J referred to in the historical sketch 
which precedes this essay, and arise not by any derivation 
from their mechanical meaning, I nit simply as analytical 
abridgments naturally presenting themselves in the course of 
bis investigations, and then afterwards examined and defined. 
The values of these velocities dP. dQ. till, may however be 
obtained from their definitions without calculation, by means 
of the following simple consideration, — that the velocity round 
any one of the axes is the same with the velocity of a point 
(distant unity from in a ueond axis) estimated in the direc- 
tion of the third axis. Thus the components, in the direction 
of the fixed axes, of the velocity of the point (a. a . a ) in the 
axis of x t , being da, da. da , its velocity in the direction of 
the axis of y will he bda -)- b da -\- b da , which is therefore 
equal to dli. the velocity of rotation round the axis of z,. The 
velocities dP, dQ are then had by changing the letters. 

The following corollaries from the above formulas will be 
useful on a variety of occasions: (7) 

du> h- da '-h da'" = dQ'+dR* 
db +. db ■ 4- db ■ = dW + d/> 
dc' + def+da" = dP'-^dQ' 

dadb — d,i db + da db = — dPdQ 
dbdc + db de + db de = — dQdR 

deda -f- de da -+- (/<■ da = — dlidP 

ad a -4- a d<i -+- a d'a = — (dQ" -+- dR>) 
bd b -4- 6 db -+- b d b" ss — (dli -h dP>) 
rd C — C (I C -+- C de = — \(IP' ■+■ dQ*) 

ad h + „ db -j- a ,/ & = efiPdQ — d It 
bd c + A rfc -t- A rf*£ = dQdR — d P 
rd a __ c tfa ■+■ c «fa = dfidP — efQ 

ad c _|_ a de + a cfr = dK«*P + ef Q 

&<p a .+. 6 <f a h_ 6 d-a = <//'dQ~ (IH 
c d*b -+- e d*b l -4- c db = dQdli 4- <f P 



342 ON THE iMOTION OF 

Much use will also be made of the subjoined equations : 

£ = «£/+*>, + <•£ l = at+.a!% + a'%<' 

r = a %+b%+c% (8) n, = bZ + b'S'+b'r 
c" = a %^rb\-^c% I = cH-c'l'4-cr 

dx, = adx -\- a! dx 1 -\- a" dx" d*x^ = ad'x-^-a'd'x' -\-a'iVx 

dy, = Ma: + 6Vta' + fc"rfa;" (9) flty, = /«ra: + b'd'x' + b"d'x" 
dz, == c<te -(- c'da:' -|- c"(te" <fz a = cd*x -+- c'd'x' -\- c'iVx 



dl = adg-i-a'dZ'-ha"d£" <T& == ad?£ + a!d*% -\-a"d*£ 

dy, = bd£-hb'd£-^b"d£" (10) rf> Q = bd'jt + b'd'g +b"d*Z 
dt, t = cdg-+-e!d£-t-cW d% = cd*£ + c'rfT -+- c"rf"g 



with similar expressions for the incomplete variations dx,, dy„ <5z„ 
#£, &?„ d^. Finally we have the following relations between 
the accelerative forces: 

X = aX,-^b Y.+c Z, X, == aX-ha'X'-ha"X" 

X I = a , X l -hb'Y,-hc'Z l (11) Y, = bX-t-b'X + b"X" 
X" = a"X,-Y-b"Y,+c"Z, . Z = cX -+- c'X -+- c"X" 

If we substitute now, in place of the variations and accele- 
rations of x, x', x" in the above formulas, their values derived 
from equations (2), and reduce by means of (6) and (10), we 
shall find 

(12) 

dx, = d£, — y,dR-hz,dQ 

by x = d*i,— z,dP -\- x,8R 
dz, == dZ — x.dQ + y.dP 

(13) 

dX = d% — x,(d& -h dR) + y,(dVdQ — d*R) -f- z,(dRdP -+- </ J Q) 
,/'y a = dX — #(</#' -+- dPJ + z,(rfQrf« — d"P) -+- x,(dPdQ + rf a B) 
,Pz a = d^—z l (dP'+dQ*)-hx,(dlidl>--d*Q) + y l (dQdR + d*l') 



S01.ID-; ON SIUI'ACKS. ( 1 ) 

By the substitution of these expressions in the second gen- 
eral formula (1). it becomes integrable with respect to S: and 
if we suppose the point O to be taken in the centre of gravity 

of the system, we shall have, after the obvious nil net ions. 

(14) 
(MP&+SXJhnydS, -+- [ C + S(Zy — Vz )Dm}bP\ 

(Mr- K ,-hsriJ'ti)oK -+- [ /'-f-.v(A',c — z,x )i)„r\o(A = . 

(MPS, -+- SZ,Dm)6l -+- [ W+ S( V.r — X ;/ )Dm]bR ) 
where 

(15) 

[ ' = Adp — Gdr — ffdq + (C — B)qr -+- F(f —q*) — Gpq -+- Hrp 

V = Bdq — Hdp — Fdr -+- (^ — C)rp +- Gfj> a — r m ) — /fyr + />, 
W = Gdr — /Wy — Gdp -h(B — Jl)pq -+. Htf —p') — Frp + Gqr 

which are the same expressions as those which are given by 
Lagrange in his first volume although obtained by a process 
altogether different. 

These values would be greatly simplified by referring the 
elements Dm to the principal axes of the body; but as the 
axis which is vertical when a heavy body is at rest is not in 
general a principal axis, it will be found accessary, in investi- 
gating the phenomena of oscillatory motion, to retain the 
terms multiplied by /'. G, If. quantities which may I think. 
from their giving rise to a constant displacement of the instan- 
taneous axis of rotation, he called with some propriety the 
dutorriet moments of inertia. 

If the sy-tern is free, then by equating to nought the coef- 
ficients of the six variations, we shall obtain six equations 
determining the progressive and rotatory motion of the 
body, namely. (1G) 



\ OL. in. — 1 s 



344 ON THE MOTION OP 

Md%-j-SX,Dm = o, 

Md\^SY,Dm = o, 

Md% + SZ,Dm = o; 

U-hS(Z,ij, — ¥ l z,)JDm = o, 

V + S(X,z,—Z;x,)Dm = o, 

W-^s{Y,x,—X l y,)Dm. = o. 

of which the first three may, by means of equations (10) 
and (11), be made to assume the following more usual form 

(17) 

Md'i -i-SXDm = o, 

Md*£'-hSX'Dm = o, 
MdT + SX"Dm = o. 



■- 



But if the body, as in the problem I have proposed to examine, 
is forced to roll or slide on a given surface, the above varia- 
tions are no longer independent, and we must ascertain the 
influence which the progressive and rotatory motions have 
upon each other ; or to give this question the geometrical form 
which the nature of variations seems essentially to require, it 
is necessary to determine the geometrical relations which a 
given limitation of position will occasion among the elementary 
changes of those magnitudes on which the station and the as- 
pect of the body depend. For this purpose, let K=o repre- 
sent the equation of the given supporting surface referred to 
the axes fixed in space, and let K, = o be the equation of the 
surface of the given oscillating body referred to its own axes. 
Let L, L', L", L„ M„ N„ represent the cosines of the space 
and body axe-angles made by the normal common to both 
surfaces at the point of variable contact P, for whose space and 
body coordinates we may employ the symbols x, x 1 , x", 
x„y„z„ so as to make the formulas (3) applicable to these 
coordinates, recollecting only that x„ y„ z, are now variable 
quantities. Then because the normal is at right angles to the 



SOLIDS ON SURFACES. i I ) 

elements ds, ds, of the curves traced on the two surfaces by 
the point of contact P, and that dx, dx', dx", dx„ dy„ dz,, an 
proportional to the cosines of the space and body axe-angles 
of this element, we have the two equations (18) 

Ldx-hL'dx' + L"dx" = o: 
L,dx,-+- 31, dy -\-N,bz, = o. 

But the variational equations of the given surfaces an 

dK, s dA', . dK, » 

dF<^ +^°>+ sf^/= °- 

which equations, to subsist simultaneously with the other two, 
require that we should have (19) 



T — h — 
Ij — '' * dx ' 


L = k 


dK 

' dx ■ 


L = >.§, 


M = k 


dK 


L — "'dx" 


N, = k 


dK 

■ dz ■ 



Whence /, ^(« + £ + g) = *X> + £"+i") = 

. . fdh ,/A ,/A"-\-' 

Similarly /,-= (^ + _-+___) . 



346 ON THE MOTION OF 

These last formulas, which are well known to mathemati- 
cians, will enable us to find the values of L, L\ L", L„ M„ N„ 
in all cases where the surfaces are known, and thereby to put 
their differential or variational equations in the forms above 
given (18); forms which will always be found remarkably 
well adapted to geometrical and mechanical inquiries, from 
the facility with which the analytical results can be translated 
into the language of geometry. Between these cosines there 
exist the following relations : (20) 

L = aL-hbM, + c N, , 
L' = a'L.-hb'M^e'N,, 
L = a"L,+ b"M, + c"N l i 

L = a L-ha'L'-ha"L", 
M t = b L+b'L'+b"L\ 
N, = cL+c'L 1 +c"L". 

Taking now the variations of equations (2), and recollecting 
that x„ y, z, are no longer constant, we obtain (21) 

dx = dZ -+-a dx,H-6 ty,4-c bz^xfla -\-y,bb -+-z,dc , 

dx> — df -^a'dx.-i-b'dy^c'dz^x^a' -hy,db' -^zfic' , 
i z » — dZ"- h a"dx l -hb"dy l -hc"dz i + z l da" + y l db" + z l dc". 

Adding these equations together, after multiplying the first 
by L, the second by L', and the third by L", and then redu- 
cing by means of the formulas (20), there results 

— (L dx -+- L'dx'-h L"hx") -+- x f (Lda -+- L'M+LW) ) 

+lLdZ+L'dZ , + L' , d£ , j + y,(Ldb-)-L / db , -t-L'<db'')\=o. 

^.(Lfa+Mfiy, H- N,dz, ) -f- z,(Ldc -+- L'dc'+ L"8c ' ) ) 
Substituting in place of the variations of the nine cosines their 



SOLIDS ON SURFACES. 3 17 

values (6). reducing by means of equations (20), and observ- 
iiiLr that the differential equations of the surfaces give us 

L r — L'dx -h L aV = o , Lfa ■+■ Moij -+- iV<)z, = o . 

w. shall find 

o = Lbl +L'd£ +re + ( i Vi/-i)/:),7'. 

+ (L,z t — Nx,)dQ, 

-h(Mr —Ly)nli. 

which, by virtue of the relations (10) and (11), may be also 
rented in this form. (-22) 

o = L oi -+- Mfa -+- NX + (JV>, — Mz )bP . 

+ (L,z -N r r )„Q. 
+ (M l x-L, !/ y,I<: 

remarkable expressions, independent of the variations <>| flu 

point iif contact, and containing the required relation betw< i a 

'In variations of the station and aspect of the body made ne- 

iry by the condition of its contact with the given surface 

■ ! support. These equation* are in other respects independent 

the manner in which the body is forced to slide, roll, or 

whirl upon the surface, and are therefore true under every 

thesis of friction. 

It may he well to observe that these equations, the last foi 

mple, maybe obtained by another method which introduce - 

formulas that may be frequently useful in geometrical ;>s well 

i- in physical inquiries. If we investigate the equations (12). 

radhavi regard ins > doing to the present variability of r.i/.z. 

we shall find ( 1 i) 

, —fix, = rtC _ y ,)Jt -+_ r -Q . 

nil —nil = n K —Z n P -¥- 'II. 

- : = &—X,i <j — !/'P 
vol. III. — I T 



348 ON THE MOTION OF 

But if we add equations (9) together after multiplying them 
respectively by L,, M„ and iV, and reduce by means of (20), 
we shall find 

Lfo + Mfa + Nfa == Lbx-^L'bx' + L"bx"; 

which the equations of the two surfaces enable us to write in 
this form, 

L,{bx x — bx / )^.M l (by: — fyj-Kflftdz, — bz) = o. 

This last expression becomes, with the aid of the three equa- 
tions given above, 

L^l-yPR+zZQ)) 
M{d^—zpP-^x,m)\ = o. 
Nlbl-xfiQ + yfiP)) 

which is the same with the result before obtained, and is in 
fact expressing algebraically that the velocity of the point of 
contact is nought in the direction of the normal. Care must 
be taken to distinguish between bx„ by,, bz„ and bx„ by,, bz,. 
They both denote the variations of the point of contact (P) 
estimated in the direction of the body-axes ; but the former 
denote its variation along the surface of the moving body, the 
latter its variation along the surface of support. The former 
are of the kind called incomplete variations, the body axes 
being supposed to remain fixed during any one of these vari- 
ations, and to vary instantaneously in passing to the next. The 
latter are the total variations of the actual body coordinates of 
the point of contact (P). These two kinds of variations ne- 
ver coincide in value except in the case of rolling motion un- 
accompanied by sliding. 

If the body is supported upon two, three, four or five given 
surfaces, there will be as many equations of condition similar 
to equation (22) as there are surfaces of support : if the body 
is required to be in contact with six given surfaces, its station 
and aspect become determinate and motion is no longer possi- 



SOLIDS ON SURFACES. 349 

ble; the formulas I have given will however be very useful 
in investigating the position of the body. If there be abso- 
lutely no friction, in that case the above equations of condition 

are the only ones which exist along with the general dynami- 
cal equation, lint if there be proposed any hypothesis of frie- 
tion or analogous restraint, the following considerations will 
assist us in determining the relations between the momentary 
changes in translation and rotation. 

Let us. for the sake of greater generality, suppose that the 
two bodies J/" and M . which are in contact with each other, 
are both of them in motion. There will be now at least six 
different velocities at the point of contact, liable without atten- 
tion to be confounded with each other: — I. The absolute ve- 
locity in space of the physical point of contact ]> of the body 
M. II. The absolute velocity in space of the physical point 
of contact jo belonging to the body M . III. The absolute 
velocity of the geometrical point of contact P. IV. The 
velocity with which the point P changes its place on the sur- 
face of M. V. The velocity with which the same point /' 
changes its place on the surface of the body M . VI. The 
velocity of rasure. — The same distinctions are to be observed 
with respect to the directions which belong to these velocities. 
The effects of friction at the point of contact will depend en- 
tirely upon the velocity and direction of rasure, which are the 
same with which the physical points p and j> recede from 
each other in the instant after they meet at the geometrical 
point /'. If one of the bodies as M he li\ed. then this velo- 
city and direction will be the same with the absolute velocity 

and direction of the physical point p. and the velocities of ra- 
siire in the direction of the bodj coordinates will therefore 
be denoted generally by 

,/c -ydJR-{-Z,dQ, 

,l r _ r ,//>_ H .,■,//,'. 

or. when necessary, by the values (g }). which we have shewn 
to be equivalent to the above expressions. We maj suppus, 



350 ON THE MOTION OF 

the friction to be a function of these velocities or of the press- 
ure or of both conjointly. The effect of this would be to add 
to the other accelerating forces three new ones applied to the 
point (x,y,z,) of the form of 

, dx, — dx,, , dy, — rfu, , dz, — dz, 

v-^r 1 : *T' ^-V^' 

where <p is any given function of the pressure and velocity of 
rasure dv, dv itself being equal to 

v [(.'to, — dx,y -+- (dy, — dy,y + (dz, — dz.y] . 

The pressure is then to be eliminated from the equations of 
motion ; after which there will remain a number of equations 
sufficient, in conjunction with the equations of the surfaces, to 
determine the position of the body in terms of the time. 

If the friction, be the cause of it what it may. be exactly suffi- 
cient to prevent all sliding, while it offers no impediment to the 
body's revolution round the normal at the point of contact, the 
motions will be of a nature much more resembling actual 
oscillations and rotations on supporting surfaces, than in the 
hypothesis of surfaces absolutely smooth, particularly when 
the tangent plane at P remains throughout the motion nearly 
horizontal. The effects of this kind of motion, of which the 
pendulum with a cylindrical axis is the simplest possible spe- 
cies, have not, that I know of, been examined by any author, 
when the triple rotation of pitching, rocking and whirling are 
all considered at once. Nevertheless, the problem of the small 
i iscillations of the kind above described upon a plane or sphe- 
rical surface is susceptible of complete integration and solu- 
tion in the case both of free sliding and perfect rolling, what- 
ever be the figure and constitution of the oscillating body, and 
whatever be the velocity round one of the axes, provided that 
it be compatible with small rotations round the other two. 
I have given in the New York Mathematical Diary for July 
1827 formulas which arc applicable to the case of all bodies. 



SOLIDS ON SURFACES. 351 

of any shape and density whatever with a spherical areola of 
contact, whirling and oscillating with a perfect rolling motion 

on an horizontal plane. The method I now oiler is intended 
to comprise every form of this areola, having regard at the 
same time to the nature of the surface of support. 

When the friction prevents all sliding, the elements of tin 
curves described on the two surface! are equal, and moreover 
coincide at every instant of the arbitrary variations, so that we 
have necessarily (2 1) 

dx = a (5a*, -+- b dy -+- c bz . 
dx' = a'o.r -\-b oy,-\- c'dz,, 
dx" = a'dx'.-t-b dy,-{-c"dz r 

These values reduce ecpiations (21) to 

o = dg -\-xfia -t-y.db -hz t dc , 
o = dp + xjba'-hyjto'-t-zfic', 

o = dg"-hx l da"-^y i db"^-z,dc"; 

or. substituting for the variations of the cosines their values as 
given by ecpiations (6), 

o = hi -+• (c y—b z y»P h- (a z—e x,)dQ -+- (b x—a y)dJi . 
o = ac'n- ( c 'y,— b'z,)dP + (a'z,— c'x)bQ+h'x -a y >lff , 
o = W-h (o.y—b z )dP -4- (a z—c x )iQ ■+■ (b x —a y ),,]{ . 

• zpressions which, by means of equations (H») and the reduc- 
tions arising from the relations (1). may be presented in this 
form (25) 

= bi -i-z.Q — yoi;. 
= dri -h .ri.lt — z <)P, 

o = di +y,dP—x,dQ. 

These are the relations which the condition of the peculiai 
VOL. in. — 4 l 



352 ON THE MOTION OF 

motion now considered introduces among the variations of the 
six elements of position*. 

The same results may be obtained immediately from the 
equation bv = o (which is the fundamental equation of this 
kind of motion) taken in connection with the value of bv given 
above. It is evident that we have also in this case 

bx, = bx n by, — by,, bz, = bz,. 

If there be a second surface of support upon which also the body 
is to roll without sliding, we shall have three other equations 
exactly similar to the above. If we denote by (5a,, b(3,, by, 
the variations in the direction of the body-axes of a fixed point 
in the body whose body-coordinates referred to O, are a, % y, 
we shall obtain from equations (12) 

da, = d^+ydQ — pdR, 
b(3, = b^-habQ — ybP, 
by, = bt,-)-(3bQ — abQ. 

From which if we subtract (25) we have 

da. = ( Y -z)bQ-(P-y)bR, 
b{3> = {a — x)bR—(y—z)bP, 
by, = (p—y)dP — {a—x)bQ. 

For the points of the body which are momentarily at rest, both 
sides of these equations become equal to nought, and we obtain 



dP — <1Q — dR ' 

the equation of a straight line passing through the point of 
contact and parallel to the axis of instantaneous rotation. 

* Since this communication was handed to the Librarian to be read be- 
fore the Society, Mr E. Nulty has shown me the above three formulas, derived 
(in the solution of a problem that had recently occupied his attention) from the 
ingenious consideration that in perfect rolling the motion of the physical point of 
contact in the direction of the body-axes is equal and opposite to the motion of the 
point in which these axes arc supposed to have their origin. 



SOLID* ON SllUWCES. 15 I 

When the surfaces are considered as perfectly unooth, we 
have seen that there are as many equations of condition as 
there are surfaces of support to be taken in conjunction with 
the general dynamical equation. Multiplying each of these 
equations by an indeterminate coefficient and equating to 
nought the sums of the coefficients of the variations, there re- 
sults (26) 

d>^-+-SXI)»i-hZ«L = o. 
,/ r -+- SYDm -+- %\)M = o . 
d $ .-t-SZUm + zofy -= o; 

L' + SiZy — V: )Dm -\-ze(N,y—Mz.) = o. 
V -h S( Xz —Z x XDm -+- 20(L, z , — Nx) = o , 
W-^S(Yx l — Xij)Dm^rZQ{M i x—L i y) = o: 

where 2 denotes the sum of similar quantities. 6 one of the 
indeterminate coefficients, the mass at the same time being 
put equal to unity. 

These equations are evidently the same as those which 
would have been obtained immediately by substituting in 
place of the surfaces unknown forces acting constantly in the 
direction of the normals at the variable points of contact, and 
then considering the system as free. The equations of con- 
dition however would still have been indispensable, in order 
to supply the number of equations lost in the elimination of 
the unknown forces of reaction. I should also on other ac- 
counts have preferred investigating these equations by the 
preceding method; because it furnishes a variety of formulas 
useful in the analytical geometry of touching surfaces, and 
extremely convenient in the determination of the motions ol 
bodies subject to a friction producing some assignable relation 
between their sliding and their rolling motions. 

If we restrict ourselves to the examination of the motion 
on a single surface, the body being acted on by common gra- 
vity g, the preceding formulas become, (reckoning the positive 



354 ON THE MOTION OP 

coordinates x" downward from the horizontal plane of x and x 
and observing that we have 

X t = - ga", V = - gb", Z ,- - gc . 

Sxfim = o , Syfim = o , Sz t Dm = o . 

the other quantities remaining as before.) 

d%-+-6L, = ga", 
d\^BM t = gb", 
d% + 6N, = gc"; 

U+Q{Ny-M,z) = o, 
V-^%{L,z-N^ = o, 
W+B{Mp, — L iy ) = o: 

from which 6 being eliminated, there will remain five equa- 
tions, which along with the equation of condition comprehend 
and determine all the phenomena of the motion. The first 
three of the above equations may by means of formulas (8) 
and (11) be presented in this form (2S) 

d*g -\-6L = o , 
W+6L' = o , 
dT + eL" = g; 

which are in appearance simpler than the others, more espe- 
cially as the accelerations are now complete. It will however 
be found necessary to have recourse to the former, except 
when the supporting surface is a plane, or the supported body 
is a homogeneous sphere. 

Let us now suppose that the surface of the moving body 
and the surface of support are both of the second degree. For 
the sake of greater simplicity, let us suppose also that the rec- 
tangular diameters of the surface of support coincide with the 
axes in space, and that the centre of the moving body when 



SOLIDS u\ -i BE U'ES. I j 5 

it has a centre, or the summit or a poinl in the axis when it is 
without a centre, is at the same time its centre of gravity. 
Let the equations of the two surfaces be respectively 

V(5+S+.S)-> = «. 



n/( 






where the constants are the semi-axes of the figure. Or, what 
will be more commodious in the presenl instance, lei these 
equations be presented in the forms 

^(Ax' + AW + AV) — i = o, 
Wtf+Stf + C^-i = »■ 

Where the constants arc the reciprocals of the squares of the 
semi-axes, and . / of course not to be confounded "with the ./ 
used before. These equations, although apparently only in- 
tended for ellipsoids, spheroids <>f revolution, and spheres, will 
answer for all surfaces of the second degree whatever, provided 
the following changes be made in the results to which the 
above would had. 

1. For a single-napped hyperboloid, change the sign of the 
square of the semi-axis of the ellipsoid corresponding t<> the 
imaginary axis. 

i. For a double-napped hyperboloid, change the signs <ii 
the squares of the fcwo semi-axes of the ellipsoid which corre- 
spond I" the two imaginary axes. 

;. I'm- an elliptical paraboloid, diminish, in the results, the 
coordinates parallel to the figure's axis by the corresponding 
semi-axis of the ellipsoid j then make all the semi-axes infinite, 
but so thai the two third proportionals to the firsl mentioned 
semi-axis and each of the other two, shall remain finite and 

\ OL. III. — i \ 



356 ON THE MOTION OF 

be equal to the semi-parameters of the principal parabolic sec- 
tions. 

4. For a hyperbolic paraboloid, the same transformation, 
changing the sign of the parameter of the principal negative 
parabola. The origin of the coordinates of the paraboloids 
will then be at the summit of the axis. 

5. For an elliptical or circular cone, change the sign of the 
square of the semi-axis corresponding to the axis of the cone ; 
then make all the semi-axes infinite, but so that that the ratios 
of the semi-axis first mentioned to the other two may be equal 
to the ratios of any altitude of the cone to the semi-axes of 
the corresponding base. 

6. For an elliptical or circular cylinder, make infinite the 
semi-axis of the ellipsoid corresponding to the infinite axis of 
the cylinder. 

7. For a hyperbolic cylinder, make a similar alteration, and 
change the sign of the square of the semi-axis which corre- 
sponds to the imaginary axis of the principal hyperbolic section. 

8. For a parabolic cylinder, the same alterations as for 
either of the paraboloids, making infinite at the same time the 
third proportional to the two semi-axes corresponding to the 
normal and the infinite axes of the cylinder. 

The values of the cosines of the normal's axe-angles obtain- 
ed by means of the differential formulas (19) lead to the fol- 
lowing equations : (29) 

L = kA x , I* } = kApc , 

L = kA'x' , M, = k,By, 

L = kA"x", N, = kfrz; 

where k and k t are respectively equal to 



v/(A*x* + A'V 2 + A"V' 2 ) ' v/(A,V-+-#,V + C,V) " 

The above equations may be so combined with the equations 
of the surface, as to furnish other forms for k and k t namely 



SOLIDS ON SURFACES. 357 

y/(a?L> -h a L +a>L ') , s/(a*L; -h p;M; -+- y, u A?) • 

Finally, it is easy to verify the following values of these 
same quantities: 

k = Lx+L'x +LV, /,• = Lfr + My^N?,. 

These last expressions are susceptible of an obvious geome- 
trical interpretation, and show that k and A- are the projections 

of the two radius vectors of the point of contact upon the com- 
mon normal at thai point. 

The conditions (20) of a common normal moreover give 
(30) 

kAx = kUlp x, 4- Bfi y, -f- C f c z , ) . 
kAx 1 = k(Aa'x, + Bb'y H-C^c'sJ, 
kJBt'x' = kfcfl'^-i-BJb'y.+ Cs't,)} 

kA,x = k(Aax -h A'a'x' + A"a"x") , 
k B y = k (A b x -+- A'b'x' -f- A'b'x") , 
k C z = k (A e x -+- Ac 'x' -+- A"c"x") . 

From each of these triplets may be obtained expressions for 
the ratio of the two projections which may occasionally be 
useful. If we add the first three equations together after mul- 
tiplying the first equation by x, the second by x', and tin 
third by x , reducing by means of equations ( t) and tin- equa- 
tion Of the surface of support, and proceed !>v an analogous 

method with the second triplet, employing In tin- reduction 
iln surface of the moving body, we dial! obtain the two equa- 
tions 



k = (x -t-£ ) f, -+- (y,-r-n,) ]h -*- (*, -K,) jr. , 



358 ON THE MOTION OF 

which, by means of the equations of the surfaces, will become 



*; ~~ + W ¥7 r:- ) ' 
k — *■■"" V? -7" ^ "^ <?v ' 



If now we substitute the first of these two values in the first 
triplet of equations (30) and then substitute the values of 
x, x', x" thus transformed in the first triplet of equations (2), 
x„ y,, z, may be determined by quadratics in terms of £ /? ^, £ 
and the aspect of the body. By a process altogether similar, 
x, x', x" may be obtained in terms of £, £', £". At the same 
time it ought to be observed, that whatever be the nature of 
the surfaces, if from the seven equations K = o, K l = o, 
either of the triplets (2), and any two of the three equations 
of contact (20) (the three being in fact equivalent to two in 
consequence of the condition L % -t-i/ r -\-L*= Lf-^M^N, 3 ) 
we eliminate the space and body coordinates of the point of 
contact, there will remain an equation of condition between 
the elements of the station and the aspect of the body, of 
which equation (22) is in all cases the differential. 

As the angular velocities p, q, r are functions of the nine 
cosines and their differentials, and as these are connected by 
six equations of condition and variously expressible in functions 
of the three elements of the aspect of the body, it follows that 
the six equations of motion will by the above mentioned sub- 
stitutions involve, beside the time, the six elements of tbe 
position of the body. 

If we substitute in place of L,, M, N, in the equations of 
motion their values as given by equations (29) and employ at 
the same time the abridgments, 



Q — B, = J. J —C,=B^ B,—A, = C 



a 5 



S0LID8 ON SURFACES. 159 

wi -hall find (31) 





-hA,ek,x, 


^= 




'/> 


+ B,dk,y 


z= 


grft ■ 


<n. 


-hQ0k,2 


= 


ff c ; 


u 


— .]»/;,,: 


= 


"• 


V 


-\-Ji .''/■•: ./■ 


= 


0, 


w 


4- C "/■•./•// 


= 


o: 



; itions to which we shall have occasion to refer hereafter. 

To return now for a moment to the general problem. II 
we add the second triplet of equations (27) together, after 
multiplying the firsl equation by Z»„ the second by M, and the 
third by N. there results 

L,U+M,V+N,W = o. 

Substituting in this equation, in place of the six quantities 
which it involves, their values (15) and (20). and reducing 

by means of the relations (-1), we shall find 

L .(I {a P'+b Q-hc ft)) 

I .d(a /'-+-// Q-hr Ii)\ = o, 

L .d(a J' +b Q+c"R)) 

where /'. Q. ft are the partial differentials, with respect to 
p. y. /•. of the function 

T = i(Jp -+- B<i ■+- Cr) — (Fqr+ Grp -+- Hpq) . 

which i- nne half of the living forces of the body arising from 
in motion of rotation. 

By means of equations (20), the relations ( I) and the sub- 
stitutions (ft), it will he found that the foregoing equation is 
susceptible of being presented in the following form : 
\ ol. in. — i \ 



360 ON THE MOTION OF 

CP(dL, -hMdR — NdQ) 
d.(LF-+-M,Q + N,R) = \ Q (dM, + NdP — L dR) 

(R{dN, + L,dQ — MdP). 

These equations are true of all supporting and supported sur- 
faces whatever. It might easily be shown that this last equa- 
tion is capable of being derived from the principle that the 
rate of increase of the sum of all the areas projected on the 
plane tangent to the point of variable contact is momentarily 
constant, the tangent plane being supposed to remain for a 
moment fixed while the body passes on to its consecutive po- 
sition on the surface of support. 

When the sustaining surface is an inclined plane. L. L. L 
become constant, and the right member of the last equation 
will vanish on the substitution of the values which Z ; , M„ N 
acquire in such a case, so that the equation becomes integrable 
with respect to time, and we obtain 

LP ^-MQ+NR = /, 

/ being an arbitrary constant. 

Again, if Ave add together the second triplet (27), after 
multiplying the three equations respectively by dP, dQ. dR. 
and reduce by means of the equation of condition (22). we 
obtain 

Udv -t- vdQ-h mm — {Ldi + L'dg -+- LW) = o . 

Substituting for L, L, L" their values (20), and performing 
the operation indicated in the first three terms of this equa- 
tion, there will result 

dT-t- d^Vi + dgd'g + dZ'd V — gd%" = o . 
an equation whose integral gives us the principle of living for- 



SOLIDS ON »i id \« l> 

ces applied to the problem of any solid body rolling on any 
given surface, 

3T-+- k(d? -+- dk ' -+- dk ■) - & = ./. 

./ being another arbitrary constant, and .1/= i . 

It is evident, moreover, thai the same triplet furnishes the 
relation 

I x — Vij ■+- IV: = n 

When the body is in a state of permanent equilibrium upon 
the surface of support, the velocities and accelerations of 
-i\ elements of its position are nought, and the six equations 
ni motion give n> 

L — a . A y — M z — o, 

-V = b", L,z — Xx = o, 

N, = c : M, _ L,y — o 

The firsl equations express that the direction of the aormal i* 
vertical, the others thai it passes through the centri of gravity 
In genera] we may observe, thai the equations of the motion 
oJ rotation are in fact the equations of the normal al the poinl 
of contact, and that the distance of the aormal from the centre 
of gravity i- at all times equal to 

' r -i" 4-n 

i! : 

so thai \ l' —l—W) represents the ( diet which the plan 
reaction untile body has in producing tin- motion of rotation. 
The line which passes through tin- centre of gravity and any 
inn- of the points li of the surface mi which it maybe balan- 
is ii"t in general a principal axis; but a- the preceding 
formulas ar< independenl of the position of these axes, w< i" 



362 ON THE MOTION OF 

permitted to take any of the lines 0,B, for the axis of z,. For 
the sake of greater brevity we may call the points B, the bal- 
lancing points and the lines 0,B, the natural verticals of the 
body. 

The phenomena of the motions of the body immediately 
about its state of equilibrium will manifestly depend upon the 
configuration of the surfaces or areolas as we may term them 
in the immediate vicinities of the two points B and B , the 
former denoting any of the points of the sustaining surface 
with which B t may be in contact when the body is at rest. 
From the established theory of contacts, it follows that every 
point, not singular, of any surface whatever may be brought 
into a contact of the second order with some curve surface of 
the second degree. Dupin, in particular, has shewn, in his 
excellent supplement to the Analytical Geometry of Monge, 
that every plane section of any curve surface parallel to a tan- 
gent plane and infinitely near to it is a conic section, indicating 
all the characters of the curvature around the point touched 
by the tangent plane. It is easy to infer from this, that for 
all phenomena depending upon the curvature of the areolas 
al B and B t these points may in all cases be regarded as the 
summits of paraboloids, elliptical, hyperbolical or intermediate. 
This proposition, which is fundamental, might be also proved 
thus. Let x, y, z denote the coordinates of either areola 
reckoning from B or B l along the tangent plane and normal. 
The most general equation of the areola will then be 

z = Ax-[-Bxy-^€y\ 

the condition of a tangent plane requiring that z should be of 
two dimensions in x and y, and the condition that the point is 
not a singular one excluding fractional and negative exponents. 
As the direction of the axes x and y in the tangent plane is 
arbitrary, the term Bxy may be made to disappear, and the 
equation becomes simply 

r = d'x' + Cy, 



SOLIDS ON SUHFACI'.s. 363 

,t paraboloid, elliptical, hyperbolical or intermediate, according 
as C is positive, negative or nought, the constants .1 and (' 
representing the reciprocals of the greatest and l< ast diameters 
of curvature. In a similar manner it might be shown that 
every areola whatever may be represented bj the areola around 
the summil of some assignable hyperboloid with an arbitrary 
vertical axis. — elliptical when the areola is coMcarwa/e, that is 
with the curvatures of all its normal sections directed the sam< 
way. — hyperbolical when discurvate, <>r with the curvatures 
of its normal sections directed some one way and some the 
opposite, — cylindrical when the curvature of the areola is in- 
termediate as in the case of developable surfaces. 

It follows therefore, from what precedes, that in the prob- 
lem of the small oscillations of supported bodies, the equations 
(31) obtained above for surfaces of the second degree, with 
the positions there proposed, will answer for all possible areo- 
la- of contact, the arbitrary values of the axes a and y, ena- 
bling us to avail ourselves completely of this simplification by 
placing the centre of the osculating figure in the centre of 
gravity of the body, at the same time thai we may take an\ 
point at pleasure in the vertical through B for the origin of 
the invariable axes. 

The hypothesis that, during the motion of the body, its na- 
tural vertical declines hut very little from the position which it 
would occupy if at rest, is equivalent to supposing that c and c 
are at all times very small, and we shall regard them therefon 
in tin' following calculations as infinitesimals of the fust order. 
The hypothesis that the two areolas of contact are indefinitely 

small is analytically expressed by considering '• and ./ . ./ and // 

as quantities infinitely small. Tin preceding formulas will 
n i\\ enable n> to ascertain what values the rest of the denoted 
quantities acquire in consequence of these two hypotheses, 
and the conditions of their legitimacy will appear in the equa- 
tions of condition which arise in tin- course of the solution 
of the problem. The fundamental relations (4) give us in 
tie first place, neglecting all infinitesimals of higher orders 

than the hist, c =1. h = — 11. b = it. Tie values of 
\ 01.. III. — J / 



364 ON THE MOTION OF 

p, q and r are best obtained by means of formulas (6). They 
furnish immediately (32) 

p = ra" + db", q = rb" — da". 

The same equations give da = bdR, db = — adR, which, 
integratedin conjunction with a* -\- V = i, give us a = cosR, 
h = — sin R, the angle R being counted from the axis of x. 
The nine cosines then become 

a =cosi?, b = — sinK, c = b'sinR — a'cosR. 
a' = sh\R, b' = cosR, c 1 = — b'cosR — «"sin/?. 

a"=a"; b" = b"; c" = i. 

From equations (S) and the equations of the surfaces we ob- 
tain 

X = a , £ = a — y ( , 

_ yi II 

z, = y ; £ = a — y, . 

The analysis gives these constants the double sign, which I 
omit, as in case of application it will always be immediately 
obvious which will be affected with -+- and which with — . 
Thus if both areolas are concave upward, and the eentre of 
gravity of the oscillating body is above the point of contact 
and below the centre of the figure which osculates with the 
areola of support, then the signs remain as above, the ellipsoid 
or elliptical paraboloid being in such a case the proper oscula- 
ting figure. If, as in the common pendulum, the point O, is 
below B,, and the two areolas are still concave upward, the 
osculatrix of the areola at B, must be an hyperboloid or el- 
liptical paraboloid with the point O, taken in the prolongation 
of the axis, and the constant a" would change its sign. If 
the pendulum were hung upon a fixed cmmdus interlinking 
with another annulus at the upper extremity of the pendulum, 
both areolas would then become discurvate and the osculating 
figures would be either single-napped hyperboloids or hyper- 



-.ui.li)> on Bunp wes. 165 

bolic paraboloids. In cases of this kind, il may be well to 
observe at once, the analysis does nol necessarily regard the 
motion ronnd the normal as arrested by the impenetrability 
of the rings, but implies in general a mutual penetrability so 
as to admit but a single poinl of contact 

The law of continuity, a law to which analysis, in all its 
processes, adheres with singular ami sometimes indeed with 
inconvenienl faithfulness, requires us to attribute to both sides 
of the supporting surface the power of feeling and sustaining 
in both directions, the presence of the moving body. Thus, if 
we suppose a sphere in motion on the outside of another 
sphere, it would evidently einne. at some determinate epoch, 
into a position where its pressure on the supporting surface 
Would he nought. It would there leave the surface, and it- 
motion afterwards would he a separate problem. An analy- 
tical solution of the question however would regard the mov- 
ing body as still connected with the surface of support, and 
exerting on it a pressure tending to draw it outward from its 
centre. This pressure would he such as would arise from a 
momentary hut continually renewed connecting; thread infin- 
itely short passing from sphere to sphere at the point of va- 
riable contact, or such as would take place if we supposed the 
surfaces of one () f the spheres to consist of two concentric 
spherical surfaces infinitely near each other, and the momen- 
tary poin! of contact of ihe other sphere to be always engaged 
and confined between them. Again, let u< suppose that a 
circle rolls and slides inside down an ellipsis whose maximum 
curvature is greater and whose minimum is less than the 
curvature of the circle. If we suppose moreover the long 
axis vertical and the short axis longer than the diameter of 
the circle, the circle in descending will come first to a plac< 
where it will touch the ellipsis in two points and there phys- 
ically it would stop, hut tlie analysis (on the hypothesis o| 
one original poinl of contact) will consider the circle as geo- 
metrical except at this point of contact, and of course will 
represent the circle as passing onward unimpeded by this second 
contact. It will then reach a point in the ellipse where the 



366 ON THE 3IOTION OF 

curvatures of the two curves are equal, and where on one 
side of the point of osculation the circle passes inside, and on 
the other outside of the ellipsis. Before the circle comes 
into this position the arc of contact is entirely within, after it 
leaves it entirely without, the ellipsis, and the connection 
must be maintained as in the preceding example. The same 
remarks will apply to the motion of an ellipsoid placed within 
a sphere of a curvature intermediate between the greatest and 
least curvature of the ellipsoid, to all contacts between dis- 
curvate surfaces, and in general to all cases in which the max- 
imum curvature of one of the surfaces is not less than the 
minimum curvature of the other. 

In order to determine the actual oscillatory motions of such 
bodies, we must institute as many equations of condition 
similar to (22) as the moving body can have points of contact 
with the supporting surface. We must then determine 
when the pressure at any one of these points becomes equal 
to nought, after which the problem is to be considered as a new 
one, and the subsequent motion of the body must be traced 
by applying to it the equations resulting from one contact 
less than before, until the body either again comes into a 
fresh point of contact, or loses another of the contacts which 
it was supposed to have at first. In the course of the various 
positions into which the moving body would come, it would 
frequently happen that two of the points would unite into 
one by an inosculation of the curves of contact, or one would 
become two, as when a sphere moves upon an oval annulus of 
smaller dimensions than the sphere from the eoncurvate to the 
discurvate portion of it. An inquiry into motions of this 
kind is however foreign to the purpose of this paper, and I 
return to the consideration of the problem when restricted to 
a single point of contact. 

The selection of a paraboloid, in its three varieties of ellip- 
tical, hyperbolical and intermediate, to serve as the osculating 
figure of the areola at the balancing point of the body, is at- 
tended with the advantage that, beside suiting all possible eases 
of curvature, it is always applicable, whether the centre of 



MH.II>>. ON SURFACt>. 367 

gravity be at the balancing point, above it. or below it. This 
is evident from the equation of the curve, 

where it i- manifest thai j maybe taken arbitrarily, positive, 
Q< gative or nought, without producing any other change than an 
elevation or depression of the origin, while the differeni values 
and signs which we may ascribe to a and 8 will furnish us 
with areolas of every variety of curvature. This advantage is 
however unimportant in the present inquiry, which is rather to 
n.iin the results of the general problem than to enter into 
a detailed examination of each particular case. Resuming 
therefore the expressions (30) before obtained for ellipsoids <>n 
ellipsoidal surfaces, and observing that the quantities k and /■• 
in the case of small oscillations become constant and equal to 
the fixed and moveable vertical semi-axes, retaining at the same 
time the symbols e", x". z,. £ . £ . in order to permit without 
further substitutions the application of the usual formulas, 
the second triplet of equations (30) furnish, when the areola of 
support is spherical, whatever he the form of the areola around 
the balancing point of the oscillating body, 

/,• . / ./• = /,-. / ( ax — <i -r ■+■ '/ '• ) . 

h liy = hJlhx + Vx -+■!> .r ). 

I:('z = A-. /(<•./• + cj' -+- c ./• ). 

Bj means of equations (3) these become 

wy,A,X = j.+f . /• — It . 

vy.B.y = y.-hv, , or y = rm . 

C,z, = *, -h £ ; r, = n{ 

Substituting the values of./-, y. z in equations (31) and em- 
ploying the following abridgments, 

\ hi. hi. — 5 \ 



368 ON THE MOTION OF 

< 5 ' &* — n 



Jl,lk, — "* y, — ^ B.mk, — a y, 

BJh.nl = %p£ = A ; Amknl = %^ = B, , 

omitting infinitesimals of the second order, and restoring At 
and M, we obtain (34) 

*7 —3lOB l y ! , = o, 

r+Mo^'e = o, 

JP = o. 

By an examination of the values of the first and second differ- 
entials of the indefinite integrals £,, »?„ £,, £ , ^ £ a given by 
equations (10), it will readily be seen that, with the assistance 
of the relations (4), (6), (8), the following expressions will be 
verified (35) 

&l = d& — rb dR+ Z,dQ, 
dn, = d n , — IdP-^- idH, 
dl = dl — £f/Q+ n.dP; 

d% = d^ — dvM-hd&Q, 

d\, = 4-<(IP + <f,^, 
d% = *£,— dfrdQ-i-dq.dP: 

equations analogous to those first obtained by Lagrange to de- 
note the motions of rotation of a system of particles which 
have at the same time individual motions of their own. In 
the case of small oscillations the third and sixth of these equa- 



SOLIDS ON SUB* W l>. >t,'l 

(Jons vanish alt gether, as all the terms arc infinitesimals oi 
the second order, and the other four become (36) 

A I = At— v) AR-\-S,AQ : 
Ay, = dn,— t AP+lAB; 

A% = d-i,—dr,ll{. 
tftr. = A?ri,-\-AlAR\ 

where £ becomes a constant, and equal to a — y. 

These equations are to be taken in connection with the equa- 
tions of motion, and. as will presently ho seen, will, along with 
these equations, assume the form of eight linear equations in 
(i.l>. i.r. i.r. £„ >?„ with constant coefficients, reducible 
to four, by means of which the motion of the body will be 
completely determined, and the elements of its position as- 
signed in finite and explicit functions of the time, 

It would lie easy to show, as Lagrange has done in the ease 
of a body revolving and oscillating aboul a fixed point, that the 
centrifugal force of a body revolving on a surface nearly hor- 
izontal will throw its vertical axis ton finite distance from the 
fixed vortical, unless when either the rotation round the bodj 's 
vertical is very small, in which case the distorsive moments 
of inertia /'and C may he any whatever, or else when /'and 
G are very small, and then the rotation round the vertical 
may he what we phase. In both cases the form of the body 
and the distribution of its density may be such that the third 
distorsive moment of inertia H (which is brought into action 
only by the velocities p and y. and enters into the values ol 
/'. /'and /('. multiplied by these velocities only, or by their 
rates of increase) may he indefinitely great without affecting 
the (ruth of the solution. 

Supposing then in the first place that /• is very small, the 

values of p and q already found become p = Ab\ q = — <Ui . 
ami the four equations last given (omitting here. titer the in- 
ferior accents of \ ami j . as no longer wanted) arc reduced 
to (37) 



370 ON THE MOTION OF 

dyj, = dyi,—t,dP\ 

d% = d"l . 
d"-^ = d\: 

whence we obtain 

i% = d"&'— gda'd/, dV, = d\-+~^dbdt. 

By means of these expressions and the equation $ = g. the 
two first equations of motion (34) become 

#-?-dT + ^'— ^ 6 = °- 

, ihe same time the equation W = o (15) becomes 

Cd'R + Fd'a"—Gd'b" = o. 

Substituting, in the expressions for Z7 and F(15). f/6' for/). 
— da for q, and for dr its value derived from the preceding 
equation, we shall find 

^qC-G^^^-^H+GFy^ — CMgBr, = o, 

( EC - F') d ^ + (Cff+ G.F) ^ - CMg4„ £ = o ; 

which, together with the two equations above involving the 
same four variables, constitute four linear equations of the 
second order, with constant coefficients. It is Avell known 
thai such (({nations are in all possible cases integrable in finite 
terms by the method of D'Alembert or other analogous pro- 



«ni.ins OX si'RFACES. >T I 

cesser (Laeroix, Cut. Int. Vol. II. p. 37.) En the course 
of this computation, into which the limits of the present com- 
munication will not allow me to enter, equations of limitation 
will arise showing the conditions of the oscillatory motions of 
ilif body. These equations will in general be expressed in 
the form of relations between the constants which determine 
the form and magnitude of the areolas of contact, the magni- 
tude ami density of the body and the position of its centre of 
gravity. Among the oscillatory motions possible, there is one 
of a peculiar nature which 1 do not recollect ever having seen 
remarked, — I mean when the motion is around a state of equi- 
librium, stable from the form of the moving body but unstable 
from the form of the supporting surface, or the contrary; as 
for example, when an ellipsoid is balanced on the outer surface 
of a sphere, the summit of the shortest axis of the ellipsoid 
lii-in;;- in contact with the highest point on the surface of the 
sphere. Into such a position we may conceive the ellipsoid 
to have descended from some assignable initial place of rest, 
oi some combination of position and velocity. A motion 
would ensue which in a variety of cases would he oscillatory. 
The oscillations would however he liable to he broken by the 
application of the slightesl I'orce. and would he followed by 
the entire departure of the body from the place it occupied. 
These motions may he called unstable list illtitinns. Tiny 
hear the same relation to stabk oscillations that unstable does 
to stable equilibrium. 

With respecl to the four linear equations above obtained, 
I shall only add (hat in the present case they may he imme- 
diately reduced by eliminating | and r to two equations of 
tlii- fourth order of the form 

■I - H- n 7i7V+ C w -f- D ,, - / ,,, - III, = ... 

\ on. 111. "i I; 



372 ON THE BIOTION OF 

The eight arbitrary constants introduced by the integration 
of these equations are to be determined from the known val- 
ues which the variables a", b", £,, n, and their velocities are 
supposed to have at some given epoch of time. These eight 
arbitraries are not the only ones of which the body is suscep- 
tible. There will be ten in all, two being introduced by the 
equation W= o, whose integral is 

CR-{-Fa"—Gb" = rf + e>, 

the constants s and e' being functions of the values which 
a ", b", i?, and their velocities have at any given epoch. 

Let us now suppose that the distorsive moments of inertia 
F and G are very small, in which case the rotation round the 
normal may be increased to any assignable rapidity without 
disturbing by that circumstance alone the smallness of the 
oscillatory excursions. The equation W =■ o will now be 
found reduced to Cdr = o, whence r = a constant quantity, 
and R = rt-+- R\ R' being the angular distance of the first 
body-axis from the first space-axis when / = o. Equations 
(35) become at the same time 

dl = ( li—ry !l ^-^(rb" — da"), 
dyj t = dYi,-\-rZ, — Z t \ra"-\-db"); 

d=k = d%—rdyi,, 
d\, = d\~\-rdi, 

four linear equations which, in conjunction with the four 
equations of motion transformed by the substitution of the 
present values of p, q and r, will make up eight equations of 
the first degree (six being of the secondhand two of the first 
order) with constant coefficients. The^ equations may be 
completely integrated either by D'Alembert's method, by 
which we should be brought to twelve equations of the first 
order ; or by eliminating the indefinite integrals £„ J?,', £,, >?„ 
\m\ then proceeding by the method of exponential substitu- 



SOLIDS OH 81 RF \< E8. (7 , 

D'Alembert's method of integrating simultaneous lin- 
ear equations is regarded by sonic of the first mathematicians 
of Europe as the best, and I have therefore introduced the 
equations (:35) ; but if the direct substitution of exponential 
functions of the time be preferred (a method which has often 
the advantage of greater expedition), it would ool be access- 
ary, to form these equations, as the values of d \ . d r ,. d £, are 
derivable from their equations of definition (10) in terms of 
(lie rotatory velocities and the coordinates, parallel to the 
body-axes, of the centre of gravity. For if we multiply h\ 
n. a . it . thi' values of the second differentials of £, £',£", the 
-urn of the three products will be equal to d i by the defini- 
tion of this quantity, which is in fact the velocity which the 
point O gains in every interval d/ estimated in the direction 
which the hoily's first axis has at the beginning of thai inter- 
val. It is because this acceleration is measured not on the 
variable axis itself, but on the direction which that axis had at 
the beginning of At. that the sum of the elements d% will 
not make up the velocity d£„ nor the sum of the elements ilE 
the finite rate of increase of £,. In consequence of these dis- 
tinctions, many difficulties might arise in considering geome- 
trically problems of the nature of the one before u> : hut tiny 
in always either avoided or explained by the adoption of 
analytical methods of solution, and I feel assured that the ex- 
perience of those who are conversant with these methods will 
bear me out in saying that the necessity of even adverting to 
the difficulties of geometrical mechanics disappears precisely 
in proportion to the purity and generality of the analysis. 
While on this subject however I ought to remark that in 
consequence of this incompleteness of the values n \' d{- . >lr . <U . 
and in the case of perfect rolling of rf£, il^ . <l- . the applica- 
tion of Lagrange's Subsidiary Formula (Mic. ./mil. Vol. I. 

p. 313) is inadmissible in Mich cases, and would lead to fals. 
results oven if the velocities </-'. d%\ <h be expressed in func- 
tions of the finite angles i. $, 8 and their velocities. In short 
his method is applicable only when the differential equations 
connecting the variables fulfil the conditions of integrability. 



374 ON THE MOTION OF 

The values of the resolved partial accelerations of the centre 
of gravity found as ahove directed are 

( (aa)d% 4- 2 (,ada)d£ 4- (dd'a)l 
d% = ) (ab)d\ 4- 2 (adb)(h + («<r6)>7, 
( («c)<P£ 4- 2 (<fdc)d& 4- (arf 3 c)^, . 

- (ba)d% -+- 2 (bda)d£ 4- (&<Ta)£ 
| (M>r->7, 4- 2 (M6>/>7, 4- (M 2 &)k 
(bc)dt ■+■ 2 (Me>/£ 4- (bd'cfo , 

((ea)d:-z 4- 2 (cda)d£ -+- (cd*a)£ 
d% = ] (cb)d\ 4- 2 (cdb)dyi, -+- (cd'b}^ 
( (cc)dt 4- 2 (cdc)dl 4- (<<c)£ , 

where the parentheses denote a sum of three quantities of 
which the first is included between the parentheses and the 
other two are similar and accented once and twice. These 
abridgments, combined with analogous ones for the sum of 
three quantities differing by a change of letters, might be used 
with great advantage in general inquiries into the phenomena 
of the progressive and rotatory motions of solid or fluid bodies: 
and I should have employed them throughout this paper, had 
I not been principally desirous of being clearly understood. 
In case several terms were to be included in the parentheses, 
an accent or inferior index might be annexed to the second 
parenthesis for the sake of obviating any ambiguity. 

Substituting for the quantities in parentheses their values, 
all of which are given (6) and (7). we shall find 

d% = d% — 2 {rdr u — qdC) — £ (<T + r) 4- r tl (pq— dr) 4- £( rp 4- dq) , 
d% = d\ — 2 (pdS, — rd£ ) — n , (V + j»*) 4- C (qr — dp) -+- & (pq -+- dr) . 
d% = d% — 2 {qdi —pdn, ) — 1 0=4- q') ■+- £ (rp — dq) 4- n, ( qr + * ) 

In the case of small oscillations, r at the same time being 
small, these become, as before 

d% = fl+Sdq, d\ t = d\—ldp. 



SOLIDS ON SIIUACES. 175 

If r is not small, it is constant as we have seen, and we hav< 

tffc = d>z, — °r<h — ri +$(rp -+- dq) . 
,1 17, = (l' r „ -+- 2rd£ — r\, -+- l(rq — <lp) . 

Substituting for p and q their values (32) and employing tin 
abridgments & — £</ = u. r„ — £b" = », we shall find 

tffc == d'u—2r<lv — f u. 
ffff, = d' v -+- 2rdfo — n'. 

By means of these values, and the values of £ and ^ obtained 
from the abridgments last employed, the two equations of pro- 
gressive motion are converted into linear equations of tin 
second order involving a", b", u, v and /. At the same time 
the two equations of rotatory motion are transformed, by the 
substitution of the values of p and q, into two other linear 
equations of the same order involving the same variables. In 
this way we shall obtain 

(Vu _ dp . , _ » 

-fir— 2r ^ H-a/tt + A ga = o, 

dF"+- 2r IF ^-^-hfi"gb" = o: 

(^l)^H-(^2) d ^+(^3)^-h(^4)a +(d5)V+(d6)v + IY = o, 

(Bl)*£+(B2)^+(B3)% + (B4)b + (B5)o> + (B6)u + Gr = o; 

four linear equations with constant coefficients whose values 
are 



vol. in. — o c 



376 ON THE MOTION OF 

A — r — x , a _ x — 1, 

(^i)= jj, (5i)= #, 

(^2)= •#, (52)= 5, 

(-93)= (.tf + 5 — C)r, (£3) = — (.#+5— C)r. 

(.#4) = #r, (54) = #r% 

(.-95)= (C— BY — m'£, (55)= (C<— .tf)r — /'£, 

(M) = — m' = —MgB,, : (56) = — /' = —MgA,. 

These equations may, by the elimination of u and o, be redu- 
ced to two of the fourth order, of eleven terms each, no term 
being wanting. They may be then completely integrated, 
and after the determination of the value of the ten arbitrary 
constants, eight of which are introduced by these equations 
and two others by the equation W = o, the position of the 
body and all the phenomena of the motion will be expressed 
in terms of the sines and cosines of arcs proportional to the 
time. The conditions of oscillatory motion will also be ex- 
pressed by equations of limitation arising during the process 
of determining the integrals. 

I shall conclude this paper with an application of the pre- 
ceding formulas to the determination of the small oscillatory 
motions of bodies of any figure, law of density, and areola of 
contact, rolling with the three rotations on a surface which 
from some slight asperity or other cause prevents entirely and 
in all directions the sliding motion of the body, while in other 
respects it leaves it free to rock, pitch and spin, with any 
combination of these motions consistent with a small decli- 
nation of the natural vertical of the body from the ver- 
tical of equilibrium. I ought to remark that this motion, 
although more resembling the actual oscillations of supported 
bodies, differs from them materially in the circumstance that 
the friction is supposed not to interfere with the motion round 
the normal, whereas this cause undoubtedly cooperates with 
the resisting medium to retard the horizontal rotation of the 



>ui. ins on si ur \i i>. 577 

body until it ceases altogether. What I am about to offer 
therefore must be considered, like every advance which bas 
hitherto been made, as merely a step towards the determina- 
tion of tlu- actual phenomena. It would not he difficult to 

include in the next place the moments of the forces which 
resist the rotation round the normal, but this must, form thi 
subject of another dissertation. 

The fundamental equations of condition resulting from the 
definition of the species "I' motion we are now considering 
ire. a- we have seen | 2 

o = dg,—y,dB-h2 ,)Q. 
o = d>;,— z, oP -+- ./• d B ■ 
o = d£— x,dQ-hy,dP. 

Substituting these values of the variations of the position of O 
the centre of gravity in the general dynamical equation, then 
will result an equation of the form 

(F)dP+(Q)dQ+(M)M = o; 

in which the variations are now arbitrary, giving us therefor* 
three equations of motion to be taken in conjunction with the 
three above, namely. 

(P) = o. (Q) = o, (7?) = o: 

or. writing nui these equations at full length, in the case of 
common gravity, 

V+M(*^- grc ) x - m (g - ga ) z = o, 

' r + M (?W - S* ) y - M ($ - gb') x = oj 

expressions which are true whether friction be considered or 
not, and independently of all hypotheses of friction. 



378 ON THE MOTION OF 

If the body remains always nearly upright, these become 

U+My(^-gb»)+gy, = o, 

V-M 7 (^-ga")-gx, = o, 
W = o. 

These equations furnish the same relations between F. G 
and r as those obtained before. Either the rotation round the 
natural vertical, or else those moments of inertia which would 
(when made effective by a swift rotation) displace that ver- ' 
tical, must be very small. If r is very small, the equations 
of condition of perfect rolling are reduced to 

d£, = — yq&t, d>7, = ypdt . 

Substituting these values in equations (37), and recollecting 
that £ -\-y = a", we shall find 

d£ = —a'qit, d>7, = a'pdt. 

But when r is small we have 

&% = d a £H-£dgrdf, d> a = d>,_ $dp&t. 

Therefore 

d a £ = — ydqdt, d> 3 = ydpdt; 

equations which are verified by the equation formerly obtain- 
ed (37) when r is small, d% = d%, d\, = d\. Finally, 
these last equations become, in consequence of the values 
which p and q acquire when r is small, 

&% = ydV, d>. = yd'b"; 



SOLIDS ON BUW? WES. > T * » 

by which means the equations of motion are reduced to equa- 
tions with constant coefficients, namely, 

U- h M y -^.-Mgyb''+Mgy l = o, 

V—My^+M&b'—Mgx = o. 

Where the oscillations take place upon a spherical areola of 
support, which will include oscillations on a horizontal plane, 
we have x, = !*,. y, = my;,, and therefore, by preceding for- 
mulas, 

dx, = loa\a", ihj, = niadb" . 

Integrating, and denoting by % and -^ the arbitrary constants, 
there results 

x, = laa -j-x, y, = mab a + ^i 

which being substituted in the above equations of motion give 
two equations' of the second order in a", b" and / of the form 

(.51) g? + (43) g; + (43) a" 4- (44) = o, 

(2*)™ + (2,2)^+ (!&)&' + (2?4) = o, 

where the cncllicients maybe readily determined, as /'and F 
have now the Bame value as before when there was no friction 
and when the rotation round the normal was at the same 
time small. These coefficients being constant, the equations 
maybe completely integrated in finite term-, four arbitrary 
constants being introduced by the integration, which together 
with x and ^ introduced by the last integrals obtained, and 
e and c arising as we have already seen from the integration 
viii,. fir. — 5 i> 



380 ON THE MOTION OF 

of W = o, make up eight in all, being two less than when 
the body was not restricted to the peculiar motion to which 
we now suppose it to be subject. 

Lastly, let F and G be very small. The equation W = o 
will now give us, as if there were no friction, r = any arbi- 
trary constant, and R = rt-\- R. At the same time we have 

p = ra" H- db", dl = dl — m, + lq , d% = d% — ftfr, . 
q = r6" — f/a", (7)7, = c?>7, -t- r£ — ^ . rf>, = d\, -+- rd£. , 

and, by the equations of perfect rolling, 

dt = ry,—yq, 
dyj, =: — rx, -J- yp ; 

whence 

d% = r*x, -\-rdy, -\-y(d 2 a"-\-2rdb" — rV), 
d\, = r\j, — rcfc, -+-y(d*b" — 2rt/a" — r*&") . 

By comparing the two values above given for each of the 
quantities <I|, and dr;,, we obtain, after replacing %-j-y by a. 

^(a:, 4- £ ) = a/> — rf>?, , 
r(y, -+->,) = aq-\-di . 

When the supporting areola is spherical, these become 

rTiX, = am (ra" -+- c?6") — dy , 

where a, and u are abridgments for J-+-- and m-h '-£. 

By means of the preceding values of d% and d\ it will 
be seen that the first and second equations of motion are 
transformed into equations of the second order involving 
a", b", a?„ y and / with constant coefficients. These, in con- 



SOLIDS ON SURFACES. 181 

junction with the two last equations which are of the firsl 
order involving the same variables, will enable us to determine 
t'ullv and hv finite integrations all the circumstances of the 
oscillatory motion. The arbitrary constants will be < sight in 
number, six of them being brought in by the four equations 
just referred to, and two of them, R and /•, arising from the 
third equation of motion W '— . o. These four equations will 
be found to be 

*.%+* + B,%+B% + B,b- + B.a-+B, X .+B. = o. 



"i de 3 it ^ * it 



the value of their coefficients being as follows, 



= o 



~ o 



A x = 


(.51). 






B> = 


(51), 




■*, = 


(A2)-h 


My' , 




B 2 = 


(52) + 


Mf , 


•*, = 


(A3)- 


"My'r . 




B< = 


(53) -f- 


ZMy'r, 


•*. = 


— 


Myr, 




B> = 




Myr, 


A, = 


(A4), 






B> = 


(54), 




■*. = 


(A5)- 


My'r' 


-Mgy, 


B r , = 


(55)- 


My'r' — Mgy 


A 7 = 




My / 


+ Mg , 


B, = 




My r' -f- ,1/if 


A, = 


Fr 






B, = 


Gr- ; 




c\ = 


al , 






B t = 


am , 




c\ = 


- 1 , 






A = 


- 1 , 




c 3 = 


— rxlr, 






*>, = 


alTO*, 




c. = 


r(i ; 






D* = 


— rX . 





382 ON THE MOTION OF SOLIDS ON SURFACES. 

The principles and formulas detailed in this memoir will 
also enable us to determine completely all the circumstances 
of the motion of any solid of revolution rolling or spinning 
with or without friction upon a horizontal plane, its axis being 
supposed to form at all times a very small but variable angle 
with the plane. The length to which this paper has extended 
itself obliges me, however, to defer for the present the further 
consideration of this subject. I shall confine myself therefore 
to the remark, that in some of these cases, and in a variety 
of others, the equations given at the foot of page 377 may be 
presented with advantage in the following form : — 



ERRATA. 



Page 342, line 19, for " (6) and (10)" read " (6), (7) and (10)". 
.. 352, .. 15, for "a<5Q" read u aSR , \ 

16, for "/35Q" read »/3<JP". 

.. 354, .. 6<o 11. These 'formulas should be numbered "(27)". 






No. X. 

General Observations on the Birds of the Genus Tetham : 
with a Synopsis of tin Species hitherto known. lit/ Charles 
Lueien Bonaparte, Prince of Musignano, fyc. Head June 
20th, 1828. 

r ¥^HE genus Tetrad, in the extent given to it by Linne, 
**■ was so comprehensive, that he might with almost equal 
propriety have included in it all typical gallinaceous birds. 
It comprised species, differing not merely in their external 
characters, but even in their peculiar habits claiming only a 
remote affinity. Latham very judiciously separated from it 
the genera Tineunus and Pi nfi.r. which latter he restored from 
Brisson. Dliger also contributed to our more accurate know- 
ledge of these birds, by defining two other natural genera. 
Syrrhaptes and Ortygie. Temminck, in his ERstoire des 
(iiiltinuics. carried the number of genera ('» '-even, but after- 
wards reunited Coturnix to Perdix. The real Tetraones are 
divided by Vieillot into two genera, the Lagopodea forming 
one by themselves. 

In our arrangement of these birds, we distinguish three sub- 
genera. 

I. Lagopus, which represents the genus in the Arctic 
polar regions, whose chilly climates they are admirably 
adapted to withstand, being thickly clad with dose set 

feathers, abundantly intermixed with down, and covering 
them to the very nails. Their pure white winter plumage is 

VOL. III. 5 E 



384 ON THE BIRDS 

an additional protection, by confounding them with the 
snowy covering of the earth, which prevents their being ea- 
sily descried by rapacious birds or quadrupeds. 

II. Tetrao. whose geographical range is limited to the more 
temperate climates, being still protected by feathers as far down 
as the toes. 

III. Bonasia. a new division for which we propose Tetrao 
Bonema, L. as the type. In these, the upper portion only of 
the tarsus is feathered. They occasionally descend to still 
more southern countries, frequenting wooded plains, as well 
as mountainous districts, to which latter the true Grouse give 
the preference. The entire genus is however, properly, bo- 
real, and is found exclusively in North America, Europe, and 
Northern Asia. The long and sharp winged Grouse, which 
replace them in the arid wastes of Africa and Asia, one being 
met with also in the southern extremity of Europe, we con- 
sider, in common with all modern authors, as a totally distinct 
genus. This small group, composed of a limited number of 
species, inhabits wild regions, remote from man and cultiva- 
tion, preferring burning deserts to the shelter of the woods. 
Wandering near the confines of these oceans of sand, so terrific 
to the eye and the imagination of the human traveller, they 
boldly undertake to cross them in numerous bands, in search 
of the fluid so indispensable to life, there found only in few 
and distant spots. Over the intervening space they pass at a 
great elevation, and with extreme rapidity, being the only 
birds of their order that are furnished with wings of the form 
required for such flights. 

The Grouse, on the contrary, inhabit forests, especially such 
as are dense, and situated in mountainous districts ; the Bona- 
six however, as well as the American Pinnated Grous and 
Cock of the Plains, frequenting level countries, where grow 
shrubby trees of various kinds. The Arctic Lagopodes are 
also found on the lofty mountains of Central Europe, where 
the great elevation affords a temperature corresponding to that 
of more northern latitudes. There they always keep among 



OF THE GENUS TETRAH. 385 

bushes, on the dwarf willows, which, with pines, form the 
principal vegetation of those summits. 

The Grouse feed almost exclusively on leaves, buds, ber- 
ries, and particularly the tender shoots of pines, birch, and 
other trees, resorting to grains only when compelled by scar- 
city of their favourite food during severe winters and deep 
snows: they will, however, pick up a. few worms or insects, 
and. especially when young, are fond of ant-' eggs. Like 
other gallinaceous birds, they are frequently employed in 
scratching the earth, arc fond of covering themselves with 
dust, and swallow gravel and small pebbles to asM-~1 digestion. 
No birds are more decidedly and tyrannically polygamous. 
As soon as the females are fecundated, the males separate 
from them, to lead a solitary life, without showing any further 
concern for them or their offspring; though, like perfidious 
seducers, they are full of attentions, and display the greatest 
solicitude to secure the possession of those they are soon after 
so ready to abandon. The nuptial season commences with the 
firsl appearance of leaves in the spring. The desire of pro- 
creation manifests itself by extraordinary sounds and gestures. 
Their voice becomes sonorous, the males appear quite intoxi- 
cated with passion, and are seen, cither on the ground, or on 
the fallen trunks of trees, with a proud deportment, an in- 
flamed and fiery eye. the feathers of the head erected, the 
wings dropped stiffly, the tail widely spread, parading and 
strutting about in all sorts of extravagant attitudes, and otter- 
ing sounds so loud as <<> he heard at a greal distance. This 
season of ardour and abandonment is protracted till June. 
The deserted female lays, far apart on the bare ground, in 
some thick and low coppice, from eight to sixteen eggs, 
breeding hut once ;i year. They hatch and rear their young 
precisely ;i- the common fowl, the chicks being carefully pro- 
tected bj the mother only, with whom they remain all the 
autumn and winter, separating in spring on the return of the 
breeding season. It is at this period only that the males u" 
in search of the females, ami show a fondness for their com- 
pany. 



386 ON THE BIRDS 

The Grouse are shy and untameable, avoiding the settle- 
ments of man, and retiring to wild and barren tracts, where 
they associate in packs or families. The Lagopodes only live 
in very numerous flocks, composed of several broods, which 
do not disperse until they separate in pairs at the return of 
the breeding season. Except in spring, the Grouse keep 
always on the ground, perching on trees only to pass the night, 
or when disturbed ; by day retiring to the deepest recesses of 
the forest. The flesh of all is exquisite food, though dark 
coloured in some and white in others. The black meat is 
compact, juicy, and highly flavoured ; while the white has in 
its favour, delicacy and lightness. 

The Grouse are distinguished by a short stout bill, feather- 
ed at base ; they are of all gallinaceous birds those in which 
the upper mandible is the most vaulted ; the feathers of the 
bill are very thick and close, and cover the nostrils entirely. 
The tongue is short, fleshy, acuminate, and acute ; and the eye 
surmounted by a conspicuous red and warty naked skin. 
Their legs are without spurs in either sex, and partly or 
wholly covered with slender hair-like feathers, which in the 
Lagopodes are thicker and longer than in the others, extend- 
ing not only beyond the toes, but even covering the sole of 
the foot, a peculiarity which, agreeably to the observation of 
Buffon, is of all animals again met with only in the hare ; and 
as if nature wished to carry her liberality to them still fur- 
ther, this covering becomes longer and closer in winter. The 
toes of the other species are rough beneath, and furnished 
with a row of processes or pectinations each side. The 
roughness of the sole appears requisite to enable the bird to 
tread securely on slippery ground and frozen snow ; as well as 
to enable them to grasp the branches of trees covered with 
ice or sleet. In the Lagopodes, the nails are peculiarly 
adapted for removing the snow from over the vegetables on 
which they feed, and are for this purpose not only useful but 
indispensable instruments. All the genus have short rounded 
wings ; the first primary is shorter than the sixth, the second 
being but little shorter than the third and fourth, which are 



OF THE GENVS TETRYO. 387 

longest. The tail is usually composed of eighteen feathers, 
generally hroad and rounded. The Hed Grouse, however, T. 
scofkus. as well as the T. honasia. and the T. canadensis. 
have hut sixteen, while the two new North American species 
have twenty: one of the latter, moreover, has these feathers 
very narrow and pointed, a character which is also found in 
the sharp tailed Grouse. They have the head small: the neck 
short, and the body massive and very fleshy. 

The females of the larger species differ greatly from the 
males in colour, the latter being glossy black, or blackish, 
whilsl tlie former are mottled with gray, blackish, or ru- 
fous: such are all the typical Tef wanes of Europe, and 
the cock of the plains, the dusky, and the spotted Grouse of 
America, the latter being of smaller size. The smaller, mot- 
tled species, such as T. phasianellw and T. enpido. exhibil 
little <>r no difference in the plumage of the two sexes, which 
is also the case in the Bonasise and Lagopodes. The young 
in their first feathers are like the female in all the species, 
and moult, twice before they obtain their fidl plumage. All 
have a double moult, and most of the Lagopodes vary in a 
remarkable degree with the seasons. 

The genus Tdrao comprises thirteen species, of which we 
consider eight as typical, two we arrange under Bonasia. and 
three under Lagopus*. The species of Lagopas. as might 
be expected from their high northern habitation, are common 
to both continents, with the exception of the Hed Grouse, 
which is peculiar to the British Isles; and which, from the 
circumstance of its not changing its colour with the season, 
forms the passage to the true Til ramus. Of these, five inha- 
bit North America, and three Europe, none being common 

to both. Of the two BoTUMW, one IS peculiar to the Old. and 
the other to the New continent. Thus we find, that of the 
entire genus, eighl are distributed to America, and seven to 

* Even the modern Tetrao rupettris we do not consider well established: as 
for thai of former authors, it i- undoubtedly '/'. lagopus. We arc equally scepti- 
cal with r<L'iril to '/'. ulandiau and T. montanu.s of Brehm. 
\ iM„ lit. 5 F 



388 ON THE BIRDS 

Europe. Leaving aside the two that are common to both, 
and the respective Bonasix, we may draw the following pa- 
rallel between the remaining species of the two worlds. The 
cock of the woods, or capercailzie of Europe, ( T. urogallus) 
corresponds to the American cock of the plains, (T. uropha- 
sianus). The black game, ( T. tetrix) finds its equivalent in 
the dusky Grouse, (T. obscurus). The T. hybridus or me- 
dius, has no analogue in America; neither has T. scoticus. 
They are however more than replaced as to number by T. 
phasianellus, T. eupido, and T. canadensis, all American spe- 
cies, that have none corresponding to them in the Old world. 
Being perhaps the only naturalist who has seen all the 
known species of Grouse of both continents, having enjoyed 
the advantage of examining many specimens even of the rar- 
est, and possessing them all but one in my own collection, I 
I am peculiarly well situated for giving a monography of this 
interesting genus. Such a work it is my intention to publish 
at some future period, illustrated with plates, and accompanied 
by further details of their habits. They are all found in Eu- 
rope and North America, some of the European occurring also 
in Asia, from whose elevated central and northern regions, 
as yet unexplored, may be expected new species that still 
remain to be discovered. The extensive wilds of North Ame- 
rica may also furnish others ; but we do not think it probable ; 
for since we have become acquainted with both sexes of T. ob- 
scurus, and T. urophasianus, we are not aware of any indica- 
ted in the accounts of travellers that cannot be satisfactorily 
referred to known species. 



OF THE GENUS TETRAO. 389 

TETRAO. 

I. BONASIA. 

Tetrao, Vieill. Cogs de bruyeres, Cuv. Banana. Stephens. 

Lower portion of the tarsus, and toes, naked. Not varying 
much with the seasons. Crested and ruffed; tail elongated 
and rounded: female similar to the male; flesh tight coloured. 

Dwell in dense forests composed of differed! kinds of trees. 

1. Tetrao bona.sia. L. 

.Mottled: tail composed of sixteen mottled feathers, the la- 
teral gray, with a broad black subterminal band. 

Male; sides of the neck with a ruff of small feathers; uni- 
form with the rest; throat black. 

Female and young: ruff smaller, throat white. 

Hazel Grouse, Lath. La Gelinotte, Buff. pi. enl. 474, 
male: 475. female. 

Inhabits wooded mountains in the central parts of the old 
continent: rather common in several districts of eastern Ger- 
many. 

2. Tetrao umbelhu, L. 

.Mottled: tail of eighteen mottled feathers, all ferruginous, 
and with a black subterminal band. 

Male: a ruff of large black leathers on the sides of the neck: 
throat white. 

Female and young; ruff smaller, dark brown. 

Buffed Grouse, Wils. Am. Orn. vi. pi. 4f). male. 

Inhabits North America; common, especially in moun- 
tainous pine districts. 



390 ON THE BIRDS 

II. Tetrao. 

Tetrao, Vieill. Coqs de bruyeres, Cuv. Tetrao. Bonasa, 
Stephens. 

Tarsus wholly feathered, toes naked. Not varying much 
with the seasons. Found in temperate climates, even at a com- 
paratively low latitude, and in level as well as mountainous 
countries. Flesh dark coloured. 

3. Tefrao urogallus, L. 

Bearded : tail much rounded, of eighteen hroad rounded 
feathers ; hill white. 

Male ; glossy black, breast with greenish reflections. 

Female and young : mottled. 

Wood Grouse, Lath. Penn. Brit. Zoo], pi. M. male ; pi. 
N. female. 

Inhabits mountainous forests of Northern Asia and Eastern 
Europe ; less abundantly in central and south-eastern Europe. 

4. Tetrao urophasianus, Nob. 

Tail cuneiform, of twenty narrow, tapering, acute feathers. 

Male : black ? 

Female and young ; mottled. 

Cock of the Plains, Tetrao urophasianus, Nobis. Am. Orn. 
iii. pi. 21, fig. 2. 

Inhabits the extensive plains between the Missouri and the 
Rocky Mountains. Size of the preceding, and the largest of 
North American Grouse. 

5. Tetrao hybridus, Sparrm. 

Slightly bearded; tail hardly forked, of eighteen feathers: 
bill black ; tarsus two inches long. 

Male : glossy black, breast with purple reflections. 



OF THE GENUS TETRAO. 391 

Female : mottled. 

Tetrao kybridtts, Sparm. Mus. Carls. I. pi. 15. ad. male. 

Tetrao medhu, Meyer. Temm. 

Inhabits the high north of the old continent: most com- 
mon in Russia and Lapland, but nowhere abundant : rare and 
accidental in central Europe. 

G. Tetrao tdr'i.r. L. 

No beardlike appendages; tail deeply forked, of eighteen 
feathers, the exterior turned outwards; under tail-coverts 
white; tarsus one inch ami a half long. 

Male ; Lrl'xsy- black, with violaceous reflections 

Female : mottled. 

Block (! roust. Lath. Bull', pi. enl. 172, male; 173, female. 

Inhabits Northern Asia, and Northern as well as Central 
Europe. 

7. Tel ran obseurus, Say. 

Tail slightly rounded, of twenty broad, rounded, blackish 
feathers. 

Male; black. 

Female and young; duskybrown, somewhat mottled. 

Dusky Grouse, Tetrao obscuru8,186b. Am. Orn. hi. pi. 18, 
female. T. Richardsonii, Sabine. 

Inhabits near the Rocky Mountains. Size of T. tetrix. 

8. Tetrao canadensis, L. 

Tail rounded, of sixteen black, rounded feathers; breast, 
flanks, and tail-coverts spotted with white. 

.Male : black, waved w itli gray ; throat and breast deep blaek. 

Female; mottled; throat and breast banded with black and 
rufous. 

Sjiiillnl GfOUSe, Til nio ititiinhnsis. Nidi. Am. Orn. iii. pi. 
J-', male: pi. 21. fig. 1. female. 



392 ON THE BIRDS 

Inhabits the north of America, extending from the Rocky 
Mountains to the state of Maine. 

9. Tetrao phasianellus, L. 

Mottled ; tail short, cuneiform, of eighteen narrow square 
feathers, the two middle ones much elongated, the outer white 
at the point. 

Male and female; similar. 

Winter plumage much darker and more glossy. 

Sharp tailed Grouse, Tetrao phasianellus, Nob. Am. Orn. 
iii. pi. 19. 

Inhabits Arctic America, as well as the high ranges of the 
Rocky Mountains. 

10. Tetrao cupido, L. 

Mottled ; tail rather short, much rounded, of eighteen plain 
dusky feathers ; primaries spotted with white on their outer 
webs. 

Male ; furnished with wing-like appendages on the neck, 
covering two loose, orange-coloured skinny bags. 

Female and young ; destitute of the cervical appendages and 
skinny bags. 

Pinnated Grouse, Wils. Am. Orn. iii. pi. 27, fig. 1, male. 

Inhabits certain districts both of the eastern and western 
United States : common on the Missouri, and even on the 
Oregan. 



III. Lagopus. 

Lagopus, Vieill. Stephens. Lagopedes, Cuv. 

Tarsus and toes, and even the sole of the foot entirely co- 
vered with feathers. Head without a crest. Tail rounded. 
Most of the species varying greatly with the season, becoming 
white in winter. Female differing but little from the male. 



OF THE GEXVS TETRAO. 393 

Confined to Arctic countries, or the regions of perpetual 
snow. Dwell in forests chiefly composed of pines: never 
alight on trees; fond of rocks. Collect in large ilocks. Mono- 
gamous, pairing in spring. 

11. Telrao scotictts, L. 

Reddish chesnut: feathers of the feet gray; tail of sixteen 
feathers, the lateral blackish, tipped with reddish: primaries 
sooty black; eyebrows papillous, elevated, denticulated. 

Female: duller, more mottled. 
Winter and summer plumage alike. 
Bed Grouse, Lath. Lagopus seotieus, Vieill. Gal. Ois. pi. 
121. 
Inhabits the British Islands: common in Scotland. 

12. Telrao lagopus, L. 

Feathers of the feet snow-white ; tail of eighteen feathers, 
the lateral black; bill moderate, compressed at the point; 
nails black, subulate, arcuated. 

Winter plumage, snow-white: summer, reddish-gray mot- 
tled with black. 

Male; a black band through the eye. which the female is 
without. 

Ptarmigan, or Rock Grouse, Lath. Le Lagopede, Buf- 
fon. pi. enl. \2i). female in winter: pi. 494, female acquiring 
summer dress. 

Inhabit the Arctic regions of both continents. ;i> well as 
the lofty mountains of the old. whence in winter they descend 
to moderate elevations: common at Hudson's Bay, in Russia, 
Switzerland, ice. 

13. Til ran alhvs. L. 

Feathers of the feel white; tail of eighteen feathers, the 
lateral black; Mil Bhort, stout, depressed at the point, blunl ; 
nails white, Ion.:, hardly curved. 



394 ON THE BIRDS OF THE GENUS TETRAO. 

Winter plumage snowy white, no black band through the 
eye : summer, reddish chesnut, mottled with black ; throat 
unspotted. 

Female hardly differing from the male in summer, and 
perfectly similar in winter. 

White, and Rehusac Grouse, Lath. Tetrao saliceti, Temm. 
Frisch. pi. 110 & 111. White Partridge, Edw. Glean, pi. 
72, male moulting. 

Inhabits the Arctic regions of both continents, to the very 
pole ; scarcely ever seen even on the highest mountains of 
Central Europe; common in Lapland, Iceland, Greenland, 
and Kamschatka : found also at Hudson's Bay, and on the 
northern side of Lake Superior. 



No. XI. 

Conchologieal Observations <m Lamarck's Fai/ii/i/ of Naiades. 
By Philip Hoidbrooke Nicklin. Read 6 March, 1829. 

THE genus Unio, and its congeners, have become objects 
of great interest to naturalists in all parts of the world. 
American conchologists seem to have had their attention par- 
ticularly drawn to these objects by the immense number and 
almost infinite varieties of them that arc nourished by the 
great rivers of the West and their tributaries. Many beauti- 
ful species of Unio and Ana don t a have been added to La- 
marck's family of Naiades, by the useful labours of Messrs 
Say. Barnes, Green, and Isaac Lea; and the former of these 
naturalists hasthoughl il necessary (oadd a new genus, called 
Jdlasmodonta*, to the same family. 

DoubN have been expressed by several distinguished con- 
chologists. whether the family of Naiades contains more than 
one genus, or at most two. The new genus Jllasmodonta of 
Mr Say seems to form a link of close connection between 
. biodonta and Unio; and the three genera exhibit such va- 
rious forms of hinge, that, in many instances, it is difficult to 
determine to which genus the individual should be referred. 
Mr Isaac Lea has upwards of forty varieties of Unio cornufus; 
which, if arranged in a particular order, exhibit so gradual a 

* I'rom a priv., \>.a.efjii lamina, and iJevt dent; meaning without llic lamellar tooth. 

\ on. 1 1 f . — 5 ii 



396 ON LAMARCK S FAMILY 

change, as to convince the observer of their identity of spe- 
cies ; but if any two, near the opposite extremes of arrange- 
ment, be compared, they would be considered as specifically 
different. 

De Blainville, a celebrated conchological anatomist, in the 
second edition of his "Manuel de Malacologie et de Conchili- 
ologie," p. 539, says, that the animal of the Unio is precisely 
like that of the Jlnodonta : his words are, " Animal cntiere- 
ment semhlable a celui des anodontes." It has not been disco- 
vered that the animal of the Jllasmodonta differs in any 
respect from those of the Unto and Jlnodonta. 

Under the genus Unio, De Blainville cites Hyria corrugata 
of Lamarck, as the example of his variety A of Unio : his 
words are — A. Especes obliques, dont le corselet est dilate et 
releve en crete saillante, ce qui les rend corame auriculees 
ou aviculaires. He also cites Castalia ambigua* of Lamarck 
as the example of his variety C of Unio. It is therefore evi- 
dent that De Blainville believes the animals of Unio, Hyria, 
and Castalia, to be identical. 

In the same manner, under the genus Jlnodonta, he cites 
Iridina exotica of Lamarck as the example of variety A ; 
and Dipsas of Leach as the example of variety E of Ano- 
donta. Thus it appears that De Blainville considers Unio, 
Hyria, and Castalia to be varieties of one genus, namely 
Unio ; and Jlnodonta, Iridina, and Dipsas to be varieties of 
one genus, namely Jlnodonta : and since he expressly declares 
the animals of Unio and Jlnodonta to be identical, may we 
not safely include the whole six under one genus? 

We may also add Mr Say's genus Alasmodontaf, as no- 
thing has been discovered in the animal to distinguish it 
from that of Unio ; and as the structure of its hinge proves it 
to be the connecting link between Unio and Jlnodonta. 

If the above mentioned seven genera are to be considered 
as permanent, there are strong reasons why another should 
be added to them, conformably to a suggestion contained in 

* Possibly, Unio triangularis of Barnes. 

t Is not Masmodonta arcuata of Say identical with Unio sinuata of Lamarck ? 



OF NAIADES. 397 

an observation appended by Lamarck to the description of 
his Uhio alata (the Uhio uhtlwt of Say): it is as follows; 
••Ici. comme ailleurs dans ce genre, le ligament est en dehors 
de la charniere; neannmins. comme les valves son! connies 
au bord inferieur do I'aile dn corselet. M. Le Sueur, qui a 
observe cette reunion, pense qu'on doit former un genre par- 
ticulier avec cette coquille." 

The following observations, appended by De Blainville to 
hi> genus Unio, are weU worthy of attention: 

-Les especes de ce genre deviennent tons les jours phis 
Qombreuses: en (Hit on en trouve dans tons les pays, mais 
sortout dans I'Amerique septentrionale. M. de Lamarck en 
characterise plus de cinquante, mais il convient qu'elles sonl 
en general fort difficile a distinguer: a plus forte raison. les 
subdivisions generiques qu'on a voulu etablir dans ce genre, 
d'apres la forme gem-rale de la coquille ct celle des dents 
praeapiciales, comme l'a fait M. Rafinesque. On passe en 
effet par lies nuances presque insensihles des especes donl les 
dents sont a peine apparentes, jusqu' a celles ou clles de- 
viennent presque regulieres comme dans la mulette ambigue, 
que nuns croyons avoir ete les premiers a rapprocher de ce 
genre, contradictoirement avec M. de Lamarck qui alors en 
faisoil une trigonie ' . 

"Nous pensons meme que par la suite <>n deeouvrira des 
especes qui etabliront k passage entre les anodontes d les 
mulettes, en sorte queces drux genres devronl 6tre reunis." 

The sagacity, almost prophetic, displayed in the last para* 

aph of the foregoing extract, lias been fully proved by Mr 
: for whom was reserved 1 1n- honour of discovering a spe- 
cies, that precisely fills up the hiatus formerly existing l>e- 
tween Unio and Anodonta; and upon which he formed his 
genus JHasmodonta ; but which, it is probable, should only he 
considered as a new species of Uhio. This idea derives ad- 
ditional force from the observations made by MrSaj himself, 
in page 131, vol. v. of the Journal <d' the Academy "f Natu- 

i 



398 ON LAMARCK S FAMILY 

ral Sciences; where, after describing Alasmodonta ambigua, 
he says, " It forms a link between the genera Alasmodonta 
and Anodonta. When young the primary teeth are obvious, 
but when the shell arrives at the full groivth, the teeth are 
obsolete, and in some instances not at all visible." 

From this it appears that some shells of the family of 
Naiades, at different ages, assume different appearances in 
those parts which naturalists have fixed upon for the distinc- 
tive characteristics of different genera. How cautious should 
we be not to suffer our ingenuity to run before the uner- 
ring indications of Nature ! 

Mr Barnes, to whose suggestions great deference is due, in 
speaking of the almost infinite and nearly indistinguishable 
varieties of the genus Unio, observes, " that the thought had 
frequently struck him, that, properly speaking, there is but 
one species of the whole genus, and perhaps of the ivhole fa- 
mily. See Silliman's Journal, vol. vi. p. 115; the whole pa- 
ragraph is well worth attention. 

This opinion goes rather too far, but is still strongly corro- 
borative of the conclusion at which it is wished to arrive, 
namely, that the seven genera, now referred to the family of 
Naiades, are founded in artificial distinctions, and not in Na- 
ture ; and that in fact the whole family contains but one ge- 
nus, which was originally established by Bruguieres, and 
should be called Unio. In that case, the present genera 
might be considered as so many species, and the present spe- 
cies as so many varieties : or, the genus Unio might be divi- 
ded into subgenera and species. 

It often happens with young naturalists that the thirst of 
fame is greater than the desire of knowledge, which has 
caused the books to be swelled with genera and species that 
exist only in imagination ; even the illustrious Lamarck has 
erred in this respect ; and in the genus Unio has probably de- 
scribed as different species five or six varieties of Say's purpu- 
reas. 

Linnaeus, whose comprehensive mind seemed to scan the 
universe at a glance, was governed by the severest simplicity 



OF NAIADES. 399 

in his arrangement of the genera of shells ; but by generalizing 
too much, in some instances he forced the barriers of Nature 
and united genera that are totally distinct. The beautiful 
simplicity of that great naturalist, however, was much more 
favourable to the acquisition of knowledge than the endless 
multiplicity of genera and species introduced by the moderns; 
and the more we consider and scrutinise his arrangement, the 
more does our wonder increase, that the same mind should 
possess so vast a power of generalization, and such minute ac- 
curacy in observing the details of specific difference. 



Note. — Since the foregoing observations were wTitten, a 
paper on the Naiades by G. B. Sowerby, F.L.S., recommend- 
ing a reunion of the whole family under one genus, and pro- 
posing a new arrangement, has fallen under the observation of 
the writer. The paper is in the Zoological Journal. Vol. I. 
page 53, and is well worthy of perusal. 



vol. in. — 5 i 



No. XII. 

Some further Experiments on the Poison of the Rattlesnake. 
By R. Harlan, M.D. Read 20 March, 1829. 

AGREEABLY to a promise made in a paper published in 
the first part of this volume, to continue the experiments 
on the poison of the Rattlesnake, in which the root of the 
Hieraceum venosum as an antidote was tested, I now offer a 
few additional observations. 

It will be observed that though the experiments detailed 
below afforded different results, in no instance was it found 
successful, as an antidote, when administered to quadrupeds. 
In a few instances the medicine did certainly appear to miti- 
gate the effects of the poison on the system in a slight degree, 
yet in others not the least benefit was derived from it. The 
reptiles were fresh healthy animals recently received from the 
country. 

Experiment 1. 

June 5th, 1828. Two kittens were exposed to be bitten 
by a young male Rattlesnake ; several wounds were inflicted 
on both without any poisonous symptoms following. 

A large female snake was next produced : the bite of this 
animal was speedily followed by the usual symptoms of simi- 
lar poisoned wounds in both animals. 



ON THE POISON OF THE RATTLESNAKE. 101 

A decoction of the root of the Hieraceum venosum was 

freely administered to the animal first bitten, with the appa- 
rent effect of rendering the poison less narcotic ami probably 
of retarding the death of the subject of the experiment, and 
it survived the animal subsequently hitten more than an hour. 



Escperiment 2. 

At 4 h. 21 m. a small black pup was bitten by an active 
male snake. 

At 4 h. 34 m. a brown dog was bitten by the same snake 
severely in the foot; the wound bled freely. 

At 4 h. 37 m. the hlack dog was again bitten in the foot, 
the wound being severe. 

At 4 h. 40 m. black dog was drowsy, and unable to stand. 

At 4 h. 45 m. brown dog evacuated per anum. 

At 4 h. 46 m. hlack dog evacuated per anum. 

At 4 h. 47 m. administered a quarter of a pint of the de- 
coction to the hlack dog. 

At 4 h. 55 m. gave the same dog more of the decoction, 
say half a pint in all ; he is certainly not more drowsy, while 
the brown dog appears very sick and restless: the black dog 
swelled a gnat deal, but shows signs of more liveliness. 

At 5 h. 25 m. gave the black dog half a wine glassful 
more; he trembles very much, and the leg i* greatly -welled, 
but he swallows his medicine easily. 

5 h. 45 m. Black dog drinks of the decoction voluntarily, 
and at 6 h. 30 m. went to sleep. The brown dog has be- 
come more lively, and limp- about the room: the part- in (be 
vicinity of the wounds of both are much tumefied. About 
this period both became considerably revived; bloody serum 
was squeezed out of tin black pup's wound, and the swelling 
thus diminished. <)n the following morning the black dog 

was found dead, whilst the brown dog recovered completely. 



402 ON THE POISON OF THE RATTLESNAKE. 



Experiment 3. 

4 h. 10 m. A pup was bitten over the inner canthus of 
the right eye. 

At 4 h. 15 m. the effects of the poison were visible, and at 
4 h. 20 m. involuntary discharges of faeces occurred. 

At 4 h. 35 m. the subject was very sick, the parts much 
swelled and painful. 

At 4 h. 30 m. six ounces of the decoction have been taken 
at intervals of six or eight minutes. 

5 h. P.M. Two ounces more were swallowed ; the swel- 
ling is excessive about the eye ; in other respects the symp- 
toms have mitigated. 

4 h. 40 m. A kitten received a wound from the same 
snake; several wounds were received in all, and the animal 
died with the usual symptoms in a few hours. 

The constitutional symptoms in the pup appeared to miti- 
gate an hour after the wound, but the swelling extended over 
the whole face. The blood, percolating from the vessels in 
the vicinity of the wound, became diffused through the 
cellular tissue, and did not coagulate. Next morning the 
pup was found dead, having swallowed the last portion of the 
decoction at 10, P.M. 

Note. — In enumerating the names of those gentlemen who contributed towards 
defraying the expenses of the first series of experiments, Dr James Mease was 
accidentally omitted. 



No. XIII. 

Description of a New Genus of the Family of Naiades, inclu- 
ding Eight Species, Four of which arc New; also the De- 
scription of Eleven New Species of tin Genus Uhio from 
the Hirers of the United States: with Observations on some 
of the Characters of the Naiades. Ihj Isaac Lea, M.A.P.S. 
JI.J.N.S.P.. 6fc. Head March Gfh, 1829. 

T HAD the pleasure to present to this Society in November, 
-■-1827, a description of six new species of [the genus Unio, 
which they did me the honour to publish. Since thai period 
I have continued to collect and examine (lie genera of (lie 
family of Nannies with great interest, and more success than 
I could have anticipated. I propose in this paper to describe 
fifteen new species, a number which rarely falls to the lot of 
a naturalist atone period; and I shall previously indulge my- 
self in some observations respecting their character-, ha- 
bits, &c. 

Stroii-- objections have been made to the study of concho- 
logy by persons unacquainted with this branch of zoology, 
and it lias been alleged that a collection of shells is merely 
a collection of the houses or habitationsof an animal carefully 
removed by the naturalist or destroyed by other causes, and 
therefore unworthy the time and attention of the student of 
nature. This assertion betrays ignorance, and recoils on the 
observer: for it may with truth be said, that no part of tin 



404 NEW GENUS AND SOME NEW SPECIES 

works of nature, however minute or unimportant to the pas- 
ser by, can be examined without creating in the student of 
nature the utmost wonder and astonishment. 

In this class of animals nature seems not to have worked 
with the hand of a stepmother ; she put them out of her lap 
after having lavished her bounties upon them in the utmost 
profusion. All the tints and combinations of the colours of 
the rainbow are called to adorn their coverings ; and in the 
form of the shells we have almost all the figures that the 
science of geometry can present. Who can watch the com- 
mon snail of our woods, and see him commence at a mere 
point, from which he builds his covering by a secretion from 
his own body and turns it with the most mathematical exact- 
ness, without exclaiming, Thou art indeed a great geometri- 
cian ! and when he comes to finish his arched entrance, graced 
with a curvation pure and as white as marble, who can 
refuse to acknowledge him an accomplished architect ? 

In viewing the covering of this class of animals, I consider 
it as in some measure analogous to the skeleton in the 
vertebral animals. The muscular attachments, of which 
there are many, to the two valves of the conchifera, may be 
viewed as the attachments of the muscles of the animal frame 
to the bones, by which we are enabled to enjoy locomotion. 
The ligament, which firmly connects, exteriorly, the two 
valves, may be assimilated to those ligaments whose almost 
exclusive service is to connect some of the important bones 
of the human skeleton. 

Is it reasonable to consider the valves as merely a habitation 
for the animal ? Are they not always acting a more distin- 
guished part ? The ligament, beautifully formed of a com- 
bined horny and fibrous substance, is ever in action while the 
animal lives, and this action is counterbalanced by the con- 
traction of the muscles attached to the interior of the valves. 
The epidermis too has its duty to perform in protecting from 
decomposition the calcareous matter of the shell. It is com- 
posed of a thin horny substance — somewhat like that of the 
exterior part of the ligament. The prolongation of the epi- 



OF THE FAMILY OF NAIADES. 10 "> 

dermis beyond the margin of the shell seems well adapted, 
when the animal closes the valves, to exclude the entrance of 
water. &c, and doubtless is thus used. 

When a conchologist examines a shell which to him is 
new. almost the first question he puts to himself k -what 
must be the form of the animal which once inhabited this 
covering?" He judges by analogy; and after examining the 
form of the shell, he has generally a very good idea of its for- 
mer inhabitant, and although he may not be able to decide 
with the same precision as the osteologist, he can place it in 
its proper family. 

Each family has a form of shell adapted to the wants of 
it- inhabitant, and peculiarly fitted for its locomotion or it-, 
fixed situation. Thus the Ostracea could not exist in the 
shells of the Naiades, although the forms of the animals are 
not very dissimilar to the unpractised eye. The naturalist, 
however, sees in the former the entire want of the muscular 
foot for locomotion and its attendant pairs of muscles. In the 
valve of this he sees but one muscular impression, which 
muscle is used for the sole purpose of closing the valves, while 
in the other he sees at least four, two of the muscles of which 
are used for protruding, the other two for retracting the foot 
by which it propels itself. The species of the family Myti- 
lacea attach themselves by a strong bys-us to stones. &c. f and 
therefore require a very differently constructed shell. The 
Lithophaga bore into stone, wood, mud, &C, and have no 
power of locomotion. The Solenacea generally live in pit-, 
and move only between the two extremities of them. To 
these families might lie added many more, all of which ale 
a- differenl in form and habits, a- can well he imagined. It 
may therefore he safely a— cited that the student of concho- 
logy can always form some idea of the animal from the form 
of the shell. 

My attention having been particularly drawn to the studi 
of the family of the Naiades, and ni) cabinel possessing a 
great number of specie- and varieties, I feel induced in this 
preliminary matter to say something on the species of the 



406 NEW GENUS AND SOME NEW SPECIES 

Uniones, described by naturalists who have written on our 
shells. 

The genus Unio presents in the waters of the United 
States, particularly in the rivers west of the Alleghany moun- 
tains, a number of species almost extending beyond belief. 
Nature has scattered them here with the hand of profusion, 
after having formed them with the most harmonising beauties. 

The number of the species adds greatly to the difficulty of 
distinguishing them, for they glide into each other so insensi- 
bly through their varieties, that the most experienced are often 
at fault and perplexed with the difficulty of placing them pro- 
perly in the most approved systems*. But, although we may 
at every step meet with these difficulties, I cannot suppose that 
most of those described as species do not exist ; the fault has 
been that mere varieties, in the eagerness of authors to make 
species, have too often been erected into species, and the great 
Lamarck has committed this error in as great a degree as 
almost any other writer. 

It is the opinion of some eminent conchologists that the 
family of the Naiades possesses but one genus, and that the 
genera into which it is at present divided are only species, 
and the species varieties. Were we to adopt this division, we 
should be in a worse dilemma than before ; for we can scarcely 
imagine bivalves more different from each other in form than 
are some of our trans-Alleghany species of Unio. 

How totally different is the rectus of Lamarck from the 
irroratus? (nobis). The first is four times the width of its 
length, whilst the latter is longer than broad. The one is 
broad rayed, in fine specimens ; the other possesses dotted 
lines universally. The triangularis of Barnes is entirely 
dissimilar to the nasutus of Say, as is also the circulus, 
herein described, from the lanceolatus (nobis) ; and the same 
may be said of peruvianus and pictorum. Two species could 

* Swainson says, " Indeed so much uncertainty hangs on the shells of this ge- 
nus, that the species can only be fixed by ample descriptions and very correct 
("mures." — Zool. Illus. Vol. I. t. 57. 



OF THE FAMILY OF NAIADES. 407 

be scarcely more unlike than the smooth and radiated *</<- 
auoideua of Barnes and the beautiful tuberculated locrymo- 
sus (nobis); and the same remark maybe applied to the 
eyHndrieus and alahu of that excellent conchologisl Mr Say. 

Many other species could be thus contrasted, hut I deem the 
above sufficient, upon examination, to prove the justness of 

my remarks, and the necessity, in the present state of our 

knowledge, to retain the species, whatever may be the changes 
in the genera*. 

In a preceding paper on the Uniones I said something oh 
the habits of the animal. I wish now to mention the simple 
fact that I have kept several specimens about ten months in 
a basin changing the water every five or six days. During 
this period they passed through the winter without any 
change in their usual habits, and nothing in the shape of food 
was given during the whole period. 

This truly interesting family presents us with very diffi- 
cult specific characteristics, rendered so by the species con- 
stantly approaching in similitude to each other, and by the 
change made in them by age, locality, and exposure. 

I propose to offer a few observations on the principal cha- 
racters, in which it will be seen how little we can depend on 
any one of them, and shall begin first with the teeth. 

Talk. In the species of the Unio these have been used as 

* In a letter addressed to me by William Cooper, Esq., nn intelligent natu- 
ralist of New York, he says, " There are now, I think, noi less than thirty North 
American species of Unio well established, and perhaps Beven or eighl more. 
That they arc species, each perpetuating iis peculiar form, Bubject t" certain va- 
riation.--. l)ii t permanent within fixed limits, seems ti the most rational opinion, 

although some of our most judicious naturalists think otherwise Your account 
of the animal of the I ■ irroratiu affords a strong argument in favour of this belief, 
for it proves that to be beyond doubt as distinct a apt my in any class of 

animals. Yet this may always be known with certainty by the -In II. which. 
though -" well characterised, is not, however, more diff< n n( from the n si of the 
genus, than they are from each other, and frequently -till less so. If. therefore, 
this difference is found t<> be constantly indicative of a species in one instance, il 
must also be in others. I believe that our lakes and rivers contained the Baroe 
form of shells at the creation and ever since thai they do at this day. [fthej are 
hermaphrodite per se, ns is said of them, it could not be Otherwise : and il the 
contrary were admitted, natural history would not deserve the name ..| a -cn-ni • 

\ ui,. m. — 5 l 



408 NEW GENUS AND SOME NEW SPECIES 

strongly characteristic, but we cannot place much reliance on 
this character, unless accompanied by and dependent on others. 
Thus, the angle of the cardinal tooth depends much on the 
location of the beaks, and we know that in the same species 
the location is quite different, and yet this difference is not 
worthy of creating even a variety. If the beaks be placed 
immediately over the anterior margin*, as in the ellipsis they 
generally are, then the cardinal tooth will be nearly or quite 
parallel to the lamellar one ; but if the beaks be more posteriorly 
placed, then the cardinal tooth becomes more oblique. We 
must, therefore, when characters are so difficult, look at them 
in combination, and adopt them with due consideration. 

In the same species the mass or substance of the valves 
varies much according to localities. Thus we find the com- 
planatusf in some of our Atlantic rivers full grown, when 
only an inch broad, while in other of our Atlantic rivers 
we have them four inches broad. In some localities we 
have them possessing but little calcareous matter, while in 
others they are almost massive. This also occurs in per- 
haps a greater degree with some of the western shells. And 
if we examine a massive specimen, we are almost sure to find 
the cardinal teeth more or less thick, whilst those of the same 
species which are thin, and they frequently differ very 
much in this respect, will be found to possess cardinal teeth 
of quite a crested structure. The cardinal tooth, being single 
in one and double in the other valve, or double in both valves, 
cannot be depended on as an unfailing character. The same 
species will often present double teeth in both valves, although 
it may be usual to possess them in the right valve only. The 
lamellar tooth depends much on the substance of the speci- 
men. If it be massive the teeth will be thick, if thin more 
bladed ; the teeth, therefore, differ almost as much in varieties 
as in species. We must, consequently, while examining a 
specimen to determine its species, give due attention to these 
counteracting characters. 

* I reverse Lamarck's anterior and adopt Cuvier's as heretofore. 
t Purpureus of Suy. 



OF THE FAMILY OF NAIADES. 409 

Colour. The colour of the Uniones is generally a decep- 
tive character. This, however, is not always the ease, and 
therefore it deserves the attention of the conchologist. In some 
species it is permanent in the nacre, in others it is permanent 
in the epidermis. In the following species 1 have always found 
the nacre to be white and pearly, viz. cornufus. lularculu- 
/us. sMquoideus, rni/rirosiis. oral us. triangularis, parvus, 
p/icufus. mi /(Dim r. tesopus, scalenius, eyKndrious*, Ittmj- 
niosus. irrorulus'. effipsisf, itonaciforniis. culrtolus. luh ra- 
tion, mttltiradiatus, occidens, sicurisi. iris, zig-zag. jxi/ulus. 
and plunululus: the last eighl herein described. In the 
•■forsu" of Rafinesque, and sulrafus (herein described), the 
purple is permanent and generally dark. In the mbten- 
tus. lanciolalus. and rubiginosus (herein described), it i- a 
pale salmon colour, and in the uttr (herein described) it 
is a pink bordering on purple. The gibbosus is generally a 
dark purple or chocolate, but varies from this through all the 
intermediate shades to perfect white. The verrucosus is 
either chocolate or white, and does not seem to enjoy the in- 
termediate tints. The circulus (herein described) is gene- 
rally of a pure pearly white, but sometimes, though rarely, 
possesses a blush of pink in the centre of the valve. The 
mytiloides presents all tli^ shades from the deepest flesh co- 
lour to the purest white. The cariosus is generally white, 
hut sometimes i> found of a deep salmon ami the intermedi- 
ate -hades. Tin- nasutus is either pearly white or approach- 
ing salmon colour under the beaks. The rectus is gene- 
rally of a beautiful porcelanic white, sometimes tinted about 
tin- cardinal teeth and in the cavity of the beaks with purple 

* The riilinilri'ru.i and irranitiis sometimes, in M-rv perfec ns, present 

i -liL'lit golden appearance in the nacre at the anterior mai 

t Var. a being herein described as a m h 

| This ib Rafinesque's " I depretta" but the name bein upied by 

Lamarck, apparently without the knowledge of Mr I.'.. I am compelled to give it 

a new na r leave ii oul of tin catalogue. I prefer the former altern itive, ■ 

it in a distinct mil beautiful species, ami well known to most of oui 
under its duplicated name " depretta." In wis! act in accordance with 
of nomenclature in natural tnstorj Bee description. 



410 NEW GENUS AND SOME NEW SPECIES 

or salmon, more generally the former : specimens are rarely 
found with the nacre entirely coloured. The complanatus, 
of which so many false species have been created by Euro- 
pean naturalists, presents us with more colours and shades 
than any other species except the cuneatus of Barnes, which 
by many conchologists is considered analogous to it. These 
two species present us with specimens of the darkest purple, 
the purest white, the richest salmon, and all their intermediate 
shades. The fine indistinct striae of the nacre, which are 
sometimes observed to diverge from the interior of the beak 
to the margin, are caused by the successive removals of the 
marginal attachment of the mantle. 

It should be borne constantly in mind that the colour of 
the nacre is an extremely doubtful character in the family 
of Naiades; in exemplification of which I have an Anodonta 
from the Ohio, the nacre of one valve of which is salmon and 
the other white. The valves are beyond all doubt of the same 
animal. The green irregular spots and marks sometimes de- 
scribed to exist in our Uniones deserve no attention, as they 
are altogether accidental, perhaps the effect of disease : they 
are more frequent in the rectus and cylindricus. 

Elevations on the surface of the disks. These are sometimes 
tuberculated, sometimes undulated ;. and our western waters 
are the only ones we know of which produce many species thus 
marked. There they exist in great variety and exceedingly 
great beauty. The U. tubercidatus and U. lacrymosus pos- 
sess more tubercles than any other species. The U. verru- 
cosus possesses them irregularly scattered over the sides of the 
valves. The U. metanever and U. cylindricus, besides the 
irregular elevations over the disk, have remarkable undula- 
tions along the umbonial slope*, from the beak to the mar- 
gin. The U. cornutus is furnished with three or four protu- 
berances or " horns" in a row, passing from the beaks direct 
to the basal margin ; the varieties of the cornutus have these 

* I use this term for the elevated ridge which passes from the beaks to the pos- 
terior margin. 



OF THE FAMILY OF NAIADES. 411 

••horns" more depressed and more frequent, and thus pass 
into varieties with a mere furrow without any distinct eleva- 
tions, and these gradations are almost innumerable. The 
irroratus has slightly elevated tubercles along both sides of 
tin- furrow: these are sometimes continued along the wrin- 
kles, making them elevated. The sesopus has a -nodu- 
lous ridge" over the middle of the -lull, and the plicahu 
has folds or waves over the posterior part of the disks, more 
or less numerous, and which are .so large as to produce an 
irregular effect through the nacre in many instances. 

77n epidermal colours of this family are exceedingly cir- 
cumscribed. The ground varies from deep fuscous or black 
to pale yellow, frequently passing through obscure green, 
rarely brighl green. This ground is intersected frequently 
with rays or spots of a darker hue. In fine and perfect spe- 
cimens these are generally perceptible, sometimes eminently 
beautiful. In imperfect or old specimens these marks are 
almost always obliterated. The following species, when the 
specimens are perfect and fresh, occur beautifully painted 
with rays more or less broad: viz. complanatus, cuneatus, ra- 
(fiatus. siliquoideus, n ntricosus, ovatus*, cariosus, nasutus, 
lacrymosus (very slightly), calceolus, rectus, ochraceus, hetero- 
<l>m. suleatus, muUiradiatu8, occidem, iris, and zig-zag. 

The securis is rayed in a manner peculiar to itself. (See 
description.) The comutus has beautiful hairlike lines, some- 
times minutely waved, which diverge to its entire margin. 
Some of the varieties have no rays, while others have compa- 
ratively broad and beautiful ones. The sulcatus \- indistinctly 
rayed over the umhonest. hut the furrow passing from tin 
beaks to the posterior basal margin lias manj hair like lines. 

* Mr Say says this shell is " not radiated." This is generally the case : hut 
some specimens are beautifully rayed ; ami Lamarck Bays of his var. /'. " tests' ra- 
<liis lougitudinalibus picta." 

t I use tins term as Linn.riis did : it i> the " ventre" of the French wi 
Draparnaud »ys, -l la portion la plus renflee <les valves." It is improperly used 
by English writers denoting (lie beaks or summits. 

VOL. III. 5 M 



412 NEW GENUS AND SOME NEW SPECIES 

which are minutely waved ; these lines are continued over the 
umbonial slope. The irroratus is covered over the whole 
disk with dark green spotted lines, running in a sweep from 
the beak to the margin and lying close to each other. 

The following species have broad interrupted rays, which 
in some instances make rows of square spots : viz. planulatus, 
scalenius, verrucosus (when young), and patidus. 

The donaciformis and zig-zag have diverging rays formed 
more or less distinctly by zig-zag lines. The cylindricus, 
metanever, and triangularis are singularly and most beauti- 
fully marked with dark green spots in the form of an arrow 
head, the point directed to the margin. The first and last 
possess the most; in the others it can only be distinguished 
in very fine or young specimens. The marks sometimes ex- 
ist in a confluent state, and rays are consequently produced. 
They are most prevalent in the cylindricus, and vary from 
the length of a quarter of an inch to a mere point ; in the tri- 
angularis they are more generally confluent. Some speci- 
mens of cylindricus are so much charged with these arrow- 
headed marks as almost to obliterate the yellow ground of 
the epidermis, and cause the valves to appear at first sight of 
an uniform dark green. 

The remainder of the American species described are with- 
out epidermal markings, and I shall divide them, as it is ex- 
tremely difficult to designate their shades, into blackish, 
brownish, and yellowish. The ater, tuberadatus, circulus, 
and gibbosus* are blackish. The circulus is peculiar in hav- 
ing the posterior slope yellowish. The parvus, torsus, plica- 
tus, mytiloides, sesopus, subtentus, verrucosus, ellipsis, rubi- 
ginosus, are brownish. Some of these, however, vary much. 
The torsus is found sometimes yellowish, and when young 
almost black; the posterior slope is, however, universally 
yellowish. Large and old specimens of the plicatus are 
quite black; the young are light brown. In the mytiloides 

f The young gibbosus is sometimes very obscurely raved. 



OF THH FAMILY OF NAIADES. II 

the young specimens are sometimes rayed over the umbom - 
The young sesopus is bright yellow and highly polished. Tin 
young verrucosus has sometimes one or two broad interrupted 
green lines oyer the middle of the umboncs. In young or 
very perfect specimens of the ellipsis may be seen numerous 
small rays passing over the umbones towards the posterior 
margin. In the younger specimens of the rubigmosus indis- 
tinct rays are sometimes seen. The laneeolatus is yellowish 
passing into olive. 

It should ever be borne in mind, notwithstanding what 
has been said above, that colour is exceedingly deceptive, and 
may often lead to error. It is impossible to find permanent 
characteristics in it. on which we can universally depend, as 
locality, exposure, youth, and age so materially affect its ap- 
pearance. We must therefore consider it in most cases a< 
only auxiliary, though in a few cases it is permanent. 

Beaks. Lamarck, in his generic description of the Unio, 
says, "natibus decorticatis, suberosis." This character is not 
permanent by any means in our species, some of which are 
almost universally found free from decortication, while others 
are partially so; and others again rarely free from it. The 
objection to receiving it as a permanent character even in spe- 
cies is. that more or less exposure to the action of the stream, 
ice. will cause the beaks to be more or less eroded in the spe- 
cies where erosion takes place. Some species, however, seem 
to resist this erosion with great success, owing, as I appre- 
hend, to the peculiar firmness of the texture of their epidermis, 
which certainly differs in different species. I have never 
seen < ither of the following species eroded, viz. l\ parvus, U. 
cakeohts, U. laerymosus, U. rubiginosus, or the Symphynota 
Uevissima (the two last herein described). It is rarely we see 
a ponderous shell free from this erosion, and the U. cyUndri- 
cus seems to be peculiarly subject to it, for the form of the 
beaks can rarely be even traced, yet the largest specimen in 
my cabinet, marly five inches broad, possesses the epidermis 
untouched on tins part. The beaks of many of the species, 
when found in a perfeel state, are crowned with concentric 



414 NEW GENUS AND SOME NEW SPECIES 

undulations or slight elevations, which should always be no- 
ticed, as they are highly characteristic. The situation of the 
beaks, when peculiar, should have the student's attention. 
They are sometimes almost medial, as in the U. irroratus, U. 
eirculus, U. lacrymosus, fyc. ; while in the U. ellipsis, U. scu- 
lenius, U. cylindricus, Symphynota tenuissima*, fyc. they are 
almost terminal : this character, however, varies. (See ob- 
servations on the teeth.) 

The margins or circumference should have our attention 
in examining a specimen. The general form of the Naiades is 
ovate, modified into rhomboidal, triangular, circular, and ellip- 
tical ; but these forms in the same species will frequently vary, 
and therefore must not be entirely relied on. The U. siliquoi- 
deus is generally subangular posteriorly, but it is sometimes 
truncate, and the U. cariosus is found in the same way. We 
find very few species that are constant in this character ; this 
accounts for the many species created from the U. pictorum 
in Europe. 

Muscular impressions. These are important, and should 
always have our attention in examining a specimen. But 
even this character is not infallible. It should be understood 
that the animals of this family always possess two pairs of 
muscles, used for locomotion, and placed near or in contact 
with the two adductor muscles, used solely for closing the 
valvesf. In the anterior margin these are generally sepa- 
rate, in the posterior more generally confluent ; but in the 
same species we sometimes find individuals presenting two. 
sometimes three, and sometimes four cicatrices, besides 
those of the cavity of the beaks; and this depends in a 
great measure on the thickness of the shell. If the spe- 
cimen be ponderous, we often find the posterior mus- 
cle of the foot attached to the side of the lamellar tooth 
near to its termination ; if it be thin, although of the same 
species, it will be found generally confluent or near to the 
great posterior muscle. The cicatrices, made by the attach- 

* Herein described. 

t See my description of new Uniones in this volume. 



OF THE FAMILY or \\I\MI>. II j 

ment of the superior part of the mantle in ponderous shells, 
generally will be found on the under pait of the cardinal 
tooth. Sometimes six or eighl may be found ; and their di- 
rection is towards the lamellar tooth. In thin shells tl 
cicatrices will be found in the cavity of the beak-, generally 
traversing it in an oblique direction*. 

Ligament. This part of the shell must be viewed with 
the same doubt as the above character. In the same species 
the ligament may be long and narrow it' the specimen be 
elongated and thin: and it may he short and thick if it be pon- 
derous and obtuse. Thus Ave may find in an elongated sili- 
quoukus the ligament an inch and a quarter long, and only 
one-tenth of an inch broad, while in an obtuse and ponder- 
ous specimen it may be found to be only three quarters of an 
inch long and yet one-eighth of an inch broad, as is the case 
in some specimens of my cabinet. 

It has been a desideratum with the American concholo- 
gists to fix the nomenclature of this interesting genus, parti- 
cularly so far as relates to our own species. In the hope of 
contributing in some measure to so desirable an object, I 
have carefully examined all that has been published <in the 
subject so far as I could procure the descriptions, and with 
diffidence give the results, hoping my views may no! be found 
to be incorrect. 

The first column contains the species, the nomenclature 
of which i^ now likely to be permanent and fixed. The 
cond the species described by other writers, which are eitl 
tin same or varieties, and consequently synonymes. 

Lam. 
I. U. radiattnf , Gmelin, rirginiana, Lam. 



( l . radiata, 

J. rirginiana, 
t ;. radiata*, 



Barnes. 



* Sec my description of new LJniones in this volunfe. 

t Lister (t. 162, f. 7.) g trrect representation of the species known to 

American conchologists as U. radiatvs, ami which hi itne Prom ^ i 

Chemnitz (vol. vi. t. j, f. 7.) gives i representation of a shell yeiy similar ' 

the locality of which is Malabar. The tir-t ni ■ »>■ find foi Om 

M'jn radiata, and this author refers to both figures in hisd< scription. Dills 
VOL. III. 5 N 



416 NEW GENUS AND SOME NEW SPECIES 



2. U. complanatusf, Soland. MSS.< 



purpureus, 
rarisulcata, 


Say. 
Lam. 


coarctata, 


Lam. 


purpurascens, 


Lam. 


rhombula, 


Lam. 


carinifera, 


Lam. 


georgina*, 


Lam. 


sulcidens, 


Lam. 


caroliniana, 


Bosc. 


fluviatilis, 


Green 



var. 



fers to each of the above authorities, but thinks Lister's figure is too doubtful to be 
retained, as Solander had referred to it for a variety of Mytilus modiolus, in which, 
however, he errs, for Lister's figure is a good representation of a small specimen 
of the radiatus of our waters. Lamarck, in his description of U U. radiata" re- 
fers to Lister and Gmelin, and also to the figure of Mr Say's ochracevs. The last 
is a distinct species. Several of these writers refer also to the figure in the Ency. 
Meth. t. 248, f. 5, which is evidently copied from Chemnitz. Mr Barnes, in his 
description, refers to Say's U. ochraceus, Dillwyn's Mya radiata, and Lamarck's 
U. radiata. Considerable difficulty presents itself in establishing the name of 
this species, so well known among us by that of U. radiatus, in consequence of 
the old writers using the same name for those from Virginia and Malabar, which, 
I believe, when examined together, will be found specifically to differ. Should 
this prove to be the fact, we must give to our shell the name which Lamarck has 
described it under a second time, viz. " U. virginiana," giving it a masculine ter- 
mination. 

* It should be mentioned here that I was not aware that Mr Barnes had pro- 
nounced the first six to be varieties of Say's purpureus until after I had selected 
the seven. 

t The celebrated Lister published his great work on conchology in 1685, and 
at that early period he was in possession of several species of our fluviatile shells 
procured from Virginia. The first he thus describes, " musculus brevior, admo- 
dum crassus, ex interna parte subroseus, cardine incisuris minutis exasperato," t. 
150, f. 5. Dillwyn describes this shell under the name of Mya complanata, and 
refers to this figure. Beside the locality above, Solander gives Maryland and 
New Jersey, and Humphreys Mississippi. The latter is most likely an error. Dr 
Green supposed this shell, so well known to all our conchologists under Mr Say's 
name purpureus, to be the Mytilus jiuviatilis described by Dillwyn from Gmelin, 
and referred to Lister, t. 157, f. 12. I differ, however, in this opinion, 1. Be- 
cause it is not described as being toothed. 2. Gmelin says, "habitat in Europas 
aquis dulcibus." 3. The complanata answering, in description, better to our 
shell, and being the first figured and described. It appears somewhat singular to 
me, that the observant and able zoologist, Mr Say, had not been struck with the 
similitude of our shell to Lister's figure and description. There is no species 
more common in all our fresh waters, east of the Alleghany mountains, than 
this, and nothing could be more likely than that it should be among the first to 
be taken to Europe by the early voyagers to North America. In accordance, 



3. U. ovatus, 



OF THE FAMILY OF NAIADES. 

Say*, 



( ovata, 
( ovata, 



4. U. 



cartosus, 



Sayf, 



lutcola, 
canosa, 
crassus (old){, 
carinatus (rayed), 
ellipticus (young), 



417 

Lain. 
Valenciennes. 

Lam. 
Lam. 
Say. 
Bar. 

Bar. 



5. 


u. 


nasutus, 


Say, 


rostrata, 


Valen. 


G. 


u. 


cvlindricus, 


q . <t naviformis, 
*' \ naviformis, 


Lam. 
Valen. 


7. 


rj. 


subtcntus, 


Say. 


'crassidens? 
peruvianus, 
rariplicata, 


Lam. 
Lam. 
Lam. 


-. 


u. 


plicatus, 


Le Sueur$, ■< 


undulatus, 
crassus, 
undulata, 
dombeyana, 


Bar. 
Bar. 
Valen. 
Valen. 



therefore, with the rules of nomenclature, I have inserted the name of complana- 
tus to the shell described by Mr Say under the name of purpureus. 

* Dr HiUlreth, in describing this species of Say, says, " I think it a near rela- 
tion of the gracilis ," and, when describintr the gracilis, he says, " The contour 
of the shell, independent of the wing, is much like that of the alatus." In the lat- 
ter he is r i lt f i r - I > • J t in the former remark altogether Wrong. 

Donovan, DHlwyu, Maton and Racket, and some other British writers have 
made use of this name for a Unto resembling the pictorum. 1 have thought it bet- 
ter, however, to retain Mr Say's name for his species, which is totally different, 
being satisfied that the British shell is only a variety o[ pictorum. 

t This is probably the only species yet known to be common both to the Wes- 
tern and Atlantic waters. 

| Crassus is omitted in this catalogue, believing that several other species, and 
those onl they were ponderous, have been described under tins name. 

Mr Say's crassus (See; Am. Conch, plate i, lit;, s,) is evidently an old and ponde- 
rous cariosus, and he considered the u pticatut" as a variety. Mr Barnes's eras- 
sus is an old and thick ju rurinnus, as is most likely Lamarck's crux.tirfcns. The 
giganteus of I)r MitchiQ's collection is aba s peruvianus, which occurs in some of 
our western waters of a larger BUM and more ponderous than any species wc 
know of. 



§ This species was first described by Say in the American Conchology a 



418 



NEW GENUS AND SOME NEW SPECIES 



9. U. rectus, 



Lam.* 



10. U. torsusf, Rafinesque. 

11. U. mytiloides, Rafin. 

« 

12. U. metanever, Rafin. 

13. U. scalenius, Rafin. 

14. U. cornutus, Bar.} 



i 



f prrelongus, 
J nasuta, 



) purpurata 1 
[_ recta, 



undatus, 



<f nodosus, 

\ rugosus (flat), 



Bar. 
Lam. 
Lam. 
Valen. 



Bar. 



Bar. 
Bar. 



riety of crassus. At the same time he mentioned that its discoverer, that excellent 
naturalist Mr Le Sueur, suspected it to be a new species, and proposed, should 
this prove to be the case, to call it " plicata." We are, therefore, bound to 
adopt his name on the claim of priority ; and a more descriptive one could not 
be given to it. 

* When Dr Hildreth described the " prcelongus," it is evident he believed it to 
be prtelongus of Barnes, for he uses Barnes's name without stating it to differ from 
his, although the descriptions are not exactly the same. Barnes says, " Naker, 
purple of different shades," and " deep and splendid purple." (See Barnes's Re- 
clamation.) Hildreth says, "Naker, white, and tinged with spots of green." 

The specimen of " recta" described by Lamarck, was " white," according to 
his description. I have seen very many specimens of this species, some of which 
are tinted with light purple or salmon about the cavity of the beaks and cardinal 
tooth ; they are generally, however, of a pure white. The explanation of these 
contradictory characters is this : The specimen in the collection of the New York 
Lyceum, and the same is said of one in Dr Mitchill's collection, both brought from 
the upper lakes, is unusually full of colour, having almost the whole of the nacre of 
a rose or delicate purple. It has more colour than any specimen I have seen. 

t M. Rafinesque is entitled to a preference in this beautiful and extraordinary 
species, possessing the most elevated recurved beaks of the whole genus. It was 
generally known among us by the name of U. orbicularis, but not described. The 
variety, not emarginate, can not be made a species, as the two pass into each other. 
Dr Hildreth has recently described a shell, which I believe to be the torsus, in Sil- 
liman's Journal under the name of U. orbiculatus. He says, " This shell is a va- 
riety of the crassus." Whose crassus ? Mr Say's, as mentioned before, is a pon- 
derous cariosus ; Mr Barnes's, a peruvianus ; and, if a variety of crassus, why 
call it orbiculatus ? 

\ This species is among the most interesting of the genus. It presents a much 
greater variety than any other, and might be called a real proteus. The true 



OF THE FAMILY OF NAIADES. 419 

. - TT TJ ( V < 

lo. U. verrucosus, Bar. 
1G. U. tubcrculatus, Bar. 



rerrucosa, Valcn. 

tuberculosa, Valcn. 



17. U. gibbosus, Bar. mucronatws. Bar. 

18. U. cuneatus*, Bar. 

19. U. ventricosusf, Bar. 

20. U. siliquoidcus, Bar. inflatus, Bar. 

21. U. triangularis, Bar. 



cornutus has three or four distinct " horns," and the varieties gradually increase 
in the number, and vary in the forms of those elevations until they arc lost in two 
ridges passing from the beaks to the posterior basal margin. It is exceedingly 
interesting to trace these gradual changes of form ; and to illustrate the fact of 
the anomalous varieties being of the same species, I have arranged forty-three 
specimens in my cabinet, no two of which are alike. Dr Ilildrcth has made a 
species of one of these varieties, and calls itfoliatus. It appears that Mr Barnes 
and himself had seen only this specimen. I have had three or four in my posses- 
sion for three years, and at first my impression was in favour of their being 
new, but examining them with that excellent conchologist, Mr Stewart, we found 
the line of impression, made by the mantle, did not run parallel with the deep 
arcuation of the margin, and therefore concluded, at once, that the animal could 
not conform to the shape of the shell, and consequently that the elongations of the 
1 and posterior margins were unnatural. Dr II. says he is " unable to deter- 
mine whether it is a new variety, or oidy a " lusus naturae ;" and yet he makes a 
new species of it! ! Some of my varieties have the prolongation much more ex- 
tended than the specimen described by Dr II. In one specimen the unnatural 
prolongation is more than equal in extent to the natural size of the shell, designa- 
ted by the impression of the mantle. 

* We have been murh in the habit of confounding this with the complanatut, ami 
considering it as the analogue inhabiting the western waters. It di w- 

ever, to be retained by Barnes's name, lor il pot esses characters which the ether 
does not. It is posteriorly more angular, and the -lull is Bubtriangular ; the com- 
planatus is sub-rhomboidal and more carinate. • toe inhabits the western ; the other 
the Atlantic rivers. The cuncatiis is always ponderous; the coBtplanatui, I believe, 
never. Mr B. says his species is never rayed ; in this be is mistaken, young and 
fine specimens have dark broad rays. 

t This is undoubtedly the species which we have known under the ntmeofglo- 
hoxus (nndescribed). Mr B. says "it is more capacious than any of the g< nu 
hitherto described." It resembles the otatus, but is always more globose. 

VOL. III. — 5 o 



420 NEAV GENUS AND SOME NEW SPECIES 

22. U. parvus*, Bar. 

23. U. sesopus, Green. 

24. U. calceolusf, Lea. 

25. U. lanceolatus, Lea. 

26. U. donaciformis, Lea. 

27. U. ellipsis, Lea. 

28. U. irroratus, Lea. 

29. U. lacrymosus, Lea. 

30. U. ater, Lea. 

31. U. rubiginosus, Lea, 

32. U. heterodon, Lea. 

33. U. sulcatus, Lea. 

34. U. planulatus, Lea. 

35. U. circulus. Lea. 

36. U. multiradiatus, Lea. 

37. U. occidens, Lea. 

38. U. securis, Lea. 



* This is rather the smallest species with which I am acquainted. Barnes says 
it is " the smallest and most beautiful of all the genus yet discovered in America." 
In this he alludes to the nacre only, which is more pearly and more brilliant than 
any species I have seen. The exterior presents nothing peculiar but its concentric 
waves on the beaks, and a slightly elevated rib passing from the beaks to the pos- 
terior margin. 

t Although I had three specimens of this shell in my possession when I descri- 
bed it, I felt apprehensive it was too closely allied to the Alasmodonta of Say to be 
considered as an Unio ; but as a lamellar plate really existed with an incipient 
tooth, though small, on each valve, besides the large cardinal tooth, I determined 
it to be the safest plan to class it with the Uniones. I have recently received largor 
specimens in which this plate almost entirely disappears, while in younger speci- 
mens it is more evident. 



OF THE lAMii.v or NAIADES. 121 

30. U. iris, Lea. 

40. I", zig-zag, Lea. 

41. U. pntulus, Lea. 



Conchologists have with great reason complained of the 
extreme difficulty of identifying Lamarck's species of the ge- 
nus Unio. Mr Banus says. "Inmost cases wherever INI. 
Lamarck can find a difference, though by liis own account 
• nothing remarkable? he makes a different species:" and Mr 
Swainson declares thai -fine half the species which he has 
enumerated" cannot be determined on account of the short 
descriptions and want of figures. The truth of these remarks 
I have fell severely whenever I have had occasion to consult 
this author for the genus; and. with the hope of clearing the 
path in a measure of those who may follow me. I propose to 
give here the results of examinations of his species made at 
different times with much care. 

' '. rinuata. This is the Mya margaritifera of Linnaeus 
and oilier authors, and to which Barnes's Alasmodonta orrn- 
ata is the analogue. Mr B. was not aware, when he descri- 
bed it. that it was similar. He has recently, in the reclama- 
tion of his Uniones. resigned this species of /Uasmodonta. If 
Mr Say's genus be admitted, we must of course call this type 
of Lamarck's I nio. .lln.sniodonta margaritifera, 

/'. dongata. There can scarcely he a douht hut that this 
is a young shell of the above species, 

i\ crassidens, It is evident on examination of our author's 
d< scription of this species and its varieties, and the crasmu of 
Say and of Barnes, that all the ponderous varieties of our 
Uniones were brought into these species, neither of which 
can possibly stand. (See note, page 117.) 

U. peruviana. This species embraces the plieataoi L< 
Sueur, the eratnu and undulatus of Barnes, the giganteu 
I)r Mitchill's collection, the rariplicata and eraseideru of La> 
paarck, and the undulata and dombeyana of Valenciennes. 



422 NEW GENUS AND SOME NEW SPECIES 

As it was described previously by Le Sueur's name " pli- 

cata" this must take precedence. Its habitat, Peru, I think 

very doubtful ; it most probably came from the United States. 

U. rariplicata. This is, no doubt, a variety of the above. 

U. purpurata. The recta answers to this description in 

every respect but the habitat. The author "believes" it 

came from Africa. The shell most probably came from the 

United States, in which case there could not be a doubt. 

f The description of these is so imper- 

T j j. .. feet that I cannot identify either of them, 

j'j l ?j. ' although they are all from this country, 

jj i 1 and the same species most probably in 

our cabinets. I doubt if either of them 

k should be retained. 

U. rarisulcata, j r™ ... c ,, 

TT . . r 1 hese are mere varieties of the com- 

II. coarctata. > , , 

Tr v planatus. 

U. purpurascens. ) 1 

U. radiata. Our author gives the Mya rudiata of Gmelin 
and U. ochraceus of Say as synonymes to this species. It 
cannot be both ; for the ochraceus is a perfectly distinct spe- 
cies from the M. radiata, which, Chemnitz says, comes 
from the rivers of Malabar. The radiatus described by 
Barnes after Lamarck, and Say's ochraceus are distinct spe- 
cies, and I have no doubt the Mya radiata of Gmelin is 
distinct from both. Mr Say's figure, referred to by Mr 
Barnes (pi. 2, fig. 8, Am. Conch.) as U. radiata, is undoubt- 
edly an ochraceus. (See note on U. radiatus.) 

U. brevialis. This shell is pictured by Crouch ; it is thick, 
and resembles the circulus of the Ohio, but is larger, less 
round and radiated. It comes from the Isle of France, and 
is, no doubt, a distinct species. 

tt -J ' f Are all mere varieties of the com- 
er, cannifera, > , , 
rT J . i plana tus. 

U. georgma, ) *■ 

U. clava. I cannot identify this species. The descrip- 
tion is too short. Its habitat is Lake Erie and Nova Sco- 



OF THE FAMILY or NAIADES. 12 > 

tia. from which circumstance it is most probably in our cabi- 
nets under another name. 

U. recta. This is the same with Barnes's prselongus, The 
recta being described first should be retained. 

/ '. ntirjfarmis. This name cannot be retained, as Say had 
previously described the shell under the name of cylindricus. 

U. glabrata. The habitat of this species is the Ohio river. 
The description is too imperfect to identify it. and as the au- 
thor acknowledges it has •• nothing remarkable," we may fairly 
conclude it to be a variety of some one of the numerous spe- 
cies described, a cariosus most probably. 

If. tuuuta. The author thinks this may be the >k/sn/iis of 
Say. but the description answers much better to hi-; own recta 
or Barnes's gibbomu, and is no doubt one of those. 1 do nol 
believe the na.su/ u* has ever been found in our western wa- 
ters*. 

U. ovata is the ovatus of Say. and inhabits the western wa- 
ters, not the Susquehanna and Mohawk, as mentioned by La- 
marck. Maton and Rackett described a British shell under 
this name, which I believe to be only a variety of pictorum. 
Those sent me from England by this name were certainly 
mere varieties of the pictorum. 

U. rotundata. In most of our cabinets may be found a 
beautiful shell, which we have thought to be of this species, 
and have adopted the name. It does not. however, answer 
to the description in some essential characters, and I i 
therefore thought proper to describe the American -lull, and 
^ive it a new name. (See description of circultM.) Lamarck 
gives no habitat. Ours is from the Ohio. 

('. littoraUa is from the Seine, and is described by Drapar- 
naud. who says it resembles the U U. margaritifera? bul i< 
much smaller. 

('. sc.mirugata. Description too short to identity it. Has 
no habitat. 

Swamson n T I wo natuta, however, of Lamarck, I appi 

be found different" from Umoruuvhu of Say.— Zoo/. ///»••.-. VdL I pi 

\ 01.. in. — 5 i' 



424 NEW GENUS AND SOME NEW SPECIES 

U. nana. This species is said to inhabit Franche Comte. 
I do not know if there be a specimen in this country. 

U. alata is the well known alatus of Say, and is herein 
made the type of a new genus, Symphynota. 

U. delodonta. Description too short to identify it. Has 
no habitat. 

U. sulcidens. A variety of complanatus ; and is from the 
Schuylkill, Pennsylvania. 

U. rostrata. The specimens which I received from Eu- 
rope with this name are only elongated varieties of pictorum. 

U. pictorum. This is a well known species, and described 
by Linnaeus and others as Mya pictorum. 

U. batava. The specimens sent me of this species from 
Europe appear to be only a variety of the pictorum. It is 
more obtuse*. 

U. corrugata. This species can not be identified with any 
of ours. It comes from the coast of Coromandel, and is, 
doubtless, a distinct and well characterised species. 

U. nodulosa. The habitat of this species is Lake Cham- 
plain, and although pictured in the Ency. Meth. I cannot 
identify it, the drawing being evidently incorrect. Although 
represented with a lamellar tooth, I should not be surprized 
if it proved to be a young Alasmodonta umlulata of Say, as 
it has the strong character on the beaks. 

U. varicosa. I can only assimilate this with the Alasmo- 
donta undulata of Say. Its habitat is the Schuylkill and 
Lake Champlain. 

U. granosa. This is a beautiful and distinct species. Ha- 
bitat Guyana. 

U. depressa. Habitat New Holland. The description is 
very imperfect, but the species nevertheless distinct. It is a 
very different shell from that called depressa by Rafinesque, 
who does not seem to have known that the name was preoc- 
cupied by Lamarck. 

* The U. anas I believe to be a variety of pictorum very similar to this. Mv 
specimen is certainly such. The V. tumida, from the north of Europe, appears 
to me to be only a large and thick pictorum. 



OF THE FAMILY OF NAIADES. 125 

U. virginiana. This, doubtless, is the radial us described 

by Barnes. Habitat Virginia. 

U. luteola is a variety of Say's cariosus. Habitat Susque- 
hanna and Mohawk. 

l r . marginalia. I have specimens of this species from 
Bengal. It is well characterised, although it does not always 
possess the marginal character as described by Lamarck and 
represented in the Ency. Meth. pi. 247. 

U. ongusta. This 1 believe to be a variety of pictorum. 
The figure referred to in Lister is certainly a pictorum. and 
i> generally quoted as such. Habitat unknown. 

( '. manea. This may be a distinct species, but I strongly 
suspect it to be only a variety of pictorum. Habitat Bour- 
gogne. 

U. cariosa is the cariosus of Say. 

U. spuria. I cannot identify this species with any of ours. 
Habitat 

U. australis. This, like the above, is not identified. Ha- 
bitat New Holland. 

{'. anodontma. Habitat Virginia. We have no Unio of 
this description in our waters. It is probably Anodonta un- 
(liiln/ii of Say. which has sometimes small elevations some- 
what similar to teeth*. 

I '. suborbiculata. I cannot identify thisspecii 

In passing criticisms upon the species of the genus Unio of 
thi> great naturalist, I do no! in the least wish to detract from 
his great and merited fame. My object is expressly to en- 
deavour to facilitate the study of Ibis interesting genus, and 
to remove, as far as I have it in my power, the confusion 
which has crept into it. My observations 1 wish to pa-> 
only For what they may prove to be worth. 

* Since v. riiinL' the above, I observe that Sowcrhv on the Lamarckian !Va "■'- 
(Zoolog. Journ. Vi'l. I. p. 64.) givea Ibe u J0j/udon rugotut" of Bwainai n 
the synonyme of U. anodoniina. It is well known i<> "in- concbologuta that 

inson'a rugosut \~ tin: old shell of Say's Anodoniu tintluliitii, which wai de> 
9cribecl from a young specimen, and has priority to (he 



426 NEW GENUS AND SOME NEW SPECIES 



1. Unio Ater. Plate VII. fig. 9. 

Testa ovata, incequilaterali, transversa, vcntricosissima ; umbonibus 
elevatis ; natibus prominulis ; epidermide rugosd nigrdque ; umbonibus 
elevatis; dentibus cardinalibus erectis, cristatis, later alibus granulatis, 
rectisque; margarita rosea. 

Shell inequilateral, ovate, transverse, much inflated; umbones elevated; 
beaks slightly prominent; epidermis black and wrinkled; cardinal teeth 
erect and crestlike, lateral granulated and straight; nacre rose colour. 

Hab. Mississippi below Natchez. T. W. Robeson. 

My Cabinet. 

Cabinet of Prof. Vanuxeni. 

Diam. 2-6, Length 3, Breadth 4*5 inches. 

Shell very ventricose ; margin ovate, wider behind, slightly 
emarginate at base, and sometimes slightly truncate at poste- 
rior margin ; substance of the shell thick ; beaks slightly pro- 
jecting and decorticated ; ligament large ; epidermis black or 
blackish, and wrinkled transversely; cardinal teeth erect, 
crestlike, and double in both valves ; lateral tooth curved, 
long, deeply divided and slightly serrate, the interior division 
emerging from the cavity of the beak ; posterior cicatrices 
confluent, anterior cicatrices very distinct ; dorsal cicatrices 
pass across the cavity of the beaks in a row* ; cavity of the 
shell great; nacre pink and iridescent in the posterior margin. 

Remarks. — This shell is remarkable for the colour of its 
epidermis and nacre. The perpendicular distance from the 
cardinal tooth to the basal margin is very small, while that 
from the posterior end of the lamellar tooth to the same mar- 
gin is unusually great. It slightly approaches in form to 
some varieties of the cariosus. 

* In a former paper of this volume, (page 262) I described the attaching mus- 
cles of the back of the animal, the impressions of which in the shell I propose to 
call dorsal cicatrices. 



,',. \ u 
















OF TUT. FAMILY OF NAIADES. UT 



2. Unio Rubiginobus. Plate VIII. fur. 10. 

Testn itueqvUaterali, transversa, postice svb-biangvJari, antice rotun- 

data : valrulis sub-crassis ; natibus prominentibus, recurvia, posticfsub- 
cmgulotis; dente cardinuli magna, latcruli crasso ; margariti Balmonis 
colore. 

Shell inequilateral, transverse, sub-biangular behind and rounded be- 
fore; valves somewhat thick; beaks prominent, recurved, rab-angulated 

behind; cardinal tooth large; lateral touth thick; nacre salmon co- 
loured. 

Hab. Ohio. 

My Cabinet. 

Cabinet of T. G. Lea. 

Cabinet of Prof. Vanuxem. 

Cabinet of the Academy of Natural Sciences. 

Diam. 1-2, Length 2-1, Breadth 2-fi inches. 

Shell somewhat ventricose ; substance of the shell some- 
what thick: umbones slightly elevated: beaks recurved, sel- 
dom decorticated, almost touching, whitish, possessing several 
concentric undulations, which are lost along the umbonial 
slope, which is carinate: a small curved elevated line passes 
from the point of the beaks to the margin above the posterior 
margin; ligament rather large passing from the points of the 
beak-: dorsal margin oblique ; posterior dorsal margin cari- 
nate and slightly emarginate; posterior margin angular; pos- 
terior basal margin very slightly curved: basal, anterior and 
anterior dorsal and basal mar gins rounded: epidermis colour 
of rust, Bometimes salmon yellow, slightly wrinkled and show- 
ing the marks of growth; rays in young specimens percepti- 
ble; cardinal tooth sulcate, broad and nol elevated, often 
single in both valves; the tooth in the lefl yalve closing in a 
cavity which sinks almost into the cavity of the beaks of the 
righl yalve; lateral teeth rather thick, elevated, straight, ge- 
nerally double in both valves; in the left valve the upper 
division is le-s elevated and shorter; anterior and posterior 
cicatrices both distinct : the smaller posterior cicatrix is situ- 
\ in,, in. — 5 q 



42S NEW GENUS AND SOME NEW SPECIES 

ated against the side of the lamellar tooth, near its termination ; 
the anterior adductor muscle makes a cicatrix also against the 
end of the cardinal tooth ; dorsal cicatrices under the cardinal 
tooth perceptible ; cavity of the beaks deep and rounded ; na- 
cre always more or less salmon colour ; slightly iridescent at 
posterior margin ; whitish on the margin near the adductor 
muscles. 

Remarks. — This is a very distinct species. In its general 
form it approaches nearest to the securis, which, however, is 
always white in the nacre, and peculiarly rayed. It is pecu- 
liar in its reddish brown epidermis, which colour is caused 
by the salmon nacre showing through it. The character of 
the cardinal tooth is very peculiar, having a tendency to be 
single in both valves, while the lamellar tooth is quite equally 
disposed to be double. All the specimens which I have seen 
are salmon colour in the nacre. If this should prove univer- 
sally so, it is the only species which we know to be con- 
stantly of that colour. 



3. Unio Heterodon. Plate VIII. fig. 11. 



&■ 



Testa rhomboido-ovatd, inaquilaterali, ventricosd ; valvulis tenuibus ; 
dentibus cardinalibus comprcssis, latis ; dentibus lateralibus sub-curva- 
tis, dente laterali valvular dextrce, duplici ; natibus prominentibus ; liga- 
mento sub-brevi ; margarita alba. 

Shell rhomboidal-ovate, inequilateral, ventricose ; valves thin ; cardi- 
nal teeth compressed, wide ; lateral teeth slightly curved, the double 
tooth in the right valve; beaks prominent; ligament rather short; nacre 
white. 

Hab. Schuylkill and Derby Creek, Pa. 

My Cabinet. 

Cabinet of Mr Mason. 

Cabinet of Prof. Vanuxem. 

Cabinet of Dr Griffith. 



OF THE FAMI1.V IT N \l V 1 > 1 18. 

Cabinet of the Academy of Natural Sciences. 
Cabinet of Mr Hyde. 
Cabinet of Mr Phillips. 
Cabinet of Mr Conrad. 
Diam. •">. Length •'>. Breadth l"> inches. 

Shell rhomboidal-ovate, inequilateral, ventricose ; substance 
of the shell thin : beaks prominent, subcarinate posteriorly, 
eroded, undulated; ligament rather short; epidermis green- 
ish brown, with oblique obscure rays, wrinkled; dorsal mar- 
gin rectilinear; posterior dorsal margin nbtuselt angular: 
posterior margin acutely angular: basal margin slightly curv- 
ed; anterior, anterior basal and dorsal margins rounded: 
cardinal tooth in left vahc compressed, wide, reaching be- 
yond the cavity of the beaks, double cleft : in right valve one 
elevated recurved tooth, which clasps the side of the opposing 
one: lateral tooth curved, short in left valve, ami long in the 
right, in which it is double; anterior cicatrices confluent, as 
are also the posterior; dorsal cicatrices situated on the under 
part of the cardinal tooth, scarcely perceptible; cavity of the 
beaks large ; nacre white. 

'Remarks. — This remarkable species was firsl observed by 
Mr Mason and Mr Hyde. To the kindness of the for- 
mer 1 am indebted for the use of the line large specimen 
figured. It i- very curious in the whole apparatus of tie 
hinge, the teeth of which resemble in some measure the 
Symphynota compressor herein described, from the ante- 
rior end of the cardinal tooth to the posterior end of tin- late- 
ral, the distance is the same in both valves, but in the left 
valve the cardinal tooth is longest, while in the rfghl valve 
tin- lateral tooth i> longest. The peculiar character of this 

shell is in the doubU lateral tooth being in the right valve. 
in which it differs from all the species yel described. It most 
resembles in general form the JHasmodonta* marginata of 

Mr Say published Ins description of the <." modonta in tin- Journal ol 

the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 161'!. without knowing, il is to 



430 NEW GENUS AND SOME NEW SPECIES 

Say; and some of the younger and more ventricose specimens 
assume the appearance of the U. triangularis. 



4. Unio Sulcatus. Plate VIII. fis:. 12. 



&■ 



Testa sub-ellipticd, inczquilaterali, ventricosd, sub-emarginala ; valvu- 
lis crassis ; natibus fere terminalibus ; denlibus cardinalibus lateralibus- 
que magnis, et duplicibus in valvulis ambabus ; margaritd purpurea. 

Shell sub-elliptical, inequilateral, ventricose, slightly emarginate; 
valves thick; beaks nearly terminal ; cardinal and lateral teeth large, and 
double in both valves; nacre purple. 

Hah. Ohio. T. G. Lea. 

My Cabinet. 
Cabinet of T. G. Lea. 
Cabinet of Prof. Vanuxem. 
Cabinet of P. H. Nicklin. 
Cabinet of the Academy of Natural Sciences. 
Diam. 1-3, Length 1-7. Breadth 2-3 inches. 

Shell very thick, ventricose, inequilateral, obliquely longi- 
tudinal ; margin sub-elliptical, with an emargination of poste- 
rior basal margin, caused by a broad furrow running from the 
beaks to this part of the margin ; substance of the shell thick 
and ponderous ; beaks thick and projecting beyond the mar- 
gin, nearly terminal, decorticated ; ligament partly concealed 
by the beaks ; epidermis olive-brown, wrinkled, with nume- 
rous fine hair like lines, which are slightly undulated, passing 
from the beaks to the margin ; these lines are obsolete in the 
anterior part of the shell, and crowded in the furrow, over 
the umbonial slope they are proximate ; cardinal tooth eleva- 
ted, conico-triangular, that in left valve deeply divided ; late- 
ral tooth long, thick, and slightly curved, direction nearly 

be presumed, that the Mya margaritifcra of Linnaeus was in 1817 erected into a 
new genus by Schumacher, under the name of Margaritana. If the absence of the 
lateral tootli be sufficient to establish the genus, we must necessarily call it by 
the Danish naturalist's name. 



I'l. I\ \ ,1 I 














mi 















b 









OF THE l\Mll.\ OF NAIADF.S. 431 

same as cardinal tooth : posterior cicatrices distinct, the smaller 
one being placed immediately over the large one, and against 
the lateral tooth: anterior cicatrices distinct; dorsal cica- 
trices situated on the under part of the cardinal tooth, very 
perceptible; cavity of the beaks small; oacre flesh-red, vary- 
ing from this to nearly white: iridescent in the posterior mar- 
gin. 

Remarks. — This is variety a of U. ellipsis, described in a 
former paper, and approaches it closely. Having seen seve- 
ral specimens since that description was made, my doubts 
have been satisfied, and I now consider it a new species. It 
differs from the ellipsis in having the furrow, in being gene- 
rally covered with fine hair-like rays, and in being always 
more or less flesh-red inside. I have two specimens of this 
species which present a singular format ion of the posterior 
basal margin, which i^ dentate, the points interlocking and 
almost hooked. The elevation anterior to the furrow com- 
mences to swell one-third of the distance from the margin 
to the beaks, increases as it approaches the margin, and as- 
sumes this dentation, which being successive as the shell 
increases ('-play- laminae of these dentations in the epider- 
mic. In the interior tin- part of the shell has the appearance 
of having been gouged out. It is exceedingly curious, being 
the only specimen offiuviatile shells I have seen with a mar- 
gin approaching to a dentate appearance. 



5. Unio I'i.sm i.\ 1 1 s. Plate l\. liii. 13 



b' 



Testa inaquilaterali, ovato-ettipticA, tranaverad ; complanatd per urn 
boms a natibua usqvu ad marginem inferioretn, maculia quadrotia radi 
atimpictd} natibua prominulia ; denti cardinali parvo, laterah nm 

crasso, curvato ; margarit/l aub-caruleo-albd. 

Shell inequilateral, ovate-elliptical, transverse. Battened across th< 
umbones from the beaks to the basal margin, marked with square spots in 

form of rays; valves thick ; 1" aks slightly prominent : cardinal tooth 
small; lateral tooth lar^c, thick and curved ; nacre bluish white. 
VOL. III. 5 B 



432 NEW GENUS AND SOME NEW SPECIES 

Hab. Ohio. T. G. Lea. 

My Cabinet. 

Cabinet of T. G. Lea. 

Cabinet of Prof. Vanuxem. 

Cabinet of P. H. Nicklin. 

Cabinet of the Academy of Natural Sciences. 

Diam. -8, Length 1*3, Breadth 2-2 inches. 

Shell ovate-elliptical, remarkably flattened over the ura- 
bones from the beak to the basal margin, which frequently 
causes the greatest diameter to be near to the anterior margin ; 
substance of the shell thick ; beaks slightly prominent and de- 
corticated ; ligament deeply seated, scarcely appearing above 
the margin of the shell ; epidermis wrinkled, yellowish brown, 
with transversely interrupted rays passing from the beaks in 
a slight curve to the margin along the umbonial slope ; these 
rays are hair like, undulated, and interrupted; cardinal 
teeth very small and lobed ; lateral tooth remarkably thick 
and situated on a large massive plate ; curve very slight and 
directed much over the cardinal tooth, somewhat rough, up- 
per division smaller than the lower ; anterior and posterior 
cicatrices both distinct ; the smaller posterior cicatrix is situ- 
ated against the end of the plate at the point of the divi- 
sion of the tooth; dorsal cicatrices situated on the under part 
of the cardinal tooth, perceptible; cavity of the shell very 
small and irregularly waved; an indistinct depressed line 
may always be seen to pass from the great posterior cicatrix 
along the base of the lateral tooth into the cavity of the beaks ; 
nacre white. 

Remarks. — This shell is peculiar in the massive plate on 
which is situated its short and thick lateral tooth, as well as 
in the very small size of its cardinal tooth. It has scarcely 
any cavity under the beaks, the shell being very thick. Its 
epidermal rays, in perfect specimens, are very unusual to this 
genus ; in old specimens they are almost or quite obsolete. 
It is remarkable also in its flat umbones. It resembles most 
in form the gibbosus of Barnes, but is less rostrated and more 



of Tin-, i \mii.\ in NAIAD! - 433 

thick. The gibbostu is seldom if ever perfectly white; all 
the specimens 1 have seen <>|' this arc perfectly so. 



(i. Unio Cinnus. Plate IX. fiir. I l 



.-• 



Testa circuhiri. ventricosd, sub-tsquilateraK; valvul%3 craasia ; natibxu 
prominulis; dentibua cardinalibua lateralibuaque magma; ligomento 
brevi crosaoque; margarila alba et irideacente. 

Shell circular, vcntricoso. nearly equilateral; valves thick; beaks 
ghtly elevated; cardinal and lateral teeth large: ligament, short ami 

thick ; nacre pearly white and iridescent. 

COlii.. al Cincinnati. T. G. Lea. 
Hah. j Monongahela at Pittsburg. T. Bakewell. 
^Tennessee at Nashville. Prof. Vanuxem, 
My Cabinet. 
Cabinet of T. G. Lea. 
Cabinet of Prof. Vanuxem. 
Cabinet of P. II. Nicklin. 
Cabinet of Dr Griffith. 
Cabinet of W. Hyde. 
Cabinet of W. Mason. 
Caliinct of J. Phillips. 
Cabinet of the Academy of Natural Sciences, 
Cabinet of Peak's Museum. 

&c. 
Unto rotvndata? Lamarck. 
Diam. l. Length \~>. Breadth L -5 inches 

Shell round: posterior basal margin sometimes very slightlj 
emarginate. very ventricose, transversely wrinkled, nearli 
equilateral : substance of the shell thick ; beaks elevated, me- 
dial, and somewhal recurved; epidermis finely wrinkled. 
shining, satin-like, anterior to the umbonial slope dark brown, 
posterior light yellow brown ; cardinal teeth oblique, thick, 
and disposed to be treble in bdth valves; lateral teeth short 
and thick, disposed to be double in right valve as will as lift ; 



434 NEW GENUS AND SOME NEW SPECIES 

Anterior cicatrices distinct ; posterior cicatrices also distinct ; 
the smaller one being placed against the termination of the 
lateral tooth ; dorsal cicatrices situated on the under part of 
the cardinal tooth, very perceptible ; cavity of the beaks deep 
and sub-angular; nacre white, pearly, and iridescent, rarely 
tinted with rose in the centre. 

Remarks. — This beautiful little shell is generally an inch 
long, rarely two. It is common in our cabinets, and has 
been considered the " rotundata" of Lamarck. I am induced, 
however, to think it different from our shell, as the circulus 
never possesses the fold mentioned in that eminent concholo- 
gist's very short description. The two colours disposed in so 
peculiar a manner in the epidermis are not mentioned by 
him. It differs also greatly in size. I have seen some hun- 
dreds, the largest of which was two inches in breadth. The 
" rolundata" is 78 millimetres; and its habitat is unknown. 

The margin of the circulus is more perfectly round than 
any other species; it is sometimes disposed to be subangular 
posteriorly. The division of the colour on the umbonial 
slope is very peculiar. When the posterior slope is looked 
on, this view of the shell is heart shaped, and the dark brown 
colour is seen entirely to surround the light yellow brown. 
The epidermis is more satin-like than any other species, and 
the teeth are peculiarly disposed to be double. In form it 
approaches the " torsa" more closely than any other species. 



7. Unio JVIulti-radiatus. Plate IX. fig. 15. 

Testa ellipticd, incequilaterali, vcntricosa, multi-radiald ; valvulis te- 
uuibus ; natibus prominulis ; Jentibus cardinalibus erectis, et in valvu- 
lis ambabus duplicibus ; lateralibus lamelliformibus et abruptis ; mar- 
garita cceruleo-albd. 

Shell elliptical, inequilateral, vcntricose, much rayed; valves thin; 
beaks rather prominent; cardinal teeth erect and double in both valves ; 
lateral teeth lamelltf'orm and abrupt; nacre bluish white. 



I'l \ \..l 








I 




r\. 



n. \i \..i 



r 








& 

























OF THE FAMILY OF NAIADES. 435 

Hab. Ohio. T. G. Lea. 

My Cabinet. 
Cabinet of T. G. Lea. 
Cabinet of Prof. Vanuxem. 
Diam. -8, Length 1.3, Breadth ( 2 inches. 

Shell elliptical, inequilateral] ventricose; substance of the 
shell thin, the rays being very visible through the nacre; 
beaks prominent and slightly undulated; epidermis bright 
olive yellow, with numerous green rays passing from the 
beaks to every part of the margin : slightly wrinkled, smooth 
and glossy: cardinal tooth double in both valves aiul deeply 
cleft; lateral tooth lamelliform. nearly straight, higher near 
the termination, termination abrupt : anterior cicatrices dis- 
tinct: posterior cicatrices confluent; dorsal cicatrices situated 
on the under part of the cardinal tooth, and within the margin 
of the cavity of the beaks : cavity of the beaks huge and round- 
ed : nacre pearly white and iridescent, thin, showing the rays 
very distinctly through it. and presenting a wide margin. 

Remarks. — This beautiful shell resembles most the young 
cariosus of the Ohio and other western waters. It diffi re, 
however, in being much less ponderous, possessing more mi- 
nute rays, being rather more ventricose. having more elevated 
teeth and more prominent beaks. 



S. Unio Occident Plate X. fig. 16. 

.Testi'i avb-ellipticd, ineequUaterali, trantvend, ventricosd; valvulis 
crassis : natibus sub-umlnlittis, raro deeorticatia ; ligamento aub-brtvi 
crussoquc; dentibus elcrcttis ; margaritd albd. 

Shell inequilateral, Bab-elliptical, transverse, ventricose ; valves thick : 

beaks slightly undulated, rarely decorticated; ligament rather sli<>ri and 

thick; teeth elevated ; nacre white. 

Hab. Ohio. T. G. Lea. 

My Cabinet 

VOL. III. — 5 s 



436 NEW GENUS AND SOME NEW SPECIES 

Cabinet of T. G. Lea. 
Cabinet of Prof. Vanuxem. 
Cabinet of P. H. Nicklin. 
Cabinet of the Academy of Natural Sciences. 
Cabinet of Peale's Museum. 
Diam. 1-6, Length 2-3, Breadth 3-4 inches. 

Shell ovate, inequilateral, sub-elliptical, transverse, very 
ventricose ; substance of the shell somewhat thick ; beaks 
large, prominent, rounded, approaching, slightly undulated, 
rarely decorticated; ligament short and thick; epidermis 
slightly wrinkled, shining, olive yellow, with green rays pas- 
sing obliquely from the beaks to the margin, most numerous 
on the posterior slope ; cardinal teeth double and very promi- 
nent in both valves ; in the left valve the cleft is deep and 
both prongs rake much, the outer most elevated ; in the right 
valve the cleft is also deep, and the inner prong is broad, flat, 
curved, and most elevated ; lateral teeth short and very lamel- 
liform, the termination declining rather suddenly ; anterior 
cicatrices generally distinct; posterior cicatrices confluent; 
dorsal cicatrices very perceptible, the line commencing with 
quite a large one on the under side of the callus between 
the lateral and cardinal teeth, and terminating at the outer 
part of the base of the cardinal tooth ; marginal cicatrix very 
perceptible ; cavity of the beaks deep, large and rounded ; 
nacre milk white, rarely iridescent. 

Remarks. — The specimen figured is the finest I have ever 
seen of this species, and, taking it altogether, perhaps of any 
other of the genus. The rays are very remarkably fine, and the 
nacre is purer and whiter than the finest porcelain. It is very 
frequently, however, found with few or no rays, and the na- 
cre, though milk-white and pure generally, is not always so. 
The double, deeply cleft, cardinal tooth of both valves, and 
the raking position of that of the left valve are peculiar to the 
species possessing this general form, which includes the ova- 
tus and ventricosus. It seems to form the link between these 
two. It differs from the ovatus in not possessing the flat 



OF Tin: immii.v OP N \i \ih>. 1 j? 

posterior slope, and from the ventricosUs in not being globose 
over the umbones; and of course is much less in diameter. 
The quite large impression of the mantle under the callus, 
between the lateral and cardinal teeth, is v< t \ remarkable in 
these three species. 



9. Unto Seccbis. Plate XI. fiir. 17 



.-• 



Testi'i Bubtriangulari, itueqwilateraU, per umbones valde complanat . 
vah'ulis craaris ; natibua tl< rati*, recutvatia, eompruHeritniaqut ; dent* 
cardinali magno, lateral* crasso; ligamento bretmuculo, craseoque; 
margaritd alba et iridescente. 



-,' 



Shell sub-triangular, inequilateral, flattened over the umbones; valves 
thiek : beaks elevated, recurved, much compressed ; cardinal tooth Lai [ 
lateral tooth thiek; ligament rather short and thick; nacre pearly while 
and iridescent. 

Hah. Ohio. T. G. Lea. 

My Cabinet 
Cabinet of T. G. Lea. 
Cabinet of Prof. Vanuxem. 
Cabinet of the Academy of Natural Sciences. 
Unio dt jut ssa of Rafinesque. 
Diam. -9, Length 1-5, Breadth 1*9 inches. 

Shell sub-triangular, transversely wrinkled, inequilateral, 
much Battened over the umbones; substance of the shell 
thick, often ponderous; beaks elevated, much compressed, 
recurved: dorsal margin angular; posterior dorsal margin ob- 
lique; posterior margin angular; basal and posterior basal 
margin curved; anterior and anterior basal and dorsal mar- 
gins round ; posterior slope flattened, this view presents the 
sheilas a long ellipsis ; epidermis olive-yellovt passing into 
olive-brown, shining and transversely wrinkled; rays formed 
by small spots, alternately darker and lighter than the g" q< - 
ral colour of the epidermis, which cau-e the rays to look likl 
a minute chain, these rays are from one to two eighths of an 
inch apart, and extend over the whole •! i-k . the spaces be- 



438 NEW GENUS AND SOME NEW SPECIES 

tween are supplied with numerous hair-like lines, the whole 
passing in a curve from the beak to the margin ; cardinal 
tooth large, irregularly cleft and sulcated ; lateral tooth rather 
short and thick, in the right valve disposed to be double ; an- 
terior cicatrices distinct ; posterior cicatrices also distinct, the 
small one being placed against the termination of the lateral 
tooth ; dorsal cicatrices situated on the under side of the car- 
dinal tooth ; cavity of the beaks shallow and rounded ; cavity 
of the disk small ; nacre pearly white and iridescent. 

Remarks. — Mr Rafinesque first observed this singular and 
interesting species. He found a single specimen near Evam- 
ville, Indiana, and described it under the name of U. de- 
presses which name being preoccupied by Lamarck, I have 
considered it incumbent on me to give it a new name. Many 
specimens have come under my inspection, and the shell be- 
ing a very remarkable one, I am induced, in consequence of 
Mr Rafinesque's short description and imperfect figure, to 
give a more full description and a correct figure. It is alto- 
gether peculiar in its rays and its very compressed beaks ; no 
species is so fiat over the umbones, and no other species pre- 
sents, when the posterior slope is held towards the observer, 
a long ellipsis, the widest part of which is about the centre. 
In consequence of the beaks being so very much compressed, 
the junior, when not more than an inch long, is exceed- 
ingly flat, and the cavity proportionally small. When the 
shell increases beyond this it seems to become suddenly thick, 
and its form becomes more rounded towards the margins, 
consequently the adult is very different in form from the 
junior, which might easily be mistaken for another species. 
It is more generally gaping at the anterior margin than the 
other species. It assimilates closely to the planulatus (de- 
scribed in this paper), but differs in the rays, the much 
compressed beaks, and being more hatchet shape. In the 
last character it resembles somewhat the rubiginosus descri- 
bed in this paper. It sometimes occurs twice the size of the 
one represented here. 



ID 





fijP*' 






■ n.H.i ,vm, 









OF THE FAMIl.\ OF NAIADES Id 



10. I'm.) Ibis. Plat.' XI. fig. 18. 

Testi\ anguato-ettiptici, inoquUaterali, srib-ventricoaa; vahulu temri- 
bus; natibtus prominulis ; dente cardinali in oalvuld riniatrd, duplici, in 
dextin aub-bifido, parvo, erecto; dmtibua later alibtulongu tenutbuaqtu ; 
margarita sub-ccervleo-albd. 

Shell narrow-elliptical, inequilateral, slightly ventricoso : valv< - thin, 
beaks slightly prominent 5 cardinal teeth doable in 1 1 » « - left valve, sub- 
bifid in the right, Miiall, erect; lateral teeth long ami thin; nacre bluish 
white. 

Hab. Ohio. T. G. Lea. 

My Cabinet 

Cabinet of T. G. Lea. 

Cabinet of Prof. Vanuxem. 

Diam. -5, Length -8, Breadth 1*6 inches. 

Shell long-elliptical, inequilateral, slightly ventricose; sub- 
stance of the shell thin, showing the rays through it. rather 
more dense before than behind: beaks slightly prominent, 
approaching, crowned with double concentric undulations 
when they are not decorticated: ligament rather long and 
thin: epidermis yellowish green, transversely wrinkled, mark- 
ed with many oblique diverging rays passing from the beaks to 
the margin; cardinal teeth double in botli valves, small, erect, 
and sharp; lateral teeth long, bladed, slightly curved and situ- 
ated on the edge of the margin in contact with the ligament; 
anterior cicatrices distind : posterior cicatrice, confluent and 
scarcely perceptible; dorsal cicatrices within the cavity of the 
beaks, the largest on the under pari of the callus; nacre verj 
thin, milk while anteriorly, bluish white and iridescent pos- 
teriorly. 

Remarks. — This species most resembles the calceoku. It 

differs, however, entirely in the teeth, which are distinct and 
well defined. The calceoku approaches closely to the uvnus 
jfflasmodonta of Say. This j> ], gg ventricose and possesses 
more rays. 

vol. in. — 5 T 



440 NEW GENUS AND SOME NEW SPECIES 



II. Unio Zig-zag. Plate XII. fig. 19. 

Testa ovata, incequilaterali, ventricosd ; valvulis sub-o'assis ; denlibus 
cardinalibus magnis, erectis ; lateralibiis curvatis ; natibus prominulis ; 
radiis ex lineis angulatis compositis ; ligamento brevi crassoque ; marga- 
ritd alba. 

Shell ovate, inequilateral, ventricose ; valves rather thick; cardinal 
teeth large, erect ; lateral teeth curved; beaks rather prominent; rays 
composed of zig-zag lines ; ligament short and thick ; nacre pearly white. 

Hab. Ohio. T. G. Lea. 

My Cabinet. 
Cabinet of T. G. Lea. 
Cabinet of Prof. Vanuxem. 
Cabinet of P. H. Nicklin. 
Cabinet of the Academy of Natural Sciences. 
Cabinet of Peale's Museum. 
Diam. -6, Length -9, Breadth 1*5 inches. 

Shell ovate, inequilateral, ventricose ; substance of the shell 
thick; beaks rather prominent, subcarinate posteriorly, gene- 
rally eroded ; ligament short and thick ; epidermis yellow in 
ground, but traversed by oblique green rays, which give it 
sometimes a dark hue ; these rays pass from the beaks to the 
margin over the whole disk, and are formed by zig-zag lines, 
which in some specimens are joined so closely as to become 
confluent ; on the posterior slope are irregular lines converging 
below the ligament ; cardinal teeth large, deeply divided in 
the left valve; lateral teeth slightly curved; anterior cica- 
trices distinct, as are also the posterior, the smaller of which 
is placed against the side of the lateral tooth at its termina- 
tion ; dorsal cicatrices situated along the base of the cardinal 
tooth within the cavity of the beaks ; cavity of the beaks 
shallow ; nacre pearly white and iridescent. 

Remarks. — This beautiful little shell is about the size of 
Barnes's parvus. It is however entirely distinct from it. It 
is much heavier, more ovate, and radiated ; has no concentric 
undulations at the beaks like the parvus, which character Mr 



01' THE I'WMIM OF NA1AI)I>. Ill 

Barnes docs not mention, and is yellowish, not brownish. 
This and the danaciformis are all 1 knovt which possess the 
zig-zag markings, and they most resemble each other. 



1 2. I'm.. Pati lis. Plate Xll. fig. jo 



-• 



Testa ovatd, compressd, cuneiformi, inaquilaterali, obliqud, trans- 
versa : umbonibus compressis ; valvulis sub-crassis; natibus svb-termi- 
nalibus ; dents cardinaliparvo ; latt rati longoct svb-curvato ; margaritd 

albii. 

Shell ovate, compressed, wedge-shaped, inequilateral, oblique, trans- 
verse, compressed on the umbones; valves rather thick; beaks nearly 
terminal ; cardinal tooth small ; lateral tooth long and slightly curved : 
nacre pearly white. 

Hab. Ohio. T. G. Lea. 

My Cabinet. 

Cabinet of T. (i. Lea. 

Cabinet of Prof. Vanuxem. 

Diam. -s. Length 1-1. Breadth 2- '• inches. 

Shell compressed, wedge-shaped, ovate, broad and flat; sub- 
stance of the shell thick anteriorly and thin posteriorly, show- 
ing the rays through it: beaks nearly terminal, slightly pro- 
minent, approaching, and when perfect possessing slight 
concentric undulations, generally decorticated ; ligament not 
large, passirig from the point of the beaks; epidermis yellow- 
ish brown, transversely wrinkled, marked with more or less 
broad interrupted rays, apparently formed of fasciculi of hair- 
like liiK •>: cardinal tooth short, and but slightly elevated, in 
the left valve double and deeply cleft, in the right valve 
emerging from a |>ii : lateral tooth long and slightly curved; 
posterior cicatrices as well as anterior cicatrices distinct ; the 
smaller posterior cicatrix situated against the lateral t * »* »t 1 1 at 
its termination; dorsal cicatrices on the under part of the car- 
dinal tooth; cavity of the beaks qoI deep I ml rounded; oacrt 
thick and milk whin anteriorly, thin and iridesci at poste- 
riorly. 



442 NEW GENUS AND SOME NEW SPECIES 

Remarks. — This species approaches closely to the scalenia 
of Rafinesque ; its rays are of the same description, and the 
general form is the same. It is, however, more flattened, has 
much less elevated beaks, and its diameter is always much less. 
Its beaks are generally but little decorticated, and not recurv- 
ed ; the scalenia is generally much recurved and decorticated. 



GENUS SYMPHYNOTA. 

Testa fluviatili, bivalvi ; valvulis supernc connatis. 

Shell fluviatile, bivalve ; valves connate at the dorsal margin. 

Animal same as that of Unio. 

Remarks. — Objections will most likely be made to the in- 
troduction of a new genus into a family acknowledged already 
to be in great confusion, and presenting many and various 
difficulties. The formation of the genus Symphynota, it is 
hoped, will rather be conducive to a diminution of that diffi- 
culty, by a division which all must acknowledge to be as na- 
tural as any of those of the family. The distinctive charac- 
teristic of this genus is the testaceous connection of the two 
valves of the shell above the hinge. I therefore remove from 
the existing genera all the connate shells without regard to 
the forms of their teeth, believing, that should this family be 
hereafter remodelled, it will present only two natural genera ; 
one having a testaceous connection of the valves, the other 
dispossessed of it. The difficulties attending the adopted ge- 
nera of the Naiades, viz. Unio of Bruguiere, Hyria, JLna- 
donta, Iridina, Castalia* of Lamarck, Dipsas of Leach, and 

* This genus was placed by Lamarck in the family Trigoneea, certainly with 
no propriety. It has been placed by Sowerby and Latreille among the Nwadcs, 



OF THE FAM1M ui N \l \!>! - ||, 

AUumod&nta of Say. have been mentioned by two eminenl 
English eonchologists, W. Swainson and (i. B. Sowerby, a- 
well as in America by P. II. Nicklin. Mr Sowerby (Zool. 
Journ. Vol. I. p. 55.) lias reunited them under the name oi 
Efato, of which he makes two greal divisions: L. ^W it li< »n t 
teeth. 1. With teeth; and these are each subdivided into 
"winged" and -not winged:" which are again divided into 
the various forms of teeth, or the -hinge line." The evident 
objection to this arrangement is the difficult] of deciding 
upon the passage from the "no! winged" to the "winged." 
Thus we do no1 find the Jbnodtmta trapezialis and .inodon/n 
glauca, which Lamarck describes as " compresso-alatd" men- 
tioned among the -winged." while we have ■• . bwdon alahu 
of Swainson and Lamarck." which is not described in the 
"Hist. Nat. des Animaux sans Yertebrcs*." 

It is evident that the apparatus for depositing the calca- 
reous and epidermal matter on the elevated and connected 
wing musl be different from that of the inhabitant of free 
valves, to which it has been denied by nature. 

Lamarck and Barnes both mention in their description oi 
the U. aktfou of Say. that M. Le Sueur thoughl this shell 
should constitute a new genus. Since that time so man} 
connate shells bavecome to my notice, that I feel satisfied the 
science of conchology will be subserved by the institution oi 
this natural genus, which will embrace, in all probability, 
several others, viz. Hyria of Lamarck, /Jipstts of Leach, and 
Cristaria, Prisddon, ami Paxyodon of Schumacher, all of 
which, when they shall he found perfect, will most probabl] 
turn out to be connate shells. Lamarck suspected Ins Hyria 
to be connate, like the U. alahu; for when describing that spe,- 

-. he says, •• \os Hyriea auraient-elles one pareille reunion 

moat be considered ecieaof Unio, and not a genua. Theob- 

ii' M. De BlainviUe has placed CattaMa and Hyria among the Uidonct, and 

Tridina and Dipsat among the Anadonta. Ca Udia ambigua u undoubtedly a 

moat cloiely to the V. triangularig. The -«-«-c !• 
"iili'- Unio, and il differs only in iti longitudinal furrows from I i 
ral char m - I oio. 

icribea Ms An. gibbo ta i- beii 
vol. nr. — ; ' 



444 NEW GENUS AND SOME NEW SPECIES 

a la carene de leur corselet ?" Indeed the fact can scarcely be 
doubted. 

SPECIES. 

1. Svmpiiynota Ljevissima. Plate XIII. fig. 23. 

Testa ovato-triangulari, incequilaterali, transversim rugosd, sub-ven- 
tricosa; valvulis tenuissimis, superne bi-alatis, ante et post nates conna- 
tisque ; dcntibus cardinalibus et lateralibus lineam curvatam facienti- 
bus ; natibus prominulis ; ligamento celato ; margaritd purpurea et 
iridescente. 

Shell triangular-ovate, inequilateral, transversely wrinkled, sub-ven- 
tricose; valves very thin, elevated into two wings, connate anteriorly and 
posteriorly to the beaks ; cardinal and lateral teeth form a curve line ; 
beaks scarcely prominent ; ligament concealed ; nacre purple and irides- 
cent. 

Hab. Ohio. T. G. Lea. 

My Cabinet. 

Cabinet of T. G. Lea. 

Cabinet of Prof. Vanuxem. 

Cabinet of P. H. Nicklin. 

Diam. 1*4 inch. Length from beaks to base, 2-4 inches. 

Breadth 4-5 inches. 

Length from the top of the wing to base, 3-1 inches. 

Shell sub-triangular-ovate, inequilateral, sub-ventricosc, 
transversely and very finely wrinkled, shining: substance of 
the shell thin, but compact ; valves elevated into two wings, 
neither of them very high, the posterior one larger than the 
anterior, both connate ; beaks scarcely prominent, termina- 
tion pointed, and when not decorticated exhibit two or three 
very minute elevations, almost requiring a microscope to dis- 
cover them ; the purple nacre shows through the epidermis 
here, and gives the tips that colour ; ligament concealed in the 
wing ; sinus subquadrate ; epidermis thin and purple brown ; 
young specimens sometimes possess obscure brown rajs ; car- 
dinal tooth lamelliform, single in the lift valve and disposed to 



PL \iv \,,i ; 




PL MIL vol 3, 








Symphynota Icevissima 



of Tiir. i \mii.\ 01 \ \i \in>. I 1 i 

be double in the right; lateral tooth lameiliform and double 
in the lefl valve only, the 1 \v<» teeth form one continuous 
curve line, somewhat abrupt at both terminations, more bo 
at the anterior one: anterior cicatrices distinct; posterior cica- 
trices confluent; dorsal cicatrices very perceptible. Cavity 
of the beaks wide and very shallow; nacre purple and irides- 
cent. 

Remarks. — This beautiful shell most resembles the Sym- 
phynota alata in its general form, l>nt its posterior wing is less 
elevated. The colour of it> oacre i^ the same. It differs 
entirely, however, in the cardinal tooth, and in possessing the 
anterior connate whig. A metallic sound is produced hy 
dropping one valve into the other, which is very remarka- 
ble, and is caused by the density of the calcareous matter of 
the nacre, which is very thin. The epidermis i- exceedingly 
smooth and glossy. 



2. Symphynota Bi-alata. Plate XIV. fig. 24. 

Tesli'i ovato-triangttlari, in<equUaterali, transversim rugosd, aub-ven- 
tricosA; margme doraali buaUttd ; valwdis tenuUms, ante et i»<si nates 
connotis : natibtts et ala poaterioris basi apiceque undvlatia; natibiu 
luiurf promiru ntibus ; <Unh lametttformi unico in valvuld utrdqvt ; I 
mento eclat o ; margaritd tenuiet iridescente. 

Shell triangular-ovate, inequilateral, transversely wrinkled, sub-v< n- 
i ricr>.<f • : dorsal margin raised into two wings; valves thin, connate I" fore 
.-Hid behind the beaks : beaks and the base anil Bummil of the posterior 

wing undulated ; beaks not prominent ; i ne li illiform carved tooth in 

each valve ; ligament concealed; nacre thin, pearly, and iridi set at 

Hah fresh waters of the south of \ Brought 

from Canton by Captain Ban*. 

Mv Cabinet. 

Cabinel of Mi' Pierpoint 

Cabinet of Mr Hyde. 

Cabinel of Mi Phillips. 



446 NEW GENUS AND SOME NEW SPECIES 

Diam. 1 inch. Length from the beaks to the base, 2 inches. 

Breadth 3-6 inches. 

Length from the top of wing to base, 3*4 inches. 

Shell triangular-ovate, inequilateral, subventricose, trans- 
versely and finely wrinkled, shining ; substance of the shell 
thin, showing the rays through it ; valves elevated into a broad 
high wing posterior, and a small one, anterior to the beaks, 
and connate in both ; beautifully undulated at the base and 
top of the posterior wing ; undulations of the base commenc- 
ing at the point of the beaks, pass on the outside of the tooth 
to the margin in a slightly curved line, each successive wave 
increasing in size and cutting the wrinkles of the epidermis 
obliquely ; those of the top of the wing, when it is perfect, are 
about the same in number, but less elevated, and closer toge- 
ther ; they cut the wrinkles at about the same angle ; beaks 
not prominent, crowned with about six elliptical concentric 
undulations; ligament concealed in the wing; sinus formed 
by the end of the ligament, sub-quadrate ; epidermis yellow 
and purple brown, with green oblique rays, finely wrinkled, 
smooth and shining ; the wrinkles of the anterior wing, as they 
ascend the wing, are curved anteriorly and continuous over 
both wiugs ; each valve furnished with a long, curved, lamel- 
liform tooth, very small anteriorly to the beaks, larger and 
longer posteriorly, pointed at both ends ; anterior cicatrices 
distinct ; posterior cicatrices confluent ; dorsal cicatrices situa- 
ted in the cavity of the beaks, very perceptible ; cavity of the 
beaks wide and very shallow ; nacre thin, pearly, and irides- 
cent, with tints of salmon, white and purple ; the undulations 
very perceptible from the centre of the beaks along the base 
of the tooth to the posterior dorsal margin. 

Remarks. — All the specimens which I have seen of this 
remarkable species were brought from Canton. The first 
was received by Mr Hyde about two years since, and then 
excited much interest with our conchologists. Several speci- 
mens more perfect were brought last summer in the " Cale- 
donia ;" and from these specimens the description has been 



OF l in. r \mii.\ OF NA1 \i»i>. 1 I? 

made. That of Mr Hyde is a large, old, and valuable speci- 
men, but has lost sonic of its important characters. Both 
wings are destroyed, the beaks much eroded, and the epider- 
mis black and much wrinkled, and the rays obsolete. The 
remarkable waves al the base of the posterior wing are almost 
obsolete, and the beauty of the nacre aearly destroyed by be- 
ing thick and opake; cicatrices very perceptible. In' this 
specimen, and 1 believe it will occur in all adult individual-, 
the only remains of the tamelliform tooth arc in the termina- 
tion of it under the ligament, about an inch Ion-': the rest 
of it is lust in the callus of the dorsal margin. It- dimen- 
sions arc 
Diam. 2-1, Length 5-5, Breadth 7-1 inches. 

In genera] form and character this species exteriorly resem- 
bles most tin' Symphynota alata ; interiorly, except in colour, 
tin' Symphynota kevissima, herein described ; the shape of the 
lamelliform tooth of which assimilates to it. with the excep- 
tion of its being double. The teeth in both these species de- 
scribe nearly the same arc and take the same position. Both 
species are alated anteriorly and posteriorly to the beaks. 
The heoimma differs in having no undulations, and possessing 
obsolete rays, double teeth, and purple nacre. 

The Dip.sas plicahu of Leach bears a strong resemblance 
to this shell. It differs, however, in the wings of the D.pH- 
cahu not being elevated, almost forming a line with the 
beaks, in the latter not being connate, and in uol being crown- 
ed with undulations at the beaks. Hi- description, however, 
is so short and defective, and the drawing evidently bo badly 
executed, that I cannot determine in what other points it 
may differ. 

Schumacher's CrUtaria tuberculata bears a strong affinity 
to fhis species also, as \m li in bis description as his plate. Hi 
describes and figures it. however, as being alated posteriorly, 
and not anteriorly, and do.s qo< mention its being connate. 
The fact of its possessing a divided lateral tooth, "callus pa- 
rallelus bifidus," proves thai it is not our Bp ci< 9. 

> OL. III. — ) \ 



448 NEW GENUS AND SOME NEW SPECIES 



3. SyMPHYNOTA AlATA. 

Testa ovato-triangulari, transversim rugosA, sub-compressa ; valvulis 
crassiusculis, earum marginibus dorsalibus alatis, ct super ligamento 
connatis ; dente cardinali in valvulis ambabus duplici, laterali in sinis- 
trA tantum duplici, subcurvato; ligamento sub alA celato ; natibus pro- 
minulis ; margarita purpurea. 

Shell triangular-ovate, transversely wrinkled, rather compressed ; 
valves moderately thick, elevated into a high wing, and connate over the 
ligament ; beaks scarcely prominent ; cardinal tooth double in both 
valves; lateral tooth double in the left valve only, and slightly curved; 
ligament concealed ; nacre purple. 

Hab. our western waters. 

Unio alatus. Say. Nicholson's Encyclopaedia (Am. Ed.) 
Art. Am. Conch, pi. 4, fig. 2.* 

Unio alata. Lamarck. 

Unio alatus. Barnes. Silliman's Am. Journ. Vol. VI. 

Unio alata. Swainson. 
Diam. 2, Length 4-7, Breadth, 6*9 inches.f 

Remarks. — In young specimens it appears disposed to be 
connate anteriorly to the beaks also. The dorsal cicatrices 
form quite a row across the cavity. 



4. Symphynota Compeanata. 

TestA ovato-triangulari, incequilaterali, transversim rugosA, compres- 
sa; valvulis crassis; margine posteriori dor sail alata connataque ; dente 
tmico cardinali in valvulA utrAque ; piano irregulari calloso sub liga- 
mento ; natibus compressis, sub-prominulis ; ligamento celato ; marga- 
ritA alba, iridescenli. 

Shell triangular-ovate, J inequilateral, transversely wrinkled, com- 

* This figure was made from an imperfect specimen, the wing being mutilated, 
t See Barnes's description. 

| Mr Barnes says " ovately quadrangular ;" but the shell is evidently more tri- 
angular, as his figure displays it. See Silliman's Am. Journ. Vol. VI. p. 278. 



OF TIIF. FAMILY OF NAIADES. 449 

pressed; valves thick; posterior dorsal margin winged and connate; a 
large cardinal tootli in each valve ; an irregular callous plane under the 
ligament; beaks compressed and scarcely projecting; ligament conceal- 
ed ; nacre white and iridescent. 

f Fox River. Mr Schoolcraft. 
Hab. < Wisconsan. Captain Douglass. 
£Ohio. W. Cooper. 

My Cabinet 

Cabinet of Mr Barnes. 

Cabinet of Prof. Yanuxem. 

Cabinet of the New York Lyceum. 

Cabinet of Dr Miteliill. 

Cabinet of the Academy of Natural Scienct B. 

JUasmotUmta complanuta. Barnes. 

Diam. *9 — 1-4 inches. Length from beaks to base, 3 inches. 

Breadth 5 inches. 

Length from the top of the wing, 4-3 — 4-5 inches.* 

Shell triangular-ovate, inequilateral, transversely wrinkled, 
compressed, the largest diameter being nearly 2<9ds of the dis- 
tance from the beaks to the base : substance of the shell thick ; 
valves elevated into a moderately sized wing over the ligament, 
and connate; this wing is traversed al right angles to the 
wrinkles, by obscure undulations reaching to the beaks; beaks 
much compressed and scarcely projecting, crowned bj seve- 
ral double concentric undulations, which terminate in a point : 
ligament concealed in the wing: sinus subquadrate ; epider- 
mis dark brown and irregularly wrinkled: cardinal tooth 
thick, elevated, sulcated, and diverging from the 1" aks : a \\ ide, 
irregular callous plane extends under the ligament ; cicatrix s 
in tb«' anterior margin three, and irregular; in the posterior 
margin two, confluenl and scarcely perceptible; dorsal cica- 
trices very perceptible; cavity of the beaks and disk small; 
nacre while and iridescent 

Remarka. — This shell, first described by Barnes, is a rare 

9 description; my specitw in is ml h> i more '■' nb 



450 NEW GENUS AND SOME NEW SPECIES 

and beautiful species. It is peculiar in its very much com- 
pressed beaks, and in its greatest diameter being but a short 
distance above the basal margin. 



5. Symphynota Compressa. Plate XII. fig. 22. 

Testa transversim elongatd, inaquilaterali, valde compressa, ellipticd ; 
valvulis tenuibus ; natibus sub-prominulis, undulalis ; dente cardinal* 
prominente ; laterali parvo. 

Shell transversely elongated, inequilateral, compressed, elliptical ; 
valves thin ; beaks scarcely prominent, undulated ; cardinal tooth promi- 
nent ; lateral tooth small. 



Hab. 



Ohio. T. G. Lea. 

Norman's Kill, near Albany. Dr Eights. 
My Cabinet. 
Cabinet of Prof. Vanuxem. 
„ Cabinet of Dr Eights. 
Cabinet of P. H. Nicklin. 
Cabinet of the Academy of Natural Sciences. 
Cabinet of the New York Lyceum. 
Diam. -8, Length 1-7, Breadth 2-8 inches. 

Shell transverse, much compressed, elliptical ; substance of 
the shell rather thin ; beaks slightly elevated, not decortica- 
ted, beautifully crowned with small double concentric undu- 
lations, points of the beaks almost white ; ligament concealed 
within the valves ; dorsal margin rather elevated posteriorly 
to the beaks ; posterior margin sub-angular ; posterior basal 
and basal margins curved ; anterior and anterior dorsal and 
basal margins rounded ; epidermis olive-green, slightly wrin- 
kled and glabrous ; radiations over the whole disk ; cardinal 
tooth prominent and curved, in the left valve with three pro- 
tuberances, the posterior the highest, sloping to the end of the 
lateral tooth, the anterior the lowest ; in the right valve one 
rather large, which closes between the first and second of the 
left; lateral tooth short and nearly straight, passing from 



OF THE FAMTL1 (U \ \l \HI>. | M 

the very point of the beaks, in the right valve lamellar Dear 
the termination, and abrupt; in the left acicular, the channel 
being only large enough to admil of the edge of a penknife; 
in the right valve the cardinal and lateral teeth are entirelj 
separated by a cavity formed by the tooth o* the other valve, 
this cavity U at the very point of the beak, and therefore the 
valve ha^ little or no cavity: in the left valve the large recurv- 
ed tooth forms a beautiful angular cavity: anterior cicatrici - 
distinct: posterior cicatrices confluent : dorsal cicatrices situ- 
ated at the point of the cavity of the beaks : cavity of the shell 
very shallow; nacre delicate salmon colour towards the beaks, 
bluish towards the margin. 

Remarks. — This is a singular and beautiful shell. Its 
cardinal and lateral teeth are very remarkable. The first 
b< ing high in the left valve over the cavity of the beak, while 
in the righl it is there depressed: the latter is short and 1am- 
elliform at termination. The beaks are equally remarkable, 
being finely undulated; the epidermis is so thin and delicate 
as to give them almost a white appearance. The rays are 
broader and more full than in any shell I have seen; they 
diverge in all directions from the point of the beaks to the 
margin. 

The specimen belonging to the cabinet of the New York 
Lyceum, was kindly sent for my inspection by W. Cooper, 
a membes of that valuable institution. Ii was i_i\<n by l)r 

bts to Mr Barnes, and by the latter labelled ••/'. alasmo' 
dontina." .My description was written some years since, but 
remained unpublished until I should have an opportunity of 
examining oth< r specimens. 



\ OL. III. — '» N 



452 NEW GENUS AND SOME NEW SPECIES 



6. Symphynota Gracilis. 



Testa sub-triangulari-ovata, incequilaterali, Iransversim rugosd, sub- 
compressd; vctlvulis tenuibus fragilibusque ; mar gine posteriori dorsali 
sub-alata, c'onnataque; dente cardinali invalvula dextra elevato, recur v o ; 
natibus sub-prominulis ; ligamento celato ; margarita violaceo-purpurea 
et iridescente. 

Shell sub-triangular-ovate, inequilateral, transversely wrinkled, rather 
compressed; valves thin and fragile; posterior dorsal margin connate, 
wing but little elevated ; cardinal tooth of right valve elevated, recurved ; 
beaks scarcely prominent; ligament concealed; nacre pearly, violet- 
purple, and iridescent. 

Hab C Ohio. T. G. Lea. 

I Wisconsan. Mr Schoolcraft. 
. My Cabinet. 
Cabinet of Mr Barnes. 
Cabinet of Prof. Vanuxem. 
Cabinet of P. H. Nicklin. 
Cabinet of Mr Swainson. 
Cabinet of the New York Lyceum. 
Cabinet of the Academy of Natural Sciences. 
Unio gracilis. Barnes. Silliman's Amer. Journ. Vol. VI. 
p. 174. 

Unio fret gilis. Swainson*. 
Unio planus. Barnes. 
Diam. 1 — 1-2, Length 2-2 — 2*5 inches. 

Breadth 3-1 — 4-1 inchesf. 

Shell sub-triangular-ovate, inequilateral, transversely wrink- 
led, rather compressed ; substance of the shell thin ; valves ele- 
vated into a small wing over the ligament and connate ; beaks 
slightly prominent, pointed, having two or three minute ele- 
vations ; ligament concealed in the wing ; epidermis yellow- 

* I have retained the specific name of Mr Barnes in preference to that of Mr 
Swainson in the right of priority. Mr B. published in January 1C23. Mr S.'s 
dedication of 3d vol. of his Zool. Illus., in which the fragilis is described, is dated 
Oct. 1823. 

t Sec Barnes's description. 



OF TUT. FAMILY <>r NAIADES. I '> ; 

green, finely wrinkled, obscurely radiated and glabrous; marks 
of growth very perceptible; cardinal tooth of righi valve 
crest-like, recurved, and clasping the side of the opposite one; 
lateral teeth lamelliform and curved; anterior cicatrices dis- 
tinct; posterior cicatrices confluent; dorsal cicatrices form a 
line across the cavity of the beaks, and are very perceptible; 
cavity of the beaks very wide and shallow; nacre pearly, 
bluish-white, violet-purple and iridescent. 

Remarks. — Mr Barnes noticed this as a connate shell. His 
description of the cardinal tooth does not agree with my spe- 
cimen--, except in the younger ones, in which this t mth is 
more lamellar. The recurved tooth hooking or clasping the 
other, when the valves are closed, is very remarkable. 

In some specimens the lateral and cardinal teeth form an 
uninterrupted curve line, when the cardinal tooth i< quite 
lamelliform; in others the latter is small and lobed, age pro- 
ducing much effect on it in this respect. 



7. SVMFHYNOTA TENUISSIMA. Plate XT. fig. 21. 

Test" anguato-ellipticct, ineequilati rali, transverrim rugos 
jlviilis tenuissimis fragiUimisqm ; margins dorsali connatd .• d 
cardinali prominentia exigu i, laterali unico <l aciculari in valvu, 
que; natibus depressis; ligamento celato; margarita caaruleo 
purpurea, vridescente. 

Shell narrow-elliptical, inequilateral, transversely wrinkled, 
pressed; valves very tbin and very fragile ; dorsal margin connal 
dinal tooth a small lobe ; lateral tooth acicular and Bingle in both 
beaks di at concealed; nacre bluish-white and pur] 

iridescent. 

Hah. Ohio. T. <;. Lea. 

My Cabinet. 



Cabinel of T. <i. I 
Cabinel of Prof. \ anuxem. 
Cabin( t of P. II. Nicklin. 



454 NEW GENL'S AND SOME NEW SPECIES 

Diam. -6, Length 2-2, Breadth 2-5 inches. 

Shell narrow-elliptical, inequilateral, transversely wrinkled, 
much compressed ; substance of the shell very thin ; valves con- 
nate over the ligament, and not elevated into a wing ; beaks 
scarcely prominent, pointed, nearly terminal ; epidermis wrin- 
kled, yellow, with very oblique green rays, which, when ap- 
parent, give a greenish hue to the shell ; rays more numerous 
and perceptible along the umbonial slope ; marks of growth 
very perceptible ; greatest diameter along the umbonial slope : 
cardinal tooth of right valve a small lobe closing into a de- 
pression of the margin of the left valve ; lateral teeth acicu- 
lar, single in both valves, and nearly or quite direct ; anterior 
cicatrices distinct ; posterior cicatrices confluent ; dorsal cica- 
trices form a line across the cavity of the beaks, and are very 
perceptible ; cavity of the beaks scarcely apparent ; nacre 
bluish-white, purple about the region of the teeth and the 
cavity of the beaks. 

Remarks. — This interesting species is the most fragile and 
thin of all the family of the Naiades which I have seen. The 
epidermis seems in some specimens to prevail over the sub- 
stance of the shell, which is so extremely brittle as almost to 
be destroyed in our cabinets by its contraction from the effect 
of the atmosphere. The beaks are so nearly terminal that it 
somewhat resembles the modiola in this respect. It is the near- 
est approach to the Jlnodonta, having but the rudiments of 
teeth ; and I am much disposed to believe that the " Jlnodon 
purpurascens" of Swainson is analogous to this shell. He had 
seen but one perfect specimen sent him by Mr Rafmesque from 
the "back settlements." I have seen many specimens of the 
tenuissima, all of which have the rudiments of the cardinal and 
lateral teeth. This shell exhibits to us the necessity of resort- 
ing to a more natural definite division of Naiades than that of 
the teeth. The tenuissima resembles most the gracilis. They 
differ, however, in the latter being much larger, more ovate, 
heavier, more ventricose, and not radiate. The teeth of the 
gracilis are well defined, which is not the case with this. 



OF THE FAMILY OF NAIADES. 1 . 



8. Sv.MPIIVNOTA OciIRACEA. 

Test ti sub-ovatd, iiwquilatcrali, transversim rugosii, in/lot <i : raluulis 
post ligamentum connatis, tenuibus, fragilibus, et sine aid ; dentibtu 
cardinalibus et lateralibvs curvam lineam facientibtu; natibus promi- 
nentibus ; ligamento conspicuo ; margaritii citrulco-albu et ockraa 

Shell sub-ovate, inequilateral, transversely wrinkled, inflated ; valves 
thin and fragile, connate behind the ligament, not winged; cardinal and 
lateral tcetli forming a curve line; beaks prominent; ligament visible: 
nacre bluish-white and ochraccous. 

Hab. Schuylkill and Delaware. 

My Cabinet 

Cabinel of Mr Say. 

Cabinet of Prof. Vannxem. 

Cabinet of Mr Hyde. 

Cabinet of the Academy of Natural Sciences. 

Cabinet of Dr Grillith. 

Cabinet of P. H. Nicklin. 

Peak's Museum. 

Unio ochraceus. Say. Nicholson's rhicyclopa-dia, Art. 

Am. Conehol. pi. 2. fig. 8. 

Diam. 1*3, Length 1-9, Breadth 2-9 inches. 

Shell sub-ovate, inequilateral, transversely wrinkled, infla- 
ted : dorsal margin rectilinear; valves thin and fragile, con- 
nate behind the ligament, not winged; beaks lull and pro- 
minent, with several concentric undulations; ligament not 
concealed; epidermis glossy, varying from yellow ochre to 
brown ochre, marked with oblique rays, most abundant 
behind; cardinal and lateral teeth lainrllil'nnii. forming 8 
curve line, in the right valve the cardinal tooth i> double, 
in the lifl single; anterior cicatrices distinct; posterior cica- 
trices confluent : dorsal cicatrice-- farm m row across the ca« 
vity of the beaks, verj perceptible; cavity of the beaks large; 
nacre bluish-white and ochraceous; along the anterior basal 
margin thicker and tinged with red: posterior margin iri- 
descent 

VOL. III. — 5 z 



456 NEW GENUS AND SOME NEW SPECIES 

Remarks. — This is a beautiful shell. It is remarkable in 
being connate behind the ligament; this connection, how- 
ever, is very small, and only perceptible in perfect specimens ; 
in the old ones it is separated. Fine specimens have been in 
our cabinets for years without our observing they were con- 
nate. The cardinal tooth being double in the right valve 
seems to have escaped the attention of the observant Mr Say. 



9. Symphynota Cygnea. 

Testa ovatd, antice lata et rotundatd. irregulariter transversim ru- 
gosd ; natibus retusis ; valvulis tenuibus et post ligamentum connatis. 

Shell ovate, wide before and round, with irregular transverse wrin- 
kles ; beaks not prominent ; valves thin and connate behind the liga- 
ment. 

Hab. rivers and lakes of Europe. 

My Cabinet. 
Mytilus cygneus. Lin. Gmel. p. 3555. 
Anoilonta cygnea. Lam. 

Remarks. — It is a matter of surprize to me that this shell, 
so long known and so often described by European concho- 
logists, should not have been before observed to be connate. It 
has not to my knowledge been thus described. Among about 
a dozen specimens received from various parts of Europe, I 
have two which are decidedly and undoubtedly connate. One 
w r as sent to me by Count de Yoldi of Copenhagen, the other 
by W. Swainson, Esq. of London. These are the only spe- 
cimens I have seen with the dorsal margin unfractured, and 
it may be that even in their native beds they rarely exist in 
a perfect state with regard to this part. Young specimens 
would be more likely to be found perfect, if taken from pools 
or lakes where they remain undisturbed by the attrition of 
sand, &c. carried over them by the action of the water. 



OF THE FAMIL1 OF NAIADES. r>7 



In closing this paper, I take the opportunity of returning 
my thanks to those friends -who have kindly loaned me their 
specimens for examination and comparison, and by whose ad- 
vice I have frequently profited. To P. H. Nicklin, Esq. I 
feel under peculiar obligations for frequent consultations and 
assistance: and to W. Cooper, Esq. I am greatly indebted for 
the opportunity, through his means, of having in my posses- 
sion for some weeks the identical specimens appertaining to 
various valuable cabinets in New York, from which Mi 
Barnes made his descriptions. 



No. XIV. 

Remarks on the use of the Maxillse in Coleopterous Insects, 
ivith an Account of two Species of the Family Telepho- 
ritlse, and of three of the Family Mordellidse, tvhich ought 
to be the Type of two distinct Genera. By N. M. Hentz. 

r I^HE maxillae in most coleopterous insects may not have 
-*- as much influence in the masticating of the food as has 
been supposed. Latreille long ago has shown that Fabri- 
cius's characters of his Eleutherata and Synistata were erro- 
neous, since in all the grinding insects the maxillae are attached 
to or connected with the tongue. After mature considera- 
tion, I have even come to the conclusion that the maxillae, in 
many cases, must be considered only as appendages to the 
tongue, and that their use, then, is similar to that of this last 
organ ; that is, to assist in the deglutition of food, while they 
seldom serve to grind or lacerate, excepting in the Melolon- 
thidae, Rutelidse, and a few more, where there seems to be a 
departure from their primary use. De Geer, quoted by Kir- 
by and Spence, long ago observed in Leptura quadrifasciata 
that the maxillae were terminated by soft appendages, fringed 
with hair. There the chief use of the maxillae could not be 
mistaken ; they are evidently employed to penetrate into the 
corolla of flowers, somewhat in the same manner as the antlia 
of Lepidopterous insects. We are already acquainted with 
the genus Nemognatha, established by Illiger, where the 
maxillae can hardly have any power in masticating or lacera- 



ON THE MAXILUEIN COLEOPTEROUS INSECTS. 459 

ting the food. I have been fortunate enough to dkeove*r a 
considerable number of insects, in which the configuration of 
that part of the mouth is such as to corroborate tin idea ex- 
pressed in the sentence heading these remarks' 

The first to lie mentioned seems to 1m the Cantharis mar- 
ginata of Fabricius, though the marking of Hie elytra differs 
in most varieties from the descriptions of that species. In 
this insect, the maxilla', if examined after desiccation, off r 
onlv one lobe, which is Cleft or bifid. See Fwr. 1. I>. But 
before it is dried, if the abdomen be pressep gradually, and 
then the thorax, there issues from the eh ft of the loMe of 
the maxilla a soft, elastic, subconiq body: pt more than half 
it- whole length, and extending beyond the palpi. Ano- 
ther body of the same nature issues marly at a riijht an- 
gle from the Base of the first, which is directed forward. 
This projection is about half the length of the first, and 
would seem to issue from, or possibly to constitute the 
lower lobe. Both arc covered with short hairs. See Fig. 
I. e. These bodies, which the insect can protrude at 
will, can extend into the corolla- of umbelliferous and other 
small flowers, and are used to collect nourishment The 
next insect is the Cantharis bimaculata, F. The anomalous 
characteristics of the preceding exist in this in a more con- 
spicuous degree. When the abdomen and thorax, still in a 
recent state, are pressed, ther< issues from each maxilla a suit 
tapering body covered with fine hairs. It is capable of great 
extension, as it may reach farther than the middle of the an- 
tenna', being then more than twice as long as (he maxilla 

itself. SeeFig. II. b. c These two insects ar< evidently 
congeneric and even hear greal affinit] to each other. A su- 
perficial observer might lake one for the other. They would 
rather belong to Mattkinm than to Telephony on account of 
the brevity of thejelytra in relation to &»e abdomen, but I 
have been induced bj aevend reasons to propose that the* 

should constitute a new genus, which I will thus define: — 



VOL. III. G A 



460 ON THE USE OF THE MAXILLJE 

FAMILY LAMPYRIDES. 

Genus Chauliognathus. 

Cantharis, Linn. Telephorus, Oliv. Malthinus, Lat. 

Antennae nearly as 1 >ng as the elytra; mandibles arcuated, 
entire, apex acute ; maxillae with the upper lobe, at least, ex- 
tensible during life ; palpi with their last joint larger, subsecu- 
riform ; body soft ; elytra shorter than the abdomen ; head ge- 
nerally attenuated behind. 

I. Chauliognathus marginatus. 

Testaceous ; antennae and a bifurcated band on the vertex 
black ; a longitudinal band on the thorax, and an abbreviated 
one near the apex of the elytra black . 

Length (in a dried state) from 2-5ths to nearly half an inch. 

Inhabits North Carolina from May till the end of July. 

Description. — Head testaceous ; a line on the vertex which 
bifurcates towards the eyes black ; mandibles piceous at tip ; 
palpi piceous ; antennae black, first three joints rufous under- 
neath ; thorax testaceous, sub quadrate, not transverse, mar- 
gined with a longitudinal band black ; elytra testaceous, nar- 
rowed at tip, with an abbreviated band near the apex black; 
a slightly elevated line near the suture diverging beyond the 
middle towards the humerus, where it is obsolete ; beneath 
testaceous; postpectus darker; venter testaceous, segments 
black at base ; thighs pale ferruginous, black at tip ; tibiae 
piceous, slightly ferruginous at base ; tarsi piceous. 

Var. a. Elytral band nearly reaching the base, where it 
bifurcates, inner bifurcation longest; band of the thorax in- 
terrupted in two places. 

Var./?. Elytra black; suture, margin and humerus tes- 
taceous. This is possibly the Cantharis marginal a. Fab. 
Eleut. I. p. 298. 

Var. y. Elytra testaceous, immaculate. 



IN COLEOPTEROUS INSECTS. 461 

Observations. This insect very much resembles the fol- 
lowing, but maybe distinguished by its narrow thorax, the 
marking of the head and feet, its size, the time win n it ap- 
pears, and, above all, by the difference in the form of its max- 
illary appendages. Another great peculiarity, not mentioned 
in the description, is the existence of two bags, analogous to 
the caruncles of the prothorax of Malachius. These bags 
issue from the sides of the second segment of the abdo- 
men, within the pulmonaria and under the spiracida dor- 
sal 'in ,- and being capable 01 considerable distention, they seem 
to be composed of one lobe only. During life the abdo- 
men is much longer than the elytra, but it contracts much 
in drying. Neither this nor the next species live upon prey. 
They are both always found feeding on flowers, live long, 
and many, when about to die. grasp with their mandibles the 
petal of a flower, and may be found dried up in that state. 

II. Chauliognathiis bimaculatus. 

Black : thorax testaceous, with a spot black ; elytra testa- 
ceous, with an elongated spot near the apex black. 

Length (in a dried state) from 9-20ths to ll-20ths of an 
inch. 

Inhabits Pennsylvania and North Carolina, where it ap- 
pears in September and lives throughout October. 

Cantharis bimaculata. Fab. Eleut. I. 298. 

Description. — Head black; antenna; black: palpi black; 
mandibles ferruginous, piceous at tip; labium ferruginous; 
thorax testaceous, margined, subtransverse, slightly broader at 
base with a central spot Mack: elytra testaceous, --lightly nar- 
rower at tip. with a --pot or hand covering about one half of 
each elytron, beginning near the apex black, a suhobsolete 
elevated line near the suture, and diverging towards the hu- 
merus; beneath piceous, edge of segments of the abdomen 
testaceous ; feet blackish ; tibiae of the anterior pair of legs 



462 ON THE USE OF THE MAXILLiE 

piceous, covered with rufous hairs, those of the second and 
third pair with shorter and thinner hairs of the same colour. 

Observations. — This insect is one of the last to appear, and 
that in profusion, about the same time with Lytta atrata, till 
repeated frosts deprive it of food. The black spot on the 
thorax varies much ; it is usually subquadrate, but is some- 
times transverse, and sometimes longitudinal, but most com- 
monly indented at base as represented in Fig. II. I observed 
this insect about ten years ago in the month of August ; it 
was found on the blossom of thistles, where I had an oppor- 
tunity to see it protrude its maxillary appendage as the an- 
tliae of Lepidopterous insects. In this insect, as well as in 
the preceding, the abdomen extends at least three segments 
beyond the elytra, during life. 

The next insects in which I have observed a peculiar for- 
mation of the maxillae, all belong to the family Mordellonse, 
namely llhipiphorus dimidiatus, R. limbatus, and R. tristis. 
The remarkable elongation of the upper lobe of the maxillae, 
which is greater than at least in one species of Ncmognatha, 
and other considerations have induced me to propose the es- 
tablishment of the following genus, taking R. dimidiates for 
its type, and adding to it the two other species just men- 
tioned. 



FAMILY MORDELLONjE. 

Genus Macro siagon. 

llhipiphorus, Bosc. Fab. &c. 

Tarsi with all their joints simple ; palpi subfiliform ; an- 
tennae pectinated ; maxillae with the upper lobe filiform, lon- 
ger than the palpi; scutellum not apparent; abdomen abruptly 
truncated ; elytra dehiscent, longer than the abdomen. See 
Fig. III. a, b, c, d. 



I'l. XV 






i 















i: 



*i 









■ 







■■ 



n : 
















' 



D \\m 



IN COLEOPTEROUS INSECTS. U. I 

Observation*. — It is strange thai a peculiarity belonging to 
three species, all known to Fabricius, should have escaped his 

notice. As the genus Jihipiphonu is now large, I think it 
is well t<> make a division, which is so natural ami easily ob- 
served. All these insects live on flowers, and arc very quick 
in their motions. 



Explanation of tin Plate. 

Fig. I. Chauliognathus marginatus (Gantharia margina- 

ta? F.). 

a. mandible. 

b. maxilla in a dried state 

c. labium and lingua. 

d. labrum. 

e. maxilla in a recent state, with its protruding appendage. 
/. caruncles, or ventral bags. 

Fi<^. II. Chauliognathus bimaculatus (Cantharis bimacula- 
ta. F.). 

a. mandible. 

b. maxilla whin dried. 

e. labium and lingua. 

if. labrum. 

». maxilla in a recent state with its protruding appendagi 

Fi^-. [II. Macrosiagon dimidiatum (Rhipiphorus dimidia- 
tus, P.). 

a. b. c. (I. tropin. ' 

• This paper was read before tbi 3 - ember 19th 

v OL. III. — '> B 



No. XV. 

Description of a New Species of the Genus Jlstacus. By B. 
Harlan, M.D. fyc. Bead April 3d, 1829. 

A. Blandingii. 

Rostrum mucronate, canaliculate, slightly notched at the 
extremity : a spine behind each eye ; arms tuberculated ; fin- 
gers unequal. 

Inhabits the southern states, where it is common in the 
marshes and rivulets. 

Cabinet of the Academy of Natural Sciences. Presented 
by Dr W. Blanding, Camden, S. C. 

Description. — The hands and arms, and sides of the body 
tuberculated ; conspicuously large on the hands : thorax with 
a small spine on the side, behind the transverse arcuated 
band ; first and second joints of the peduncles of the exterior 
antennae furnished with each a single spine : rostrum elonga- 
ted, angular, attenuated anteriorly, and obsoletely notched 
near the extremity, extending nearly to the tip of the third 
joint of the peduncle of the exterior antenna, carinated on 
each side of the base, and terminating in a post-ocular spine : 
anterior feet, third joint very long, with a double longitudi- 
nal series of spines beneath : carpus four-spined ; spines irre- 
gularly distributed about the anterior margin : hands long, 
tuberculated throughout; fingers elongated, slightly curved 



\r.\v sit.( n> of the (;f,\i s kSTACl 8. H. » 

inwards, the innermost the longest, terminating in a small 
spine opposed to the thumb: caudal lamellae ciliated, lateral 
segments with an elevated longitudinal spine ; the penulti- 
mate and antipenultimate legs of the male furnished with an 
obtuse apophysis at the base of the second joint. 

Dimensions. — Length from the tip of the rostrum to the 
tip of the tail, three inches eight-tenths; breadth of the tho- 
rax one inch: length of the anterior feet nearly four inches; 
length of the hand and finger nearly equal. 

The presenl species 3 in size and markings, is most nearly 
allied to the A. affirm of Say: but differs in the form of the 
rostrum, in the proportional length of the arms: in being fur- 
nished in the male with an apophysis on the third joint of 
i tli the penultimate and antepenultimate legs; in the dispo- 
sition of the -pines: and in being tuberculated. The present 
species will bear no comparison with the A. Bartonii, with 
which, nevertheless. Mr Say appears to have confounded it. 
when he assures us that the lasl mentioned species are "ex- 
tremely common in the pine barren marshes of the southern 
states, and particularly in those of Georgia and Florida." 
Vid. Journal of the Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. Vol. I. p. 11 I.) 

All the crawfish, which I have seen from the southern 
sinies. (and I have received specimens from New Orleans and 
South Carolina) are of the same species with that now de- 
seribi d. 



No. XVI. 

Notice of an Anatomical Peculiarity observed in the Struc- 
ture of the Condor of the Andes ; ( Vultur gryphus, Linn.) 
By R. Harlan, M.D. Bead April 3d, 1829. 

DURING the past year, two fine specimens, male and fe- 
male, of the Condor from Peru, died in this city. I 
caused their skins to he prepared, and they now constitute a 
valuable addition to the cabinet of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia. 

On dissection the stomach presented a peculiarity of orga- 
nization, which appears to be characteristic of this species. 

The crop or ingluvies is very large, and was in this instance 
filled with macerated raw meat. The stomach, which was 
nearly empty (with the exception of some thick pieces of 
glass, stone coal, gravel, &c.) is oblong in form; the cardiac 
portion being marked with longitudinal folds : the middle 
portion displays two oval protuberances composed of gastric 
glands, which is again succeeded by a membranous or saccu- 
lar portion, on the interior surface of which are numerous 
and nearly contiguous, longitudinal bands or ridges, of a car- 
tilaginous structure, serrated or spiny on the surface towards 
the stomach, covering the pyloric or lowermost two-thirds of 
the stomach. This cartilaginous production, like the inner 
lining of the gizzard of the fowl, is easily detached. It must 
have considerable effect in facilitating the process of diges- 
tion, by tearing and separating the fibres of the meat with 
which these birds habitually gorge themselves, so as to be dis- 
abled, for a time, for flight. The liver is very large : the 
gall bladder was much distended with bile. 



No. XVII. 

On the Construction of Eclipses of the Sun. By John Hum- 
mer e. Read March 20, 1829. 

WE may, without diminishing the accuracy of the re- 
sults, dispense with the description and division of an 
ellipse, which are necessary in the usual method of project- 
ing eclipses of the sun. and which render it so troublesome. 
This is most conveniently done, hy supposing the sun's cen- 
tre to remain fixed in the centre of the circle of projec- 
tion, and giving to the moon a parallax in right ascension. 
equal in magnitude, but opposite in direction, to the distance 
of the projection of the sun's centre from the universal meri- 
dian, at the time; and a parallax, parallel to the uniYersa] 
meridian, or parallax in declination*, equal in magnitude, 
but opposite in direction, to the distance of the sun's centre 
from a plane passing through the centres of the Bun and earth; 
perpendicular to the universal meridian. The figure to 
which I shall refer, i< the construction of an eclipse of the 
sun. that w ill occur on the l 2th of February 1831. It is 
adapted to the meridian and latitude of Philadelphia. 

The semicircle ACI) represents the northern half of the 
circle of projection. AC is a parallel to the equator; SI' 
is the universal meridian; SL a circle of latitude; |'(J the 

* These quantities arc not, rigorously speaking, the moon's parallax in right as- 
cension and declination, but it is convenient to call them o, 
VOL. III. <) C 



468 ON THE CONSTRUCTION 

moon's relative orbit; the points 23, 0, 1, 2, and 3, on the 
line PQ, are the moon's places at the hours denoted by the 
numbers ; the sun's place being supposed to be at S. All 
these are obtained as in the usual method. 

Make the arcs AF and CH, each equal to the reduced 
latitude of the place, and join FH. With the centre N and 
radius NF, describe the quadrantal arc FU. Make FI 
and FK, each equal to the sun's declination, and join KI 
and FS. Draw ar and Iiv, parallel to FN and SD re- 
spectively. On NH, make NT equal to Sr, and complete 
the rectangle NTXU. On XU, produced if necessary, take 
UV, equal to \w, taking it to the right of SU, when the 
sun's declination is north, but to the left, when the decli- 
nation is south, and join VN. Take the hour angles from 
noon, corresponding to the hours marked on the relative 
orbit ; and on the arc UF, produced if necessary, set off from 
U, arcs equal to these angles, marking their extremities with 
the numbers of the hours' to which the arcs correspond. 
From the extremities of the arcs, draw lines parallel to UX 
or FH, as the lines 1, x; 2, x\; &c. meeting NU in the points 
m, and NV in the points v. Then will the distances 1, w ; 
2, w ; &c. be the moon's parallax in right ascension at the 
23d, 1st, 2d, &c. hours; and the corresponding distances vx, 
will be the parallax in declination. 

From the hour points on the moon's relative orbit, draw 
lines as 23, n; I, n; &c. parallel to FH or AC ; drawing 
them to the left hand, when the time is in the forenoon, but 
to the right hand, when the time is in the afternoon, and 
make them respectively equal to the parallax in right ascen- 
sion at these hours. From the points n, draw the lines 
w, xxiii ; n, O ; &c. parallel to SU, drawing them below the 
point, n, and make them respectively equal to the moon's pa- 
rallax in declination at the corresponding hours. Join xxiii, O ; 
O, 1 ; &c. Then will the broken line thus formed be a near 
representation of the moon's apparent relative orbit ; and the 
points xxiii, O, 1, &c. will be the moon's places in the appa- 
rent orbit at those times. 



OF ECLIPSES OF THE SUN. 469 

With the centre S, and sum of the semidiameters of the 
sun and moon, as a radius, describe arcs, cutting the apparent 
orbit in B and E, which will be the moon's apparent places 
at the times of beginning and end. From S. draw SG per- 
pendicular to a straight line joining B and E; then G will 
lie the moon's place at the time of greatest obscuration. And 
tlu point in which LS, produced if necessary, cats tin- appa- 
rent orbit, is the moon's place at the time of apparent eclip- 
tic conjunction. Take the distance between the hour point 
next preceding the point B, and that next following it: and 
applying it to the scale, obtain its measure. Do the same 
with the distance between B and the hour point next prece- 
ding. Then, as the 1st distance : 2d distance : : 60 min- 
utes : the time past the preceding hour at which the eclipse 
begins. The other times are found in the same manner: and 
the quantity of the eclipse is found in the usual manner. 

Find the moon's parallax in right ascension and declination 
for the time of beginning, and make S; equal to the parallax 
in declination. From z. draw zZ, parallel to FII. drawing 
it to the right hand when the time is in the forenoon, but 
to the left when it is in the afternoon, and make it equal to 
the parallax in right ascension. Join SZ. which will repre- 
sent a vertical circle passing through the sun's centre : and 
the angle BSZ will be the angular distance from the sun's 
vertex, of the point at which the eclipse commences. 

The slighl changes necessary in the construct ion. for places 
near the equator or in the southern hemisphere, are so obvi- 
ous as not to require notice. 

In finding the times of beginning, &c. tin- moon's motion 
in the apparent orbit is assumed to be uniform during the 
hour, which is no! strictly true. The greatest error, how- 
ever, that can arise from the assumption, is only about a mi- 
nute, when the latitude of the place is to . For higher 
latitudes it will be less; and for places nearer the equator it 
will be rather more. The error that may arise from assum- 
ing the part of the apparent orbit, between two consecutive 
hour points, to be a straighl line, will seldom be as great as 



470 ON THE CONSTRUCTION OF ECLIPSES OF THE SUN. 

that which is sometimes produced by omitting to diminish 
the sun's semidiameter ; and this is usually omitted in the 
common method of projection. If the construction is made 
for each half hour, instead of each hour, which may be done 
with but little additional trouble, the error arising from the 
assumptions which have been mentioned will always fall 
within the unavoidable error of construction. 

This method of construction is equally applicable to oc- 
cupations of a star or planet. 



Xo. XVIII. 



Description of a Fragment of I In Head, of a New Fossil 
Jiiiniii/. discovered in <t Marl Fit, near Moorestoum, New 
Jersey. By hum' //ni/s. M.D. 



I 



am indebted for the opportunity of describing this spe- 
cimen to my friend Mr Isaac Lea. whose zeal in the 
cause of science is too well known to require any eulogium 
from me. It was found by Mr Joseph Brick in Inskeep's 
marl pit, on Pcnsauken creek, 5 miles south cast of Moores. 
town. New Jersey ; and was presented by J. J. Spencer. M.D. 
of Moorestown to Mr Lea, in whose valuable cabinel it is 
at present. The marl in which it was found is of that 
description called fine green marl: the stratum is ahout ten 
feet thick, and commences about two feet from the surface. 
In this stratum are found marine shells, (principally tere- 
hratuhe) shark's teeth, &c. 

The only part of this animal yet discovered is the frag- 
ment in the possession of Mr Lea, consisting of a portion 
of the head and lower jaw. Some of the hones are in a 
tolerable state of preservation; others are covered with marl 
which has become too hard to be removed, or are so muti- 
lated that they cannot be satisfactorily made out. 

About three inches and four-tent hs, if the anterior portion of 
the lower jaw are preserved; the two sides are nearly 
parallel; anteriorly they are >li^htly mutilated — appear to 
have been very little rounded, and in contact: inferiorly, 
through the whole extent of die fragment, tiny are in con- 

VOL. Hi. — 6 I) 



472 DESCRIPTION OF A FRAGMENT OF 

tact, and appear to be united by suture ; posteriorly on each 
there is a smooth, shallow cavity, represented in PI. XVI. Fig. 
3, (I. d. Near the posterior extremity there is an appearance 
of suture, which is most distinct on the left side, and which 
in all probability marks the union of the dental with the 
coronoid bone. The angular bones cannot be verv distinct- 
ly made out; there is, however, on the left side near the 
base, and along the whole extent of the specimen, an indi- 
cation of suture, which I have no doubt is the union of the 
angular and dental bones. 

The dental bone contains a single row of distinct alveoli, 
continued in front, for the teeth ; just below the alveolar 
border there is a series of foramina, one foramen to each 
alveolus, for the transmission of the inferior maxillary nerve 
and the blood vessels to the teeth. The teeth of the lower 
jaw (and in the present specimen part of the dental bone, 
owing perhaps to its being crushed) close within the upper. 

Just within the dental bone, on the left side, there pro- 
jects a rectangular portion of bone, Fig. 2, and 4, s. be- 
longing to the upper jaw : its character and analogies are 
not very evident ; it is deficient on the right side. 

The intermaxillary bones are very distinct, and are seen 
in Fig. 1, 2, and 4, b. ; they are united posteriorly by 
squamous suture to the upper maxillary, and a bone which 
appears to be the lachrymal. Anteriorly the intermaxilla- 
ries are rounded, and separated about one-tenth of an inch ; 
the anterior inferior portion of each is mutilated, but the 
alveoli for the teeth are conspicuous, and from their direc- 
tion we are led to infer that the upper front teeth project 
beyond the lower; the posterior inferior portions of this 
bone, each side, contain four or five teeth. 

Between the intermaxillary and upper maxillary bones 
on each side, and covered principally by the former, is a 
bone, Figs. 1, and 2, g, (the lachrymal probably,) in the an- 
terior portion of which is a deep groove, Fig. 2, f, passing 
forwards and downwards, and becoming smaller as it de- 
scends; on the upper portion of each of these bones there 



THE HEAD OF A NEW FOSSIL ANIMAL. 473 

is a small, smooth, superficial groove, Pig. <2. //. and on its 
inner side, a small, smooth, slightly convex, apparently ar- 
ticulating surface. Fig. 2, t. 

The general figure of the upper maxillary bone will be 
better understood by ;i view of the drawing. Pig. 1, c. than 
by any verbal description: this bone is imperfect posteriori)'. 
Superior and anteriorly, near its junction with the lasl de- 
scribed hone, the upper maxillary has a smooth, apparently 
articulating surface, convex antero-posteriorly, and inclining 
a little inwards, Fig. 2. g. ; like the dental and inter- 
maxillary bones, this has also distinct alveoli for the teeth: 
and near it- alveolar margin, on the inner surface, there is 
a regular series of foramina, similar to those in the dental 
bone, for the transmission of the superior maxillary nerve 
and vessels to the teeth. The external surface of this hone 
and also of the intermaxillary, where not broken, presents a 
shagreened appearance. 

The teeth in both jaws are placed close together, in a sin- 
gle row. in distinct alveoli: they are also similar, those in 
the lower jaw. however, being rather more compressed than 
those of the upper: the anterior teeth of the lower jaw are 
smaller than the posterior. The crowns of the teeth are 
enamelled, smooth. Unciform, slightly inclined inwards : 
those at the posterior portion of the lower jaw slightlj 
curved forwards. Their roots are hollow, slightly grooved 
on their external aspect; on their internal aspect there i- 
a very slight groove. See section magnified three times, 
Fig. in. 

Th. young teeth grow into- the hollow of tin old. The 
mode of dentition is shown in Fig. 5 : /. is the new tooth, m. 
the old. 

There appear to have been nine or ten teeth in each in- 
termaxillary, and about thirty in each upper maxillary hone ; 
wear, unable to ascertain satisfactorily the number of teeth 

in the lower jaw . 

This animal, though it- head bears some resemblance to. 
evidently does not belong to the great Saurian family, (/,</- 



474 DESCRIPTION OF A FRAGMENT OF 

certa Linn.), since in all that family, except the crocodile 
and the Saurian of Luneville discovered by Dr Gaillardeau, 
the teeth are not lodged in alveoli, or even in a continu- 
ous furrow ; on the contrary the jaw bone presents only a sort 
of parapet on the outer side — the teeth are fixed to the jaw 
by a bony mass, occupying the place of their root, and incor- 
porated organically both with the tooth and with the jaw 
bone — and the new teeth make their first appearance in cells 
from within this osseous mass, and shoot irregularly through 
its substance, gradually producing a necrosis in it, thus 
causing both the mass and the old tooth to fall out. 

This animal differs from the crocodile in the composition 
of its jaw, in the form and position of its teeth, in the mode 
in which the nerves and blood vessels are transmitted to the 
teeth, &c. &c. It differs from the Saurian of the environs 
of Luneville in the form and character of the teeth, which 
in the latter are conical, strongly striated, and alternately 
larger and smaller — also in the mode in which the blood 
vessels are transmitted to the teeth, &c. 

It most probably belongs to the order Enalio Sauri of 
Conybeare ; an order formed for certain animals which ap- 
proaching more closely to the Saurian or Lizard family, and 
especially to the genus Crocodile, than to any other recent 
type, yet recede from it in many important characters, es- 
pecially in the form of their paddles, which possess an inter- 
mediate structure between the feet of quadrupeds and the 
fins of fishes*. 

It is impossible, however, to place the animal which forms 
the subject of this communication in any of the hitherto 
described genera of this order. It is excluded from the 
genus Ichthyosaurus by the composition of its jaw ; by the 
teeth in the latter being placed in a sulcus and not in dis- 
tinct alveoli, and also by the nerves and blood vessels being 
transmitted to the teeth of the lower jaw by perforations on 
the outside of the anterior portion of the dental bone, &c. 

* See Geological Transactions, Vol. I. N.B. p. 561. 



Till'. HEAD OB V M'.w FOSSIL WIMVL. 17". 

It differs from the Pkaiosaurus in the form and relative size 
of the intermaxillary and upper maxillary bones — in the 
form of the lower jaw — form of the teeth — mode in which 
they close — and manner in 'which the lower maxillary nerve 
is transmitted to the teeth, which, in the Plesiosaurus, is by 
foramina dispersed irregularly along the outer edge of tin- 
lower jaw. 

It appears most nearly to approach the Saurocephaku, a 
genus founded on a single dental bone, discovered in a ca- 
mera on the river .Missouri, hear Soldiers 1 river, hy Sergeant 
Gass, who accompanied Lewis and Clark in their expedi- 
tion, and presented by the latter gentleman to the Society, 
and now in their cabinet*. It resembles this animal in the 
teeth closing like incisors — in the foramina for the transmis- 
sion of nerves and blood-vessels to the teeth of the lower 
jaw being in a regular series on the inner side of the dental 
bone near the alveolar edge — and in the young teeth enter- 
ing the old directly in the centre and not at the side, as in 
the other animals of this order, in the Crocodile. &c. 

It differs however from the Saurocephalw in the teeth 
being in distinct alveoli, while the teeth in the latter are 
described as being -fixed in a longitudinal groove" -in close 
contact throughout," -there being no distinct alveoli." 
Our animal differs also in the groove on (lie inside of the 
denial bone for the accommodation of the inferior maxillary 

nerve (and which is made a generic character) being ab- 
sent, in the form of the teeth, and no doubt in many other 
particulars, which a want of opportunity for comparison and 
moie perfect specimens makes j( impossible lor us to point 
out 

Under these circumstances we venture to propose for it 
a new genus, under the name of S\i hod on, and will dedi- 



* We regret much not having an opportaoil mining this specimen : »•• 

are compelled to depend upon Ihi account of il by Richard Harlan, M.l>. in the 
Journal of the Academy of Natural Science! "i Philadelphia) Vol. m. Part ll 
von. in. — G r. 



476 DESCRIPTION OF A FRAGMENT OF 

cate the species to our friend Mr Lea, by the designation 
Least. 

We hesitate attempting to indicate the generic and spe- 
cific characters with the imperfect knowledge we possess of 
all the animals of the order to which it belongs ; and at all 
events will postpone doing so till we can collect more com- 
plete remains of our animal. 



Since I had the honour of laying before the society the 
description of a portion of the head of a new fossil animal 
from New Jersey, I have had an opportunity of examining 
the fossil organic remain in the cabinet of the society, pre- 
sented by Lewis and Clark. I find that this specimen con- 
sists not only of a portion of a dental bone, but also a small 
part of a coronoid bone ; and that the teeth, instead of being 
"in a longitudinal groove" "in close contact throughout," 
"there being no distinct, separate alveoli," are in fact placed 
in distinct alveoli. 

The most important generic character which was sup- 
posed to distinguish this animal from the one we described 
having thus no existence, it appears proper in the present 
state of our knowledge to place the two species in the same 
genus ; and, as the genus Saurocephalus is founded on erro- 
neous characters, and will not admit our species, it becomes 
necessary to construct a new genus, which we shall accord- 
ingly do, and shall retain for it the name Saurodon. 

Genus Saurodon (Hays). Teeth of the lower jaw closing 
within those of the upper, like incisors ; a regular series of 
foramina along the inner aspect of the jaws near their alveo- 
lar margins, for the passage of nerves and blood-vessels to the 
teeth. 

Species 1. S. laneiforrnis. A groove along the inner 



I'l. XVI 




kW-^'" 







THE HEAD OF A NEW FOSSIL ANIMAL. 477 

surface of the dental bone for the accommodation of the 
inferior maxillary nerve; teeth very obtusely Unciform. 

Species 2. S. Leamts. Teeth acutely Unciform, much 
smaller than in the preceding species, slightly curved. 



Saurodon Leanus. — Plate XVI. 

Fig i — Fragment of head, lateral view. a. Dental bone. b. Intermaxillary 
bone. c. Upper maxillary bone. g. Lachrymal bone. 

Pig. 2. — Head seen from above, b. b. Intermaxillary bones, e. Teeth of tindei 
i f.f. Nasal grooves, g. g. Lachrymal bones, ft. Small groove. /'. An ar- 

ticulating surface, q. An articulating surface of upper maxillary I 

I jr. 3. — Posterior view. d. d. Glenoid cavities in coronoid bom 

1 i. — Anterior view. o. Foramina in dental bone for transmission of nerve.- 
and blood-vessels to the teeth. 

F " — Portion of upper jaw, with the outer lamma oi bone removed to 
show the mode of dentition, magnified three times. /. /. New teeth, m.m. Old 
teeth. /). Empty alveolus. 

Fig. 6, — Portion removed from posterior part of upper jaw, right side — 
nal aspect, magnified three limes, o. Foramina for transmission of m 
blood vessels to teeth. i> Empty alveolus. 

I : Tooth, removed from alveolus />. Kilt- ,; . inm 

Fig. ■ . — Same tooth, external aspect. 

I Ditto side view 

I 10 Ditto section of the root. 

Fi| il — Saurodon lanciformis. Portion of dental boi 
removed so as to show the alveoli and form of the tcetli. magnified thi 

Reci'i December i. L829j and January i 1330. 



No. XIX. 

Description of a New Genus and New Species of Extinct 
Mammiferous Quadruped. By John D. Gochnan, M.D. 

THE subject of the following description was disinterred 
a short time since by Mr Archibald Crawford, about 
f welve miles from Newburg, in Orange county, New York ; 
a region deservedly celebrated for its inestimable contribu- 
tion to natural history in the splendid skeleton of the 
gigantic Mastodon, which was thence obtained in 1801 by 
the indefatigable founder of the Philadelphia Museum. 

The bones obtained by Mr Crawford are in a good state 
of preservation, and comprise the following parts of the 
skeleton : — 

The anterior part of the head ; consisting of parts of the 
frontal, intermaxillary, superior maxillary and two-thirds of 
the lower jaw bones ; the tusks and sixteen teeth. Of the 
posterior part of the head there is but a small fragment, 
being a piece of the occipital bone, distinguished by the 
presence of nearly one condyle, and showing a small part 
of the circle of the foramen magnum. 

Of the bones of the trunk and extremities, there are 
four vertebrae, and one separate spinous process; two ribs, 
of which one is whole and the other broken and imperfect ; 
a humerus, radius, ulna, and two digital phalanges ; a femur, 
tibia, and five epiphyses or heads of bones, separated from 
their shafts, which, with other circumstances, show that the 
animal had not attained its adult age. 



I'l. Wll 








PL. Will 




f..ilrr,il 
l.'nrr /.,/< 






DESCRIPTION OF A NEM OBN1 9, &C. 17't 

The right side of the head is the most perfect, and when 
the bones are placed in apposition] give a good idea of the 

general character of this part of the skull, which stronglj 
reminds us of that of an Elephant [See Plate XVII. Fig. 1/j 
A line drawn from the highest part of the frontal to the 
extremity of the intermaxillary bone measures seventeen in- 
ches. [Fig. 2.] The fragment of the frontal bone makes up 
ahout Bve inches of this extent, and is united to the superior 
edge of the maxillary bone bya suture, and forms at its junc- 
tion therewith the superior anterior border of the orbit of 
the eye: the posterior part of the frontal is broken and lost 
Of the right upper maxillary bone, the whole is preserved, 
from the end of it-, alveolus for the tnsk. anteriorly, to as far 
back as the posterior margin of the second molar or perma- 
nent tooth. A line draw n perpendicular to this tooth would 
mark its extent superiorly where it forms the inferior ante- 
rior part of the orbit, of which about one half remains. All 
posterior to the line mentioned is lost, the hone being bro- 
ken through its malar process, which -till presents a projec- 
tion about an inch long. The foramen infra-orbitarium i> 
situated at the anterior extremity of the base of this process, 
and in a line with the inner angle of the orbit The supe- 
rior maxillary hone, measured from its highest pail united 
to the os frontis, to the edge of the alveole containing the 
posterior tooth, i- eleven inches high, [nieriorly and inter- 
aally it is quite imperfect, consisting of only a- much of the 
alveolar process as serves to contain three teeth, a -mall pari 

of the palatine process, and the int. rfor part id' the socket 

for the tusk; this part of the sockel projects two inches or 
more beyond the anterior teeth. 

The intermaxillary bones are of considerable size; that of 
the right side being rather more than twelve inches long and 
three broad, extending from the inferior edge of the frontal 
bone to the base of tin gri ,\ tusk, the superior part of whose 
sockets it forms. The entrance to the nasal passage i- desig- 
nated by a semicircular indentation on the internal edge "I 

this hone, which i- uninjured at this part; lower down a 

FOIk in. — <> l 



480 DESCRIPTION OF A NEW GENUS AND NEW SPECIES 

small piece is fractured from, its inner edge. The inter- 
maxillary of the left side is destroyed, except at its inferior 
part, forming the superior portion of the alveole for the tusk. 

The tusks belonging to this jaw are in a tolerable good 
state of preservation, though not wholly uninjured. The 
entire length of the right tusk is seventeen inches, five of 
which are within the socket. The tusks, where they 
emerge from the socket, are four inches and three-eighths 
apart, and at this point they are seven inches and a half in 
circumference. They do not perceptibly decrease until 
within about four inches of the extremity, whence they 
taper to the point ; this is worn in a peculiar manner on its 
inferior and external surfaces, as may be better understood by 
the excellent accompanying drawings from the masterly 
pencil of my estimable friend Mr Titian R. Peale, whose 
skill and judgment as a naturalist are so admirably displayed 
by his numerous contributions to the Philadelphia Museum. 

Of the lower jaw [Plate XVIII. Fig. 1 .] about two-thirds, 
in a good state of preservation, have been obtained ; with the 
exception of part of the condyloid, the whole of the coronoid, 
and a small part of the posterior alveolar processes, the right 
ramus of the jaw is complete, and its inferior and lateral out- 
line from the angle to the apex is uninjured. Superiorly the 
coronoid process, as just stated, is destroyed as far as the 
posterior margin of the second molar tooth ; but thence an- 
teriorly the jaw is also perfect. Twelve inches of the left 
ramus are preserved, the condyloid, coronoid, and part of the 
alveolar processes being broken off, a little posterior to the 
first permanent tooth. The mental foramen for the exit of 
the labial branch of the lower maxillary nerve is situated on 
a line with the root of the second deciduous tooth. Between 
two and three inches in front of this foramen, which is half 
an inch in diameter, there are three others of smaller size for 
the passage of vessels, nerves, &c. to the lip and parts adja- 
cent to the insertion of the inferior tusks. 

The great peculiarity of this jaw, and that which separates 
this animal from every genus hitherto established, is its elon- 



OF EXTINCT HABUUPBBOU8 QVADBUFBD. 181 

gated or rostrated extremity, containing the alveolar proces- 
ses or sockets for two very remarkable tusks. The niperior 
border of the Jaw, Gram the situation of the anterior teeth, 
declines immediately, tapering towards the level of these 
sockets, (hferiorly the outline of the jaw does ool so im- 
mediately change, until opposite the anterior mental foramina, 
whence it suddenly diminishes to the end. The rostrated 
portion of the jaw. anterior to the front teeth, is three in- 
ches and three-fourths long, and superiorly is regularly hol- 
lowed or grooved as for tile reception of the tongue; this 
hollow is two inches wide, quite smooth, and bounded on i ach 
side by thin raised edges. 

The alveolar processes for the tusks arc contained within 
the rostrated part of this jaw. and are Dearly an inch in di- 
ameter at their outlet: the right one being liner, and the 
left two inches in depth, gradually diverging from the centre, 
and decreasing in width as they penetrate the bone. The 
tusks belonging to these sockets are of a rerj striking appear- 
ance, and that of the righl side,which is entire and well pre- 
served, is four inches in length, three inches of which are 
within the socket. The projecting external pari is covered 
liya shining, hard, black enamel, and is smooth and round at 

its point; the other part appears to he a dark, grayish, I v 

matter, dry on the surface, yielding to the pressure of the 
nail. The part of this tusk within the s,,rket is exactly ac- 
commodated thereto, tapering to a small point. The exter- 
nal projecting part has a peculiar spiral twist for about an 
inch and a half from its anterior extremity, as will he readily 
undent I by referring to the plate. [Plate Will. Fig, l \ 

In relation to the dentition of the animal, we find it pos- 
sessed of sixteen teeth, eight of which (the two anterior 
teeth on each side of both jaws) are deciduous or milk I. eth : 
on the right side one of these has fallen out. while all the 
remaining deciduous teeth are considerably worn, so as to 
show that the enamel merely covers the external surface of 
their crown-, as in the Mastodon, and does not penetrate 
their substance as in the Elephant, fee. The p< rman< ni 



482 DESCRIPTION OF A NEW GENUS AND NEW SPECIES 

teeth, which are four in number in each jaw, are acutely 
mamillated, forming three transverse ranges of wedge-shaped 
tubercles. The first is three inches in length ; the second 
or last tooth three and a half; the deciduous teeth are much 
smaller, the first measuring but half an inch, the second two 
inches. The roots of all the teeth are short, as the greatest 
depth of the lower jaw is but four inches. 

Of the other bones the vertebrae are about an inch and a 
half long, and three inches in diameter ; the separate spinous 
process is seven and a half inches; the entire rib is twenty 
inches long, and its curvature four inches ; the greatest diam- 
eter of the broken rib is an inch and a half. The humerus 
is seventeen inches long, and three in diameter; radius 
thirteen inches in length, one and a half in diameter ; the 
ulna fourteen inches long, two and a half in diameter. The 
digital phalanx is three inches long, and three in diameter ; 
the tibia is fourteen and a half inches long, and three in di- 
ameter. 

While engaged in the examination of the New York spe- 
cimen, my friend, Mr Franklin Peale, manager of the Phi- 
ladelphia Museum, informed me that he had seen a jaw bone 
in the cabinet of the University of Virginia which must have 
belonged to the same species. In consequence I immediate- 
ly addressed a note to the Professor of Anatomy in that in- 
stitution, R. Dunglison, M.D. requesting an accurate de- 
scription of this bone. This gentleman, who is equally dis- 
tinguished for zealous devotion to the cause of science and 
polished urbanity of manners, favoured me with an imme- 
diate and satisfactory answer, from which the following par- 
ticulars are derived. 

In the collection examined by Professor Dunglison there 
are two parts of lower jaws, most probably belonging to 
the same species, though to individuals of different ages. 
These have been clumsily joined, as if they had formed a 
single jaw. The right side of the jaw is complete from the 
angle to the apex of the chin, which is perfect, having about 
three inches of the left side preserved. The lower jaw is 



OF EXTINCT MAMMII I.UOUS QUADRUPEDS. 483 

elongated at its anterior part, and hollowed out superiorly, 
while on each side of the symphisis menti there is a canal 
extending obliquely upwards through the bone, the right 
one contains the root of a tusk, which occupies the whole 
socket, and projects slightly on the inner side being 1.85 in 
diameter. This right portion of the Lower jaw la two feel 
four inches long, measured along its base, and weighs forty 
pounds*. 

Every view taken of this animal strongly reminds us ol 
its resemblance to the gigantic Mastodon; and hut for the 
singular difference of organization presented by the lower 
jaw and its tusks, we could not avoid concluding we had ob- 
tained a young animal of that species. We have made dili- 
gent examination of the different perfect lower jaws of the 
Mastodon preserved in the cabin ts of the Philadelphia and 
Baltimore Museums, the cabinet of the New York Lyceum, 
8cc. to discover whether any trace of this structure could be 
found, or had possibly been overlooked by previous observers 

These researches ended in a conviction thai nothing like 
this construction pertained to the Mastodon, whose lowei 
jaw ends in a distinctly decurved extremity, simply suited to 
give attachment to the muscles of a lip; as is evidenl on re- 
ferring to a specimen or to any authentic engraving. We 
are therefore under the necessity of regarding it as a nnr. but 
closely allied genus to the Mastodon; and propose for it the 
following name and characters: — 

* The lower jaw bone of the Mastodon is two feet ten inches long, and weight 
sixty pounds; hence our animal, in the adult state, was of about the same sue. 



VOL. III. 6 <■ 



484 DESCRIPTION OF A NEW GENUS AND NEW SPECIES 

Order BELLUiE L. (Pachydermata, C.) 

Family Proboscidia. 

Genus Tetracmdodon.* (Godman.) 
Dental Formula: Incisive f, Canine %%, Molar ff, = 12. 
Character: having four tusks; of which two, large and 
strong, similar to those of the Mastodon, helong to the upper 
jaw, and two, small, short and spiral, project from sockets on 
each side of the chin. The lower jaw produced or elongated 
at the symphisis; having on its superior surface a smooth 
hollow groove for the tongue, and terminating in a narrow 
apex containing sockets for the inferior tusks. 

Species 1. T. Mastodontoideum. Godm. 

In addition to the preceding details, the species will he suf- 
ficiently characterized by observing, that in the lower jaw of 
the adult its outlines are peculiarly straight or rectangular, 
exhibiting none of those bold curvatures and projections so 
conspicuous in the allied genus Mastodon, about the angles 
and base of the jaw. The condyloid process is thrown far- 
ther backward, and the coronoid process is not separated from 
it by a deep semilunar notch, as in the other genus, the bone 
gently ascending from the tip of the coronoid until it terminates 
in the condyle. These peculiarities clearly indicate a very 
marked difference in the arrangement and power of the mus- 
cular apparatus, as well as suggest thoughts of differences in 
mode of life and regimen, between the two genera during 
their existence. 

Of this highly interesting species, we are now aware of the 
preservation of fragments of three well authenticated indivi- 
duals. Two adult jaw bones (one of which is nearly two- 
thirds entire) in the Museum of the University of Virginia ; 
the young specimen, the immediate subject of this descrip- 

* From Tirga, four; and ^vKUiavra., tusks. 



OF EXTINCT MAMMTPEROU8 <}l VI1IM IT.M-. 18 

tion, belon^ini; to the beautiful Museum of 11. Peale of New 
York; of a fourth we have heard, a> being in possession of 
a distinguished scientific gentleman of that city, though of 
this we can affirm nothing positively. Il i*- highly probable 

that other specimens have been raised by those i Qgaged in 
canalling, ike. that have been laid aside a> Mastodon bones, 
which they so closely resemble.* 

In regard to the relative position of the animal in the class 
Mammalia, we are led by the form of the lower jaw and tusks 
to believe that it should -land between the genera Mastodon 
and Hippopotamus; being allied to the former by the genera] 
character of the teeth ami skeleton, and to the latter espe- 
cially, by the inferior tusks, i- w< 11 a- the form of the molar 
teeth. The same circumstances would cause as to conclude 
that the regimen of our animal might have been of a mixed 
character, or that like the Hippopotamus this genus was some- 
what aquatic and fed upon the productions found in rivers, 
lakes, or marshes. However this may be decided, the proofs 
of the former existence of the genus arc unequivocal, and will 
no doubt be multiplied if proper attention be paid to tin , \- 
plorations making throughout our own country. 

In concluding this paper the writer would feel culpabl< ■>! 
neglect did he not return his warmest thank- to tin intelli- 
gent discoverer of these bones for the opportunity afforded of 
examining and describing them, as wefl as to his friends Dr 
Boyd of New York, ami Messrs Rubens ami Titian R. Peale 
for their much valued assistance. 

[Read, Friday, January 1st, 1830.] 



~dcc this paper was in typo we bate learned with much pleasure th . 
exploration made by .Mr Crawford baa been »ery productive, and thi i 

to hope that Mr Rubens Peale will he enabled thereby to mount an cnt; 
of the Teiracaulodon Mastoilontoiib 



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Smellie, 4to, parts 1, 2, 1822—4. 
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of the Soc. of Arts, Manuf. and Com. vols 42—46, 1824—8. 

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J. Pond, Ast. Roy. 

of the Soc. of Antiq. vol. 20, part 2—21, 22, 1825—9, 

4 to. 
of the Roy. Asiat. Soc. of G. Brit, and Ireland, their Regula- 
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Lisbon, through J. M. Dantas Pereira, Sec. of the Royal Acad. 

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de la Literatura Portug. Vol. 8th, 4to, 1812. 

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Portug. Vols 1, 2, 4to, 1812. 
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[ndice Ch'ronoL remiaaivo da i Port, pi 

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1824. 
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Bilva (J. Xavier da) Trat. de II\" Milil <•• ■ \ . . 1 1 , Ito, 1819. 

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'tin above compute our collection of works published by the icademj/. 
Madrid, Mem. de la Acad. Real de la Hial 1811 -21, 4 to. Tl 

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1826 8, Ito Gill ofthe < lit) Corporation. 

\. \ . Boi i i rary, with Charti r, A ■ 1813 
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de 1 'Acad, d I ription ft Belloa Lettn . Vol i ft 

i -7. 
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■ ' PI Vol. I, i 

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of the Acad. Nat. Sci. Vols 5 & 6, Nos 1 a 9, 1825— 9, 8vo. 

of the Kappa Lambda Med. Association — N. Am. Med. & 

Surg. Journal, Vols 1 a 8, 1826—9, 8vo. 
Contrib. of the M'Clurian Lyceum, vols 1—3, 8vo, 1827—8. 
Catal. of the Library of the University of Penns. 8vo, 1829. 

of the Medical Library of the Penns. Hospital, 8vo, 1829. 

Providence, Collections of the Hist. Soc. of Rhode Island, 8vo, 1827. 

Quebec, Trans, of the Literary & Hist. Soc. 8vo, 1829. 

Rotterdam, Nieuwe Verhand. van het Bataafsche Genootschap, &c. Vol. 1, 

parts 2 &. 3, 4to, 1826—7. 
St Petersburg, Mem. de l'Acad. Imp. des Sci. N. S. Vol. 10th, for 1821—2, 
St Pet. 1826. 
Recueil des Actes de la Se'ance Solemnelle de l'Acad. le 29 

De"c. 1826, a l'occasion desa Fete seculaire. 
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Autoc. omn. Russ. in museo numismatico Imp. Acad. 
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Appercu Hist, des Travaux de l'Acad. Imp. depuis 1726 jus- 
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Stockholm, Kongl. Vetensk. Acad. Nya Handlingar, 8vo, 1824 — 8, 5 vols. 
Through the Chev. S. Lorich, Cons. Genl. 
Aors berattelser om Vetensk. Framsteg, afgivne af Kongl. Vetensk. 

Acad. Embetsman, 8vo, 1824 — 8, 5 vols. 
(C. D'Ohsson) Oefversigt af Chemiens Hist. &c. 1826, 8vo. 
Turin, Mem. della Real Acad, delle Scienze di Torino, 4to, 28 — 32, 5 vols, with 
Index to 22— 32 vols. Turin, 1822—8. Through Chev. Caravadossy 
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Adamson (John) Memoirs of the Life and Writings of Luis de Camoens, 2 vols, 

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Ainard (L. O. F.) Associations Intellectuelles, ou l'Art d'Operer dans toutes les 

Sciences, surtout en Mddecine, suivi d'une Clinique Generale, 2 vols, 8vo, 

Paris, 1821. 
Anderson (Rev. R.) A Missionary Journal round Hawaii, one of the Sandwich 

Islands, 12mo, Boston, 1825. 
Adelung (Frederick) Die Korssiinschen Thiiren in der Kathedral Kirche zur Heil. 

Sophia in Novogorod, von Frederick Adelung, 4io, Berlin, 1825. 

A. Freyherr von Meyerberg und Seine Reise nach Russland, with a folio 

volume of plates. Published and illustrated by Frederick Adelung, St Pet. 
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imprint, no date. 

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inn! Uebersetz.mil Kritiscb-Phikdogischen Anmerk, Bytbeeame, Ito, 
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Ueber die Vervrandtscbaft der gnostisch-theoeophischen Lehren, tmt den 

ReliL ■•■men der Orients, vorzugUch dem Buddhaismus, von J. J. 

Schmidt, Ito, Leipz. 1828. 

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I . «. H rst, 8ro, Berlin, 1806. 

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Ssetsen, (Mongolish &. German) the Translation bv J. J. Schmidt, Ito, 
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Russiscbe Miszellen zur penauern kenntniss fur Russlands und seiner bc- 

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in affinity with each other, by \. Mibanovich. 

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1716. 

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II 

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ml i prima, Ito. I' 1 Irop. I 

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De Chorea Sancti Viti, Dissert, auct. M. S. Bulmerincq, 8vo, Dorp. 1829. 

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Opisanie, &c. A Historical and Technical Description of the Manufacture 

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Opisanie, tfcc. A Catalogue of the Slavonic &. Russian MSS. in the Library 

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Opisanie, &c. Description of Thibet in its present state, translated from the 

Chinese, with a Map, by Fr. Hyacinth, 8vo, St Pet. 1828. (Russian.) 

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An Elegy on the Death of the Emperor Alexander, in ancient Greek and 

Russian, by the same, 4to, St Pet. 1828. 

Ziriaslcaia Grammatika, &c. A Grammar of the Sirianish Language, spoken 

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Essais Entomologiques, publics par A. D. Hummel, No. 6, 8vo, St Pet 

1827. 

Den Gamle /Egyptiske Tidsregning af R. Rask, 8vo, Kiobenh. 1827. 

Memoire sur ['Introduction et 1' Usage des Caracteres Chinois au Japon, 

suivis d'un Vocabulaire Coreen, par J. Klaproth, 8vo, Paris, 1829. 
Recueil des Actes de l'Academie Imperiale des Sciences a St Petersbourg, 

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i scs Seances puhliqiies du 29 Dec. 1827 — 8. St Pet. 
Brandis (J. D. — M. D.) Ueber Psychische Heil-mittel und magnetismus, Kopenh. 

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par Pixiua, Paris, 1828. 
Three Lect. on Animal Magnetism, by J. Ducomnuin, N. Fork, II 

Catal. of the Library of the Univereitj ofPeona. I 

Bache (K. Ui> Notes on Colombia, taken in 1822, and It rary Groo Caracoaa 

to Bogota, Phil. Bvo, 1827. 
Bradford (Tlio.) A valuable Collection of Pamphlets from 17 I J — 1800, many of 

them " Revolutionary." 
Bancroft (Geo.) His Transl. of Hcercn's Hist, of the Pol. Byatem of Europe and 

it- ( lolonil B, from the Disc, of America to its Independence, Northampton 
Mass. II 89, : role, 
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& Ltlas. 

Anderson's I list of Commerce, 4 vols, Ito, Lond. 1801. 

(Given The Universal Ktvmological Diet, on a new plan, vol I, :. Cambr. 

(G. B. l. ::. Ito. 
II inks (T. C. (in the Kingly Oflicc and Inaug. of the K. of England, iJvo, Lond 

1826. 
Barrozo (J. de P.) Comp. de Gcog. Hist. Chron. Anc. ct Mod. Ito. Paris, 1826. — 

Tableau des Possess. Angloises avantetaprea 1789 — 181 I.- — Slati-tupie de 

l'lsledc Madere, 1815. By J. P. < '. Giraldea. 

United States' Congress Doc. 1st Session, 20lh Congress, 1827 — 8, 18 role, 

8vo, Wash. 
Barton (\Y. P. C.) Hist, des peches, &c. des Hollandais dans lea mera da Nord, 
par B. de Reste, transl. from Dutch, 3 vols. 8vo. Paris, An. \l. 

Botan. Bemerkungen ubcr Stratiotes und Saggitoria, von E. I'. Nolle. 

Copenh. 1825. 
Bell (3. — M.D.) Disc, before Philad. Med. Soc. on the Influence of Medicine, 

1828. 
Breck (Sam.) Address to the Blockley Agr. Soc. on tin- Death of It. Peters t 

I',. sid< nt, i 28. 
Drereton M. I' Hep. to Phrcnol. Soc. of Wash, on the Cranium of A. Tardy, 

the Pirate, II 
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Larbok i Kei r, 5 vols, Cvo, Stockh. 1822—8. 

A/handling om Galvaniamen, Stockh. 1802. 

Forelasningar i Djurkemien, -' vols, 1806 — 8. 

De 1' Analyse dee < I , trad, de L'AUemand. Paris, i 

Biddle (< ' Speeches in Congr. of Henry Clay, Mem. a Portrait, I'lul. Rvo, 
1 f j - ■ 

Treatise of J. B. Say on Pol. Econ. :td Am. ed. with Notes b] C. C, II 

Phil, i 127, .... : vols. 
Bonaparte (Ch. Luc) Observ. on the Nomcnd. of Wilson's Ornithology, 8vo, 

Ph. I. 
The Genera of N. Am. Birds and Synopsis of Species in U. S. N. York, 

i :?j. 

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Bowditch (N.) His Transl. with a Commentary on the " Mecanique Celeste of 

La Place," 4to, vol. 1st. Bost. 1829. 
Brown (Saml. — M.D.) De la Lithotritie ou broiement de la Pierre dans la Vessie, 

par Civiale, (M.D.) 8vo, Paris, 1827. 

Hist, of a Voy. in the China Seas, by J. White. Bost. 8vo, 1826. 

Brown (J. late Minister from U. States to France) 

CEuvrss de Racine, 3 vols, 4to, Paris, 1760. 

The Works of Tacitus, transl. by A. Murphy, Lond. 4 vols, 4to, 1793. 

Erasmi Joco-seria, id est Stultitise Laudatio — T. Mori Utopia Insula, 12mo, 

Lond. 1777. 

Voy. aut. du Monde 1790 — 2, par E. Marchand, precede d'une Introd. par 

Fleurieu, 4 vols, 4to, Paris, 1798—1800. 

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Lond. 1730. 

Moeurs et Usages des Turcs, avec un Abregt- de l'Hist. Ottomane, par M. 

Guer, 2 vols, 4to, Paris, 1746. 

Hist. Gen. des Voy. ou Nouv. Coll. des Voy. par A. F. Prevost, 20 vols, 

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Nouv. Voy. dans l'Arner. Sept. 1771, par M. Bossu, 8vo, Amst. 1777. 

Philos. Botan. ab. C. Linnaei, 2d ed. Vienna, 1763, 8vo. 

A Hist, of Invent, and Discov. B. I. Peckman, transl. from German by W. 

Johnston, Lond. 1797. 
Catal. de Bibliot. du Due de la Valiere, par G. De Bure, 3 vols, Ovo, Paris, 

1738. 

Catullus, Propertius, Tibullus, cum MSS. cod. var. lect. marg. appositis, 

4to, 1723, Lutet. Paris. 
Danubius Panonico Mysicus. Observ. Geog. Astron. Phys. &.c. perlus- 

ttatus ab. A. Marsili, Amst. 1726, fol. 6 vols. 
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CEuvres de E. Falconet sur les Beaux-Arts, 6 vols, 8vo, Laus. 1781. 

II GoftYedo ovvero la Gierusalemme Liberata, fol. Parigi, 1644. 

P. Virgilii Bucolica Georgica et ^Eneis, fol. Strasb. 1789. 

Bywater (J.) His Essay on the Theo. Hist, and Pract. of Electricity, Lond. 

1810, 8vo. 
Chapman (N.— M.D.) An Amer. Diet, of the Engl. Lang, by N. Webster. N. 

York, 1828, 2 vols, 4to. 
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Analyse des Travaux de 1'Acad. R. des Sci. Paris, 1828. 

Partie Phys. par le Bar. Cuvier. — Partie Math, par Ie Bar. Fourier. 

Eloge Hist, de La Place — Rec. des Lect. a la Stance des Quatre Acad, de 

l'lnst. 1829. 
Carey & Lea, The Phil. Journ. of Med. and Phys. Sci. edited by N. Chapman, 

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Crcsson (E.) A Collect, of interesting Pamphlets. 

Clinton , I Laws of the State ofN. Jfork and Offio. Docum. rel. to the Erie 

ami Champlain Canals, with a .Map. Albany, II I >. .' i 
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Colla (A.) Hortus Ripulensis, (with a Vol. of Plates] Ito. Turin, 1824. 

Ulustratio radii, additi Icone Divaricati, Ho. Turin, 1 1 

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Contin. del Saggio di Orittog. del Prof. S. B I >, Pi ..■ 

Observ. sur le Limodorum Purp. de Lamarck, fee. Pari 

Cole (Edw.) Report of the Canal Comp. of Dlinois, with a Plan to unite Lake 

Michigan with Illin. River. 
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Ludwig (D. C.) Definit. Cien. Plant. Ed. <i. 11. Boelnncr. Lei 

1760, Cvo. 

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' Ibsx nations on the Mode of learning' Languagi 

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Om Nigra Svenaka arl ussamtdeinutidemfbrekommandeP 

l kter, 4 to Si ' I 
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& i . fol. L 
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i ins li. \ea.l. dis Scienciaa. I 1—5, fol. 

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Darby (Wm) Hist. Geog. &, Stat. View of U. S. Phil. 12mo, 1828. 
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De Kay (J. — M.D.) Anniv. Address, on the Prog, of Nat. Sci. in U. S. Lyceum. 

N*. York, 1826. 
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Message of the Gov. of Penn. with Report, of Canal Commiss. Dec. 1828. 

Report of Commiss. on Penal Code, with Documents. 1828. 

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1825. 

Remarks on Greek Gram, by J. Pickering. Bost. 1825. 

Constitution of the William Penn Soc. Phil. 1824. 

Analyse d'un Entretien sur la Conservation des Loix et des Usages, &,c. du 

Bas Canada. Montreal 1826. 

Essay on the Jurid. Hist, of France as far as relates to Lower Canada, by 

Ch. Just. J. Sewell. Quebec 1824. 

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1821. 

Sur Le Naufrage de la Frog. Meduse, par Savigny et Concard. Paris, 1816. 

Rech. Statist, sur la Ville de Paris, &c. faites par ordre du Prefet, 4to. 

Paris, 1826. 

Elem. de la Gram. Japonaise, par Rodriguez ; trad, par Landresse ; Introd. 

par Abel Remusat. Paris, 1825. 

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1827. 

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1826. 

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greg. De Propag. Fide. Rome, 1826. 

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an. 7. 

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Paris. 

Idem de la Soc. Asiatique pend. 1827. — Journ. de Mai, 1828. 

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l i 

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of the Comm. 8 vols. 1742, o. London. 

Sketches of Algiers, Pol. Hist. &c. by W. Bhaler. Boston, l - 

Comment, on Common Law, by J. Kent, rol. I. Now fork, I 

Complete Authcnt. Collect, of the Laws of Mai viand, bj Win. Parks. 

An. 1827. 

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guages and pialects, by A. Gallatin. I 

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obtain Ind. Vocabul. on an uniform plan. 1 

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of Friends. 

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Phil. Am. Month. Man. 1824— 5. Abeillc Americ. 6 vols 1810 — 18. 

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Elliot. Sonili.ru Review, No. l to 9. Chariest 1828, 9, 8 vo. 
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Emerson (G.— M.D. Medical Statistics. — Tables of the Mortality of Phil, and 

its Causes. I 
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Lang. Boston, II 
Everett (Alex.) America, or Survey of the Pol. Situ, of the Powers of the W I 

tern Continent. Phil. 1827. 
Everett (Edw.] Speeches in II. It. on Amend, to the Constit. of U. S. and on th>- 

subject of Retrenchment. I 

I, on the Hill for Relief of Revol. Officers. I 

on France, Holland, and Naples. — Address at Chariest. M. . comment. 

ofJcfi'erson an. I Ail mis. — Oration at Concord, 19th April I 

Annhrer. I 
French (B. F.) Remains of Japhet. On the Affinity and Origin of Barop. I. an. 

Parsons. Lond. 1767. 
I \ \ l> ■ of Quotat. in Anc. and Mod. Lan. 6th ed. PhU. 1828. 

Fischer (G. W.) Prog, dc la E Pnhl. 6\ Lt 3i 0. Imp.de Xat. a Moscow, 

•Ito, Dcr. I 

Idem — Pour 1825, avec Notice dc la Choristitc Coo,. Foss. dti Gouv. dc 

Moscow, <lto. 

I Wot. Sm l< ■ Foes. 

Fisher (J. D. Descriptor the Nat. and In. Small Pox, Varioloid, Cow & Chicken 
Pox, with Plates, 'Ito. Boat. I8S 



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John Farmer. Lane. Mass. 1829. 
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and Milne, 21 vols 12mo. — Comment on Lord's Prayer, by Milne. On 

the One God, by Morrison, in Chinese. 
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Theorie de la Statist. Gener. 1821. — Sur la Peste de Tanger, 4to. 1826. 

Also an Ital. Tr. of same Works. 
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1817 to 1829. 
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A Sketch of the Life of Thos. Jefferson. Phil. 1826. 

Giraldes (J. P. C.) Trat. Comp. de Cosmog. Geog. Hist. &c. Ant. e Mod. 4 vols 
4to. 1825— 8, Paris. 

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Gordon (Thos.) Authentic State Map of Jersey, H. S. Tanner, Engr. 1828. 
Gordon (T. F.) Hist. Digest of the Laws of U. S. with Decisions on Const. 
Questions and Notes. Phil. 1827, 8vo. 

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Hammer (J. Von) Jarbuehcr der Litteratur. 1827, Wien. 

De Rebus Iturasor. ad Luc. III. auct. F. Miinter. Hafn. 4to, 1824. 

Narratio de Lucio Prim. Episc. Roman. 1823. 

Idee Elem. intorno ai fenomeni della Vita Anim. da P. Molossi. Milan, 1825. 

Of the following the Donor is the Author. 

Geschichte des Osmanischen Reiches, by the Donor, 1300 a 1656, 5 vols. 

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Notizia di diciotto codici Persiani della Biblio. della Reg. Univ. Torino. 

1825. 

Sur les Orig. Russes— Extrait des MSS. Orient. (Ed. by M. Fraelm). St 

Petersb. 1827. 

Reponse a la Lettre de Tutundju-Oglou. 1828. 

Comment, de Byzant. Hist, ultimis Scriptoribus. 

Eclairciss. sur des faits contestcs de 1' Hist, des Arabes. 

Wien's erste aufgehobenc Tiirkische Belagerung. 

Hare (Rob. — M.D.) Engrav. & Dcscr. of Appar. used in his Chcm. Course in 
the Med. Depart, of Univ. Penn. part 1, 2. Phil. 8vo, 1826. 

Compend. of his Course. Phil. 1828, 8vo. 

Harlan (R. — M.D.) Descr. of an Hermoph. Ourang-Outang lately alive in Phil. 
Nov. 1826. 



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- i ciea Phil, i 
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K. fork, 1C28. 

Elements of the Geom. of Planes and Solids. Richmoi 

Hawkes P. Am. Companion, or B 3kel fG ' mate, &C. and Dis- 
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Practicab. of B ton to the Hudson, by I.. Baldwin- 

ton to Provkl. bj .1. Hej ward, l 
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HopUi: Lett, al Prof. G. Gazzeri intorno alta dirczionc dcgli Acp 

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1 . 

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Hughes R J.) Sermon on the Emancip. of the Cath. in (>. I!. v\ I. Phil. 

Hugh The Life of William Pcnn. Phil. I 

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Chinoise, : P 

Tableau de la Nat. ou Descr. I 

Janev. D -i of Records of the Gen I trch in 

3. from 17 Phil. 

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'. 

Extrait dun M< m. ■• Si la Lithog. peut rcmplaccr la Grav. sur cuivn 

jr." 

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pa i 

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. fbl. ! 

« Coots du Dhioliba on Ni -. i . P 

T. P i 
Jul 1 ion fM. A.) II 

' i Prance. Paris, 1 

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Klaproth (J.) Vocab. et Gram, de la Lang. Gcorgienne, Ire Part. Paris, 1825. 

Lett, sur laDecouv. des Hierogl. Acrolog. Paris, 1827. 

Tabl. Hist. Geog. et Pol. du Caucase, &c. entre la Russie et la Perse. 

Paris, 1827. 

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Coreen. Paris, 1829. 
Keating (VV. II.) Realcs Ordenanzas pura la direccion de la Mineria de N. Espan. 

Madr. fol. 1783. 
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Lambert (VV.) Suppl. Rep. to Cong, of Astr. Obs. to fix Long, of Wash. City. 

182G, 8vo. 
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Lascaris (Marq. de) Lett, al B. Vernazza, sulli Cappelli di Paglia di Tosc. 

Turin, 1819. 
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Agric. &c. Tor. 1820. 

Calend. Georg. della R. Soc. Agr. di Torino. 1824. 

Laurence (Win.) Treat, on Ruptures, 4th ed. London, 1824. 

Dislocat. of the Verteb. 1827. — Intr. Lect. to a Course of Surg. 1826. 

Corrected Rep. of his Speeches to R. Coll. Surgeons. 1826. 

La Roche (R. — M.D.) Diet, de la Langue Franc, anc. et mod. par P. Richelet, 

ed. d'Aubert. Lyon, 1759, 3 vols fol. 

Orat. before Phil. Med. Soc. 1827. 

Vorstellungen Allerley Thiere mit ihren Gerippen, &c. Von J. D. Meyers. 

Nurcmb. 1752, fol. 2 vol. 
Hortus Cystetensis. Auct. Basilio Besler. Nurcmb. 1613, fol. 

Voy. Mineral, et Geolog. en Hongrie, 1818, par F. S. Beudant, 3 vols 4to. 

avec Atlas. Paris, 1822. 
Lea (I.) Synopsis Method. Quadrup. Oviparum. (Table framed). 

A Collection of Legal and Pol. Pamphlets, 1818 to 1820. 

Lee (R. H.) MSS. of B. Franklin — account of a Conversat. between him as 

Mass. Agent, and Lord Hillsborough. 1771. 
Leonard (Jas.) The Picture of Quakerism, by Fr. Bugg. Lond. 1697. 
Lesore (M.) La Relieure, Poeme Didactique. Paris, 1827. 
Leiber (F.) Wigglcsworth (E.) Encycl. Amer. from the Germ. Convers. Lex. 

with a Copious Am. Biog. vol. 1, 2. Phil. 1829—1830. 
Levasseur (M.) La Revue Amer. July 1826 to June 1827, 3 vols. Paris. 
Lewis (Enoch) African Observer, vol. 1. Phil. 1827, 8. 

Lillers (le Comte) Calliope ou Traite sur la Prononc. de la Lang. Grecque, par 
C. L. Mynas. Paris, 1825. 

Orthophonic Grecque ou Traite de l'acccnt, &c. avec les dilf. entre le Grec. 

Anc. et Vujg. par le Meme. Paris, 8vo, 1824. 
Lisboa (1. da S.) Constit. Moral e deveres de cidadao conforme o Espirito da 

Const, do Imperio. Rio. dc Jan. 1824 — 5. 
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Mm.:- Marquis de) Obs. sor la Deportation d I 

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Marsden Wot Hit II. -t. of Sumatra, 3d ed. London, 1811, Ito. 

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Numismata Orientalia illuslrat. from bis Coll. of Co 

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Mease (Jas. — M.D.) Tun- and Imparl. State of the Prov. of I 

Reply to " A Bn 

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Miller (C. S.) His Digest of the Ordin. of the City of Philad. with Acts of Assem- 
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Mitchell, (S. L.— M.D.) A Collect, of his Dis. and Addresses, with an Ace. of 
some of the Remark. Events of his Life. 1828. 

Morton (S. G. — M.D.) Tentamen Inaug. de Corporis dolore. Edinb. 1823. 

Rep. of the Trans, of the Acad, of Nat. Sci. 1825—8. Phil. 1827—9. 

Essays on the Geol. and Org. Remains of a part of the Atlantic Front, of 

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Moulton (J. W.) View of the City of New Orange (now N. York) as in 1673, with 

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Hist, of the State of N. York, vol. 1, part 2, Nov. Belg. 1826. 

Monroe (Jas.) Mem. relative to his Unsettled Claims on the U. S. 1828. 
Nichols (F.) Rev. S. Vince's Principles of Fluxions. Camb. (G. B.) 1 805, 3d ed. 

Phil, and Math. Repos. No. 1 to 4, by J. W. Marrat. Lond. 1825. 

Principles of Mor. Philos. Investigated by T. Gisborne. Lond. 1798. 

Elements of Gen. Hist. Anc. and Mod. by A. F. Tytler. Phil. ed. 1813. 

Niles (H. & Son) Weekly Register, vol. 27 to 3C. Bait. 1825 — 1829. 
Oliveira (A. R. V. de) Mem. sobre o Melhoramento da Provinc. de S. Paulo, 

&c. Riode Jan. 1822. 
Ord (Geo.) Suppl. to Am. Ornithology, with a Biog. of the Author, A. Wilson. 

and Hist, of Birds, intended for 9th vol. Phil. fol. 1825. 

Wilson's Ornithol. vol. 7, 8, revised by him. 

— — Latin Diet, of R. Ainsworth, fol. 2 vols, 4th ed. Lond. 1752. Deposited. 
Oersted (J. C.) Exper. circa effectum conflictus electrici in acum Magnetic. 

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Nos. 10 to 12. Paris, 1825. 

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Pedersen (P.) Bishop Miinter's Primordia Ecclesias Africana?. Hafn. 1829. 

Rclig. der Karthager, 1821. — Relig. der Babylonier, 1827. By Bishop 

Miinter. Kopen. 4to. 

Der Tempel der Himmlischen Gottin zu Paphos. By the same. Kopen. 

1824, lto. 

Der Stern der Weisen. Untersuchungen iiber das Geburtsjahr Christi. 

By the same, 1827. 

Die Christin im Heidnischen Hause. By the same. 1828. 

Eph. o